McIntosh, I. B.; Hawney, M. (1983). Patient attitudes to hypnotherapy in a general medical practice: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (4), 219-223.

A study to investigate public awareness of hypnotherapy planned to identify sources of information and compare their impact on patient acceptance of hypnosis in medical treatment. A structured questionnaire was presented to a random sample of patients coming to a medical center; the sample was representative of 10% of the total medical center population. 910 people participated and 884 questionnaires were analyzed. 80% of the sample had previously heard of the use of hypnosis in medicine, 36.6% would accept hypnotherapy if recommended by their doctor, 5.5% would refuse treatment by hypnosis, and almost all of the remaider of the sample would request further information before making a decision. There was s significant association between preknowledge of medical hypnosis and acceptance of hypnotherapy as was there between source of information and attitude to treatment. 41% of the sample were unaware of any medical indications for hypnosis.

An apparent discrepancy in the abstract between “80% of patients had previously heard of the use of hypnosis in medicine” and “41% of the sample were unaware of any medical indications for hypnosis” may be understood from the following statement: “Of the total sample, 41% were unable to name any medical condition appropriate for hypnotherapy and 26% of those previously aware of medical hypnosis were unable to name a disorder suited to such treatment” (p. 221).

Saavedra, Ramon Luis; Miller, R.J. (1983). The influence of experimentally induced expectations on responses to the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31, 37-46.

: A sample of 75 female and 63 male undergraduates were told that their hypnotizability was predictable through the application of a battery of questionnaires and physiological measures. Three levels of hypnotizability expectations were created, with 3 groups of Ss informed that they were highly hypnotizable, moderately hypnotizable, or low in hypnotizability, respectively. A control group received no such expectations. All Ss were then administered the Harvard. Results indicated a significant main effect due to the assigned hypnotizability expectations. Only Ss in the low expectation group, however, scored significant differently from the other groups on the Harvard. Four other variables were examined as covariates: locus of control, attitude toward hypnosis, absorption, and self-predictions of hypnotizability. All but locus of control correlated significantly with the Harvard. It also was shown that the degree to which assigned expectations influenced Harvard scores was a function of the confidence Ss had in those expectations.

The authors state that research has shown that it is easier to lower hypnotizability scores by providing negative expectancies than to increase hypnotizability scores through provision of positive expectancies. In this study, very little of the variance of hypnotizability scores was accounted for by the expectancy manipulation.

Yanchar, R. J.; Johnson, H. J. (1981). Absorption and attitude toward hypnosis: A moderator analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (4), 375-382.

2 factors which have been found to correlate to a small degree with susceptibility are (a) an individual’s attitude toward being hypnotized and (b) an individual’s capacity for subjective involvement in an experience (absorption). The present study was an attempt to replicate previous findings by Spanos and McPeake (1975) and to extend these findings to determine if there was a significant interaction between these 2 factors in their relationship to susceptibility. 99 Ss (65 females and 34 males) completed the absorption questionnaire of Tellegen (1979) and the attitude questionnaire of Barber and Calverley (1966). Their hypnotic susceptibility was assessed with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962). Attitude and absorption were found to have small positive correlations with susceptibility, results which corroborate previous research. The multiple regression analyses indicated that there were no significant interactions between the factors of attitude, absorption, and sex.

Fromm, Erika (1980). Values in hypnotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 17 (4), 425-430.

Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness characterized by a regression in the service of the ego along with increased access to the unconscious. This makes it possible to achieve lasting therapeutic results faster in hypnosis than in the waking state. Hypnosis is also a state of decreased vigilance, a vulnerability that involves dangers if a patient is in the hands of a poorly trained, incompetent, or unscrupulous therapist. In general, the same human and moral values that guide responsible therapists with patients in the ordinary waking state must guide them with patients in hypnosis, only more so. Contemporary permissive hypnotherapists do not superimpose their own wills or personalities onto patients but provide support, help patients face the frightening parts of the unconscious, and thus aid them in coping with conflicts and gaining full autonomy and freedom from fear. (11 ref).

Hiscock, Merrill (1978). Imagery assessment through self-report: What do imagery questionnaires measure?. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 223-229.

Four studies examined imagery questionnaires and addressed issues of reliability, agreement among different questionnaires, social desirability, and construct validity. The Betts, Paivio, and Gordon scales were examined. In two studies the Betts and Paivio correlated .45-.50, but correlations involving the Gordon were inconsistent from one study to the next. Imagery measures generally were not influenced by social desirability. Factor analysis indicated that subjective and objective measures of visualization are independent. Concludes that imagery is not a unitary construct and that criteria other than visuospatial tests may be appropriate for validating imagery questionnaires.

Spanos, Nicholas P.; Rivers, Stephen M.; Gottlieb, Jack (1978). Hypnotic responsivity, meditation, and laterality of eye movements. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87 (5), 566-569.

Right-handed male subjects were pretested on a number of person variables; they then meditated for eight sessions. Measures of hypnotic responsivity, meditating skill, imaginal abilities, and attitudes toward hypnosis loaded on a common factor that was labeled sustained nonanalytic attending. However, laterality of eye movement (left moving) failed to load on this factor. The implications of these findings for current theorizing concerning hypnosis and meditation are discussed.

Gardner, G. Gail (1976). Attitudes of child health professionals toward hypnosis: Implications for training. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 63-73.

A survey of child health professionals — pediatricians, pediatric nurses, child psychologists, and child psychiatrists — revealed that they have generally positive attitudes toward hypnosis but little knowledge of its specific advantages or applications. Recommendations are made for designing training opportunities in hypnosis which might enhance the probability that the professional will actually use hypnosis or refer a child else where for hypnotherapy.

King, Dennis R.; McDonald, Roy D. (1976). Hypnotic susceptibility and verbal conditioning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 29-37.

18 Subjects highly susceptible to hypnosis and 18 Subjects refractory to hypnosis were studied in a verbal conditioning task modeled after the one used by Taffel (1955). Results indicated that the highly susceptible group showed significantly greater conditioning than the low group. Awareness of the reinforcement contingency by S was not related to the learning task nor to hypnotic susceptibility. A measure of S’s attitude toward the reinforcement cue during learning showed that the highly susceptible group had a more positive set toward the cue, whereas the low group tended to respond to it in a neutral or negative manner. Results were interpreted in terms of the theoretical nature of hypnotic susceptibility.

hey review literature on attempts to correlate hypnotizability with verbal conditioning ability.
Volunteer students participated; screened by HGSHS:A: highs 10-12, lows 0-4.
Verbal conditioning procedure: S viewed 100 3×5 cards on which were a two- syllable, past tense verb, below which typed in upper case letters on one line were the pronouns I, WE, HE, SHE, THEY, and YOU (randomly assigned to different orders). E was blind to hypnotizability. E instructed S to make up a sentence using the verb and a pronoun; gave no response for first 20 trials; said “good” to usage of I or WE during conditioning.
Afterwards, S filled in an Awareness Questionnaire (What was purpose? If E gave cues, what were they? If you noticed cues, what do you think they indicated?) and attitude toward the reinforcement cue (Did you notice that I did anything special? What? Did I say “good” for a special reason? What was the reason for my saying “good”? How did hearing the word “good” affect you during the experiment? IN a positive, negative, or neutral way?
Results. Groups did not differ at baseline but did differ at Blocks 2 (highs 9.7 vs lows 6.3; p<.p<.05) and 3 (highs 10.4 vs lows 6.3; p<.05). Although the High group continued to maintain a somewhat higher level of responding than the Low group during extinction (9.8 vs 7.6), this difference did not reach statistical significance. (The graph shows an increase for Lows during extinction!) Using a liberal definition of awareness and a learning index computed for each S by subtracting his operant level of response from the mean number of correct responses shown during the 3 blocks of acquisition trials, Subjects were ordered and a median test applied; contingency coefficient of .28 not significant (p<.10). Attitude significantly differentiated High and Low hypnotizability groups (see Table 2) with Highs more often responding in positive manner to reinforcement cue and Lows giving a neutral rating. Awareness of reinforcement contingency was equally represented in High and Low groups. The Aware High Positive groups learning index differed significantly from Aware Low Neutral group (p<.01); the Unaware Low Positive group (p<.05); and the Unaware Low Neutral group (p<.001). Thus, the Aware High Positive group's learning index score was significantly higher than that of the 3 Low groups. Also, the Unaware High Positive group differed significantly from the Unaware Low Neutral group (p<.05). No other High groups differed from the Low groups and none of the High groups differed among themselves. Among the Low groups, only the Unaware Low Positive group differed significantly from the Unaware Low Neutral group (p<.05). Discussion. Data show that hypnotizability is important in response to verbal conditioning, extending findings of Das (1958) by showing that primary suggestibility is associated with operant as well as classical conditioning but also those of Weiss et al. (1960) in illustrating that higher hypnotic susceptibility leads to enhanced verbal conditioning, using an improved measure of hypnotic susceptibility. Awareness of reinforcement contingencies is not sufficient to account for subject differences in verbal conditioning; the characteristics tapped by HGSHS:A produce conditioning which cannot be accounted for by awareness alone. The fact that high susceptible Subjects here rated E's cue more positively than low susceptible Subjects is further consistent with some of the personological descriptions associated with hypnotic susceptibility which have been offered by Hilgard (1968). In addition, Cairns and Lewis (1962) and Spielberger et al. (1962) found that persons who assigned more positive value to the kind of reinforcement present in verbal conditioning experiments produced greater conditioning than Subjects whose attitudes were less favorable or non-committal toward the reinforcement. This relationship is not clear-cut in the present data in that although he High groups had an overall more positive attitude regarding reinforcement, only the Aware High Positive group learned better than all the Low groups, while the only other High group learning better than a Low group was the Unaware High Positive which had a significantly better learning index score than the Unaware Low Neutral group. Moreover, positive attitude did not differentiate learning within the High groups or the Low groups. Thus, the present data are unclear regarding the role attitude plays in the acquisition of verbally conditioned responses. The roles of awareness and attitude could probably be better defined in future research using larger experimental groups. The attitude measure employed here was a gross one and a more sophisticated assessment of the valence characteristics of reinforcement cues could reveal more complex relationships in subsequent research. In addition, a more careful assessment than was done here of the role of cooperation and demand characteristics would contribute substantially to understanding more completely the effect of awareness on these phenomena. The general indications regarding attitude may in part account for the increased interest in production of conditioned responses in Figure 1 shown by the Low group (graph) during the extinction phase of this experiment. Although highly susceptible Subjects show a decrease in the correct response with nonreinforcement, low susceptible Subjects begin to evidence an increase in the correct response. The attitude measure indicates that Subjects in the Low group did not respond positively to the reinforcement cue, and one of these Subjects reported in the interview that he did not like being told what to do by the E. It can be speculated that these Subjects were aware of the reinforcement contingency but did not "cooperate" until the reinforcement was absent. This follows the interpretation of Farber (1963) who found that aware Subjects who conformed to the demand characteristics of the experimental situation showed greater verbal conditioning than those who were aware and nonconforming. It thus appears that a willingness to go along with E's expectations and a positive, cooperative attitude are common features in individuals who make good hypnotic Subjects and who evidence an enhanced propensity for verbal conditioning. 1975 Mather, Marcia; Degun, Gian S. (1975). A comparative study of hypnosis and relaxation. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 48, 55-63. NOTES 1: The results of this research are as follows: Hypothesis 1. Post hypnotic suggestions would be performed better than post-relaxation suggestions (p.<.05) Hypothesis 2. Learning would be an important variable in the efficacy of post- hypnotic suggestions (n.s.) Hypothesis 3. Suggestions made towards the end of the experimental session would be more effective than suggestions at the beginning; the assumption being that the trance might deepen with the passage of time (n.s.) Hypothesis 4. There would be a significant difference in heart rate between the waking and hypnotic states (n.s.) Hypothesis 5. There would be a shift in attitudes of the subject in favor of hypnosis from pre- to post-experiment due to an increase in susceptibility following training. (p.<.01) The study employed 3 groups, 2 subject groups; there were 1 hypnosis and 1 relaxation session per subject, in a randomized AB, BA design. The relaxation condition only asked the subject to lie on a couch and relax; no relaxation instructions were given, therefore it is not really analogous to relaxation training given in clinical settings. A posthypnotic suggestion was given - to dream on a subject related topic, then to awaken, and to carry out an action. Spear, J. E. (1975). The utilization of non-drug induced altered states of consciousness in borderline recidivists. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18, 111-126. Utilizing non-drug induced altered states of consciousness, various modes of interior reflection, behavior modification and reprogramming of conscious attitudes and values were utilized with 49 borderline recidivists. Such offenders were so determined by the Department of Corrections, Probation and Parole Office, District II. No coercion was used to induce such individuals to enter the program and there was no reprisal for stopping therapy at any time. Over a two and one-half year period the recidivist rate among this group was less than 5%. It is suggested that non-drug induced altered states of consciousness combined with indirect as well as symbolic techniques may prove to be the most effective means of criminal rehabilitation. NOTES 1: Berderline recidivists were "individuals, who, in the opinion of the P.O. [probation officer] were, in all probability, to be returned to prison within a few months, or less, if there wasn't a major change in attitude and actions" (p. 111). Therapy employed closed circuit TV with bi-directional audio and induction of altered state of consciousness using an ophthalmology-type rotary prism. Therapy involved (s) recall of relaxed state when under stress, (2) exploration of early conditioning events, (3) self evaluation during the ASC, (4) use of symbolic mental exercises and mental practice for similar circumstances in normal waking state, (5) suggestions for setting goals and ideals, (7) a type of logotherapy, (7) 'nudging' the person to examine their relationship with their concept of God. The author noted in the parolees: (1) low levels of self esteem, (2) depression, (3) going into deep levels of altered states once trust was established with the therapist. 1969 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1969). An empirically-based formulation of hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 12 (2), 100-130. A formulation is presented which does not invoke a special state of consciousness ("hypnosis" or "trance") to account for the behaviors that have been historically associated with the word hypnotism. Instead, so-called hypnotic behaviors - e.g., "analgesia," "hallucination," "age-regression," and "amnesia" - are conceived to be functionally related to denotable antecedent variables which are similar to those that control performance in a variety of interpersonal test-situations. The antecedent variables which determine behavior in a "hypnotic" situation include Ss' attitudes, expectancies, and motivations with respect to the situation, and the wording and tone of instructions- suggestions and of questions used to elicit subjective reports. The formulation is exemplified by several dozen experimental studies, and prospects for further research are delineated. 1968 Goss, Allen; Morosko, Tom (1968). Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A: Score distribution of volunteer subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 237-242. Investigates the applicability of the reported norms of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A to a population which differs from the normative sample. 40 "true volunteer" dental students were found to score well above the 533 "volunteer" normative sample due mainly to the reduced percentages of low hypnotic susceptibility Ss. The effects of schooling, volunteering, and implications concerning the relationship between personality and hypnotic susceptibility in the volunteer sample are discussed. (French & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1967 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1967). Reply to Conn and Conn's 'Discussion of Barber's 'Hypnosis as a causal variable...''. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3, 111-117. A REPLY TO J. H. CONN AND R. N. CONN (SEE 42:1). IT IS MAINTAINED THAT (1) INVESTIGATORS HAVE NOT AS YET SUCCEEDED EITHER IN DENOTING THE HYPNOTIC STATE WITHOUT CIRCULARITY OR IN DEMONSTRATING THAT IT PLAYS A ROLE IN ELICITING THE PHENOMENA THAT ARE TO BE EXPLAINED; AND (2) RECENT EXPERIMENTS HAVE SHOWN THAT S''S TESTIMONY THAT HE IS "IN" OR "OUT" OF HYPNOSIS IS DEPENDENT UPON MANY DENOTABLE ANTECEDENT VARIABLES INCLUDING WHAT S BELIEVES HYPNOSIS IS SUPPOSED TO INVOLVE AND WHETHER E IMPLIES TO S THAT HE JUDGES HIM TO BE "IN" OR "OUT." IT REMAINS TO BE DEMONSTRATED THAT S''S TESTIMONY IS ALSO FUNCTIONALLY RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF THE HYPNOTIC STATE. (SPANISH + GERMAN SUMMARIES) (16 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Hartman, B. J. (1967). Hypnotizability as affected by attitudinal and motivational variables. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 86-90. ATTEMPTED TO DISCOVER WHETHER TASK-MOTIVATED SS WOULD BE MORE HYPNOTIZABLE THAN THOSE NOT GIVEN TASK-MOTIVATION INSTRUCTIONS, AND WHETHER THE ATTITUDE OF THE E WOULD AFFECT SS'' HYPNOTIZABILITY. THE BARBER SUGGESTIBILITY SCALE WAS EMPLOYED FOR MEASURING SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HYPNOSIS. SS WERE DIVIDED RANDOMLY INTO 6 GROUPS OF 10: TASK-MOTIVATED, E NEUTRAL; NON-TASK-MOTIVATED, E NEUTRAL; TASK-MOTIVATED, E FRIENDLY; TASK-MOTIVATED, E HARSH; NON-TASK-MOTIVATED, E FRIENDLY; AND NON-TASK-MOTIVATED, E HARSH. ANALYSES OF VARIANCE, BOTH FOR OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE SCORES, DID NOT YIELD SIGNIFICANT RESULTS FOR THE TASK-MOTIVATION VARIABLE BUT DID YIELD SIGNIFICANT RESULTS (P = .01) FOR THE VARIABLE DEALING WITH E ATTITUDE. (GERMAN + SPANISH SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1965 Moss, C. Scott; Riggen, G.; Coyne, L.; Bishop, W. (1965). Some correlates of the use (or disuse) of hypnosis by experienced psychologist-therapist. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13, 39-50. 147 psychologist-psychotherapists were compared on the basis of their attitude towards the employment of hypnosis as a technique in psychotherapy. 1 finding was the absence of extensive differences between the 2 groups in the use of most other therapy techniques, though the hypnosis-favorable group made somewhat more active use of a wider variety of approaches. Doctrine and experience level per se were not significant determinants of the behavior in question. A major finding was that those favorably disposed were inclined to represent themselves as significantly more objective (rather than clinical or intuitive) in their frame-of-reference. A number of significant biographical correlates were found which led to the advancement by speculation of vignettes of the 2 extreme attitude groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Zamansky, H. S.; Brightbill, R. F. (1965). Attitude differences of volunteers and nonvolunteers and of susceptible and nonsusceptible hypnotic subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (4), 279-290. A form of the Semantic Differential, containing 9 concepts related to hypnosis and research, was administered to 96 hypnotically inexperienced male Ss. The Ss were later asked to volunteer for a hypnotic experiment, and the hypnotic susceptibility of all volunteers (N = 51) was then determined. Semantic Differential responses of volunteers and nonvolunteers and of highly susceptible and unhypnotizable Ss were compared. Differences between groups, in both comparisons, were generally not statistically significant, a finding which suggests that there is no simple relationship between paper-and-pencil measures of attitudes and volunteering for hypnotic experiments or hypnotizability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1964 Leckie, F. H. (1964). Hypnotherapy in gynecological disorders. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12 (3), 121-146. The attitude and position of a gynecologist employing hypnotherapy in clinical practice is emphasized. Particular consideration is given to dysmenorrhea (25 cases), dyspareunia (30 cases), vaginismus (15 cases), frigidity (12 cases), and anxiety states encountered in gynecological practice (26 cases). An indication is given of the general method and of the specific pattern of treatment, which initially is directed to symptom removal by direct suggestion. When this method proves ineffective, special techniques are employed to carry out therapy at a deeper level. Details of clinical data of all cases are presented together with evaluation of the percentage of success achieved. Results have proved encouraging. Several illustrative cases are described. Levitt, Eugene E.; Brady, J. P. (1964). Expectation and performance in hypnotic phenomena. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 572-574. Expectations concerning the occurrence of 7 phenomena through hypnotic suggestion were solicited from 12 female Ss, all of whom scored high on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Attempts were then made to induce these phenomena in the Ss. The results indicate that performance and expectation were discordant about as often as they were in accord. There appeared to be an interaction between task and expectation-performance accord. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) NOTES 1: When Ss were not manipulated into their expectations, the relationship between expectancy and hypnotic behavior was minimal. Melei, Janet P.; Hilgard, Ernest R. (1964). Attitudes toward hypnosis, self-predictions, and hypnotic susceptibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 99-108. Correlation of questionnaire results from a sample of 1326 students with hypnotic susceptibility scores of 340 of these later hypnotized showed (a) that those volunteering for hypnosis were more favorable in attitude than those who did not volunteer; (b) attitudes toward hypnosis were predictive of susceptibility for females, not for males; and (c) self-predictions yielded significant low positive correlations with actual susceptibility for both sexes. Other findings concern differences between those having prior experience with hypnosis and those without such experience. Rosenhan, D. L.; Tomkins, S. S. (1964). On preference for hypnosis and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 109-114. 44 male and 44 female coerced volunteers, who either preferred or did not prefer to participate in hypnosis experiments, were compared with regard to (a) scores on the EPPS, (b) birth order, and (c) performance on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Sex-specific personality differences were obtained between Ss who preferred and did not prefer hypnosis, but these personality differences were not apparently relevant to hypnotizability. However, for females, preference for hypnosis correlated .41 with hypnotizability; for males no relationship was obtained. Some theoretical and methodological implications of these data are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Shor, Ronald E. (1964). The accuracy of estimating the relative difficulty of typical hypnotic phenomena. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12 (3), 191-201. College student Ss with little or no reported prior knowledge about hypnosis were able to estimate with reasonably high objective accuracy the relative difficulty levels (pass percents) of a standardized set of carefully described typical hypnotic items. The correlation between the estimated percentages and the actual test responses as derived from 4 college student reference samples was .73. Subsidiary normative data are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1963 Brightbill, Roger; Zamansky, Harold S. (1963). The conceptual space of good and poor hypnotic subjects: A preliminary exploration. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 112-121. A form of the Semantic Differential, containing 8 concepts related to hypnosis and research, was administered to 12 deeply hypnotizable and 14 nonsusceptible Ss. The good hypnotic Ss evaluated all the concepts more favorably than did the poor hypnotic Ss, with the greatest differential between the 2 groups occurring on the concept hypnosis. Moreover, the susceptible Ss perceived hypnosis as closer in connotative meaning to such concepts as experiment and professor, than did the nonsusceptible Ss. All differences between the 2 groups of Ss were of small absolute magnitude, however. Therefore, while the results suggest a relationship between hypnotic susceptibility and attitude toward hypnosis, they appear to preclude the use of the Semantic Differential as a practical predictor of hypnotic susceptibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Farberow, N. L. (1963). Taboo topics. New York: Atherton Press (Prentice-Hall). (Reviewed in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis by Leo Wollman, 1964, 6, 373-374) NOTES 1: Includes chapter by J. G. Watkins on hypnosis, along with other socially taboo topics such as sex, suicide, death, etc. Watkins notes the reluctance of scientists to study hypnosis, the magical or mystical meanings people attach to hypnosis, the death fears activated by hypnosis for some people, the negative impressions conveyed by Sigmund Freud and Anna Freud. He also lists research problems to be addressed as: "1. What is 'depth' in hypnosis? 2. What is the extent of the confusion among investigators of hypnotic phenomena with 'simulation' and 'role-playing'? 3. Can hypnotic regression be validated sufficiently to be used as a research method in the study of other psychological problems? 4. What are the essential conditions of hypnotizability, and who is hypnotizable? 5. How do induction techniques compare in relative effectiveness? 6. And can we develop some objective way of determining the appropriate technique for a given subject or patient?" p. 374 Ludwig, Arnold M. (1963). Hypnosis in fiction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 71-80. Some common conceptions of hypnosis found in selected literary works are presented. Many supranormal powers are attributed to hypnosis. The hypnotist is generally viewed as an evil, demonic agent and the S as a naive, but good, hapless victim. The hypnotist is almost inevitably punished for possessing these extraordinary powers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Stachowiak, J. G.; Moss, C. S. (1963). The hypnotic alteration of social attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 77-83. Measures the effectiveness of influencing S attitudes toward Negroes through the medium of a hypnotically administered communication. Precision was added by conceptualizing the interaction between 2 variables, the concept to be influenced (Negro) and the source of the influence (hypnotist), within the theoretical model provided by Osgood''s principle of congruity. Ss who were exposed to a positive communication about Negroes while they were hypnotized showed significantly greater attitude change than did Ss who were exposed to the same communication in the "waking state." Predictions generated by the congruity principle held up well with respect to direction of attitude change, but insufficiencies were evident with regard to predictions of the magnitude of the changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1962 Levitt, Eugene E.; Lubin, Bernard; Brady, J. P. (1962). On the use of TAT Card 12M as an indicator of attitude toward hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10 (3), 145-150. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 63: 5233) This investigation indicates that responses to TAT Card 12M do not predict attitude toward hypnosis in female Ss, though such predictiveness has been reported for male respondents. The basis for this differential predictiveness may be that the latter give a significantly greater proportion of themes involving hypnosis. An explanatory hypothesis, based on perceptual theory and the stimulus properties of the card, is advanced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) London, Perry; Cooper, Leslie M.; Johnson, Harold J. (1962). Subject characteristics in hypnosis research. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13-21. ABSTRACT: Items of experiences, interests, and attitudes, in London''s Survey, tended to cluster among themselves, suggesting a separate factor for each. The items were compared to several objective tests, but correlations were low. The Survey and Shor''s Personal Experiences Questionnaire combined, correlated .64 with Stanford Scale A, suggesting the possible development of a paper-and-pencil predictor of hypnotic suggestability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Orne, Martin T. (1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment, with particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17 (11), 776-783. NOTES 1: "In summary, we have suggested that the subject must be recognized as an active participant in any experiment, and that it may be fruitful to view the psychological experiment as a very special form of social interaction. We have proposed that the subject's behavior in an experiment is a function of the totality of the situation, which includes the experimental variables being investigated and at least one other set of variables which we have subsumed under the heading, demand characteristics of the experimental situation. The study and control of demand characteristics are not simply matters of good experimental technique; rather, it is an empirical issue to determine under what circumstances demand characteristics significantly affect subjects' experimental behavior. Several empirical techniques have been proposed for this purpose. It has been suggested that control of these variables in particular may lead to greater reproducibility and ecological validity of psychological experiments. With an increasing understanding of these factors intrinsic to the experimental context, the experimental method in psychology may become a more effective tool in predicting behavior in nonexperimental contexts" (p. 783). Shor, Ronald E.; Orne, Martin T.; O'Connell, D. N. (1962). Validation and cross-validation of a scale of self-reported personal experiences which predicts hypnotizability. Journal of Psychology, 53, 55-75. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 62: 4 II 55S) A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was designed to measure the incidence of "hypnotic-like" experiences which have occurred naturally in the normal course of living. The questionnaire as evolved was found to predict hypnotizability, especially in the deepest region of the hypnotizability, especially in the deepest region of the hypnotizability continuum. Ramifications of the data are presented in terms of theoretical formulations where both ability factors and nonability factors (such as attitudes and motives) are viewed as components of achieved hypnotizability. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II55S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1961 Glass, Louis B.; Barber, Theodore X. (1961). A note on hypnotic behavior, the definition of the situation and the placebo effect. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 132, 539-541. Subjects were tested for responses to hypnotizability tests under three conditions: after 20 minute induction, after being told they would not be hypnotized but would take tests of imagination (with motivating instructions to do well), after taking a placebo pill that "would make them deeply hypnotized." Of 12 Ss who dropped in score between Session 1 and Session 2, 11 attained higher scores following placebo than during the control session; mean scores under placebo and control (5.8 and 3.7) differed significantly, p <.01. Scores were as high in the third as the first session (5.8 and 6.3 respectively). 1959 Conn, Jacob H. (1959). Cultural and clinical aspects of hypnosis, placebos, and suggestibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (4), 175-185. NOTES 1: The author traces the history of hypnosis, suggestion, and placebo, noting that popularity of hypnosis with professionals waxes and wanes over the years. When practitioners lose faith in a drug, it becomes less effective with their patients. The same holds true for hypnosis. Frequently illness is ameliorated or cured by suggestion without hypnosis. "Hypnosis is nothing more than the suggestive, placebo effect presented in a specific inter-personal setting. It is not just a state of mind, but the end result of various psychologic processes. (2) A patient may be more suggestible when fully awake. ... Another patient may be more suggestible when asleep. There are those who respond best to suggestions in the light stage of hypnosis, while about 10% of subjects are capable of developing the deeper, somnambulistic phase" (p. 181). Rosenberg, Milton J. (1959). A disconfirmation of the descriptions of hypnosis as a dissociated state. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (4), 187-204. NOTES 1: "SUMMARY. An experiment is described in which each of a group of hypnotic subjects received a posthypnotic suggestion reversing his affective response on an attitude issue of high interest. The consequent changes in the subjects' affect-related beliefs are compared to 'belief-changes' achieved by members of a group of subjects who were required to role-play the occurrence of 'affect reversal'. "The data are interpreted as disconfirming the description of hypnosis as a dissociated state. Some reasons for the persistence of the dissociation description of hypnosis and some theoretical implications of the demonstration of non-dissociation are briefly discussed" (pp. 202-203). The 11 hypnotic subjects were capable of achieving posthypnotic amnesia. Direct suggestions were given, in the opposite direction from attitudes detected with a 'cognitive structure test'. "For example one of the subjects, having expressed strong negative affect toward Negroes moving into white neighborhoods, was given exactly the following hypnotic instructions: 'When you awake you will be very much in favor of Negroes moving into white neighborhoods. The mere idea of negroes moving into white neighborhoods will give you a happy, exhilarated feeling. You will have no memory for this suggestion having been made until the signal to remember is given'" (p. 193). Wagner, Frederik F. (1959). A clinical study of attitudes towards hypnotic induction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (1), 3-8. NOTES 1: "Summary and Conclusion "In spite of the supposed interest in hypnosis, less than one fourth out of 53 psychiatric residents volunteered as subjects in a research project on hypnotic induction. The immediate impression of a general attitude of anxious hesitancy was confirmed through the subsequent projective testing, interviews and the hypnotic experiment. The subjects' attitude as revealed through the different sources of information, showed a considerable consistency. "Hypnosis was frequently fantasied as a controlling powerful instrument and the hypnotic induction as a 'battle between minds'. The underlying conflict: Dominance versus submission or independence versus dependence was easily discernible. This finding supports the results of a review made by LeCron (4) among psychologists and psychiatrists who use hypnosis for therapeutic purposes. "The subjects' responses to the hypnotic situation varied from strong resistance to consistent co-operation. Mixed responses frequently reflected attempts by the subject to harmonnize conflicting motives and fantasies. Some typical examples are described to illustrate the uniqueness of such compromise solutions, characteristic for the individual. The closer the subject's preconceived ideas came to the actual experimental situation, the more 'successful' were his responses. No direct connection between 'maturity' or 'neurotization' and 'susceptibility' could be demonstrated. No common character trait could be found or related to the subjects' ability to follow the suggestions. The responses could, however, be understood in terms of the individual's attempt to gratify, or ward off, needs, and anxiety aroused in the interpersonal relationship as structured by the experimental setting" (p. 8). Wilcox, Warren; Faw, Volney (1959). Social and environmental perceptions of susceptible and unsusceptible hypnotic subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (3), 151-160. NOTES 1: 1. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that hypnotic susceptibility was positively related to the perception of fundamental aspects of the social and environmental milieu and, further, to consider the nature of hypnosis itself. 2. Ss for this study, 44 women and 36 men, were employed from a previous study (Faw and Wilcox, 1958). A mass hypnotic technique was used and susceptibility was operationally defined by the use of rating scales. The susceptible were found to have better personality adjustment than the unsusceptible. 3. New for this study were self-rating scales of the Ss' perception of parents, personal worries and problems, social activities as group or individually oriented, social activities in school, and physical care. The rating scales were administered several months prior to and independently of the hypnotic induction. 4. Interpretation of results support the hypothesis that the susceptible perceived their social and environmental milieu in more positive terms than did the unsusceptible. The susceptible perceived their parents in significantly stronger affectional and supportive relationships than did the unsusceptible. The susceptible were less concerned about adjustment to the opposite sex, not as worried about personal appearance, were more group oriented and more likely to engage in social activities than were the unsusceptible. Susceptible males were less frequently hospitalized than were unsusceptible males while susceptible females were more frequently hospitalized than were unsusceptible females. 5. Hypnosis was defined as a tendency to accept suggestions and to actualize, maintain and affirm them in the form of perceptual experiences activated by the stimulus situation as interpreted by the S and formulated by the hypnotist. The suggestions arouse expectancies or personal hypotheses which become a gauge to test the efficacy of the suggestions. Perceptualization is shaped by motives and past stimulation of the social and environmental milieu" (p. 158). 1957 Martin, R. M.; Marcuse, F. L. (1957). Characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (4), 176-180. NOTES 103 introductory psychology students were tested with the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Levinson Ethnocentrism Scale (score already on file), and the Bernreuter Prsonality Inventory. Later a request for volunteers for an experiment dealing with hypnosis was made (with no reward promised). A week later the same experimenter informed the class that due to a redesign of the experiment, it was necessary to go through the request for volunteers again (a reliability check for volunteering). "Discussion and Conclusion. There were significant differences between volunteers and nonvolunteers on the variables of intelligence, anxiety, ethnocentrism, dominance-submission, and sociability. Volunteers for hypnosis as a group were found to have a higher mean intelligence score and to be less ethnocentric than nonvolunteers. Male volunteers for hypnosis were _more_ and not, as commonly supposed, _less_ dominant in face-to-face relations and _less_ and not, as commonly supposed, _more_ anxious than nonvolunteers. Female volunteers tend to be more solitary and independent. The very fact that no significant differences were found in any comparison between volunteers and nonvolunteers for hypnosis in self-sufficiency and introversion-extroverson is considered important in that popular belief suggests the contrary.