” … The data from this study, far from supporting the popular image of the hypnotic subject in terms of inferiority, might be argued to suggest superiority” (p. 178).

Wagner, Frederik F. (1956). The Interpersonal Relationship Test, (IRT): A suggested picture device for the evaluation of initial attitudes towards individual psychotherapy and hypnotic induction. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (3), 99-108.

Based on R. W. White’s 1937 research using card 12 M of the TAT to assess needs and attitudes toward hypnosis, the author experimented with four less specific stimuli pictures. He posited that the attitudes and needs measured would influence hypnotizability. The four stimulus pictures were :
“I. Two people looking at each other, seen in profile. There is a double door in the background. Three alternative pictures are available: Male-Female, Male-Male and Female-Female. …
II. A sitting person facing the observer, but looking at somebody who is completely hidden in a huge chair. Alternative combinations: M-? and F-? …
III. The person facing the observer is sitting in a slightly bent forward position looking at a person sitting relaxed in a deep chair. The face of the latter can not be seen but the sex can be identified by the hands, feet and hair. Combinations: F-m, F-f, m-f, and M-m (m and f refer to the ‘hidden’ person). …
IV. A person in a bent forward position with the back to the observer of the picture, leaning over the upper part of a person who is lying in supine position on a couch or divan. Both sexes can be identified but the faces can not be seen. Combinations: F-m, M-f and M-m (m and f refer to the ‘hidden’ person on the couch) (pp. 100-102).

Fisher, Seymour (1955). An investigation of alleged conditioning phenomena under hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (2), 71-103.

“Summary and Conclusions.
“The primary objective of the present investigation was to present rational and empirical evidence supporting a reinterpretation of a number of alleged ‘conditioning’ studies performed under hypnosis. An experiment which contained no explicit verbal posthypnotic suggestion was conducted. The study was designed to expose the presence of characteristic features of an explicit posthypnotic act in hypnotically induced ‘conditioned responses’; two responses, an olfactory hallucination and a coughing reaction, were induced under hypnosis by a conditioning procedure, and were examined under various experimental conditions in the subsequent waking state.
“Although the results are based upon a relatively small sample of Ss, the overall data seem to warrant the following principal conclusions:
“(1) Responses induced under hypnosis by means of a conditioning procedure do not conform to some of the expected principles of contemporary conditioning theory.
“(2) These responses do, however, show a marked similarity to behavior induced by explicit posthypnotic suggestion. Inasmuch as no significant discrepancies between these two classes of phenomena (posthypnotic behavior and the responses induced by a conditioning procedure) were observed, the results are interpreted as supporting the dual hypothesis that (a) evocation of the cough and olfactory hallucination by their respective stimuli is a function of hypnotically determined suggestive factors, and (b) aside from the omission of an explicit verbal suggestion, these responses differ in no essential way from a typical posthypnotic act.
“(3) As a corollary to the preceding conclusion, it follows that some deeply hypnotized Ss are capable of performing posthypnotic behavior solely on the basis of implicit hypnotic suggestion. Hence, the frequently accepted assumption that explicit verbal instructions are required to effect posthypnotic behavior seems untenable.
“(4) To the extent that these conclusions are valid, it seems doubtful whether the concept of ‘conditioned response’ is any more appropriate when applied to these hypnotically determined responses than when applied to typical posthypnotic behavior. It would appear, rather, that the only fundamental difference beween these two forms of behavior lies in the degree to which E explicitly communicates his suggestions.
“The major implications oof the results are discussed, and several secondary conclusions are suggested:
“(5) The results are interpreted to support the possible existence of ‘operator attitude’ as a significant variable in research with hypnosis.
“(6) The results seem best understood within a framework of role-taking theory which takes into consideration both S’s expectations _and_ the hypnotist’s expectations.
“(7) Recognition of the active participation of hypnotic Ss prescribes extreme caution in the interpetation of results whenever hypnosis is utilized as a technique for controlling psychological variables” (p. 101).
Meares, Ainslie (1955). A note on the motivation for hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 222-228. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 57: 1129)
“Summary. The logical reasons of the patient for desiring hypnosis, and of the therapist in advising it, operate on a background of unconscious mechanims. These mechanisms are important factors in determining whether or not the logical reasons become effective. An understanding of such motivation helps the therapist in the selection of cases and the choice of the particular form of hypnotherapy to be used” (p. 228).
Patient motivations for hypnosis include magical expectations, paranoid belief that one is under the control of a malevolent influence, a (paradoxical) belief that hypnosis will be ineffective with neurotic symptoms and therefore justify continuation of the symptoms, latent aggression (“hypnotize me if you can” attitude) or an excess of passivity (“humiliate me”), erotic motivation or a wish for a more intimate relationship with the therapist, search for new or unusual experiences in life, a last ditch effort to cope with chronic pain and illness, etc.
Patient motivations against hypnosis include fear of being overpowered or the threat of authority, aggressive feelings that would be motivated if the hypnotist seems to be an authority, or association of hypnosis with the erotic. The author has observed “a surprising number of people” with the latter association. “With these people, it is more of an attitude of mind in which any close or intimate relationship is regarded as erotic. They see in hypnosis an intimate relationship with the therapist, and they avoid it without being aware of their reasons for doing so” (p. 226).
Therapist motivations for hypnosis include unconscious mechanisms as well, such as a drive for power (sometimes manifested in desire to demonstrate the technique to a wider audience than simply colleagues in a workshop). When tinged with eroticism the drive can become sadistic. Also, erotic drives can find vicarious expression as “The intensity of the rapport between patient and psychotherapist in waking psychotherapy, is increased many times in hypnosis” (p. 227).
Therapist motivations against hypnosis include fear of failure (which is more obvious when a patient doesn’t follow a suggestion than in lack of response to medicine), fear of erotic involvement, fear of one’s own aggression, etc.

Meares, Ainslie (1954). History-taking and physical examination in relation to subsequent hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2 (4), 291-295.
“Summary. The history-taking and physical examination of the initial interview can be so structured as to facilitate the subsequent induction of hypnosis. Rapport is established, and negative transference feelings are not allowed to develop. There must be no holding back or hiding of the real complaint with screen symptoms. Physical examination is a symbolic surrender and paves the way for the real surrender of passive hypnosis. If induction by an active method is anticipated, authoritative attitudes are introduced into the history-taking and physical examination” (p. 295).

Ellis, Albert (1953). Reactions of psychotherapy pati
ents who resist hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (3), 12-15.
“When one of my psychotherapy patients has difficulty in remembering or bringing forth salient material, I or the patient sometimes suggests the use of hypnosis. At such times, I usually find one of two major modes of reaction: either the patient comfortably accepts the idea of hypnosis, and we proceed forthwith to establish a hypnotic relationship; or else the patient, even though he has himself first suggested using hypnosis, is visibly uncomfortable about engaging in it, and in one way or another resists being hypnotized.
“In the latter case, particularly where the patient backs down completely and manages to structure the therapeutic relationships so that hypnosis is never actually attempted, I frequently find that the threat of being hypnotized is so intense that, rather than submit to it, the patient begins to surrender some of his neurotic symptoms or makes unusual psychotherapeutic progress without it.”
The author presents three case studies.
Glasner, Samuel (1953). Two experiments in the modification of attitude by the use of hypnotic and waking suggestion. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1, 71-75.

Author’s Conclusions: “In the light of the results, the following conclusions would appear to be justified:
1. Prestige suggestion can effect changes in an individual’s response to an attitudes test.
2. Repeated prestige suggestion produces no more marked effect than does a single suggestion in changing social attitudes. However, the results seem to be more lasting with repeated suggestion.
3. Repeated hypnotic suggestion is considerably more effective than repeated waking suggestion in modifying social attitudes. But waking suggestion also seems to have some effect.
4. The effects of both hypnotic and waking suggestion vary greatly with different individuals.
5. The effect of repeated prestige suggestion in changing social attitudes apparently does not follow the pattern of the usual learning curve.
6. The changes noted seem to represent changes in basic attitude, and not merely changes in the response to a particular test” (P. 74).
The attitudes involved nationality preferences (“Negro, Turk, Hindu, or Chinamen” p. 71). The prestige suggestion, given in light hypnosis, was “The results on the test I gave you were rather disappointing. Most people think that we in the South are deeply prejudiced against the colored races. But that is a mis-understanding of our position. Certainly we University people have no actual dislike of Negroes, Chinamen, or Hindus. And it is our hope, in giving this test, to demonstrate our true attitude, which is far more tolerant than most people give us credit for. I am therefore going to give you the test again. I want you, of course, to give your honest preferences. But where you find a choice difficult, give the ‘underdog’ the benefit of the doubt. Do you understand? Give the ‘underdog’ the benefit of the doubt!” (p. 72).


Enqvist, Bjorn; von Konow, L.; Bystedt, H. (1995). Pre- and perioperative suggestion in maxillofacial surgery: Effects on blood loss and recovery. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (3), 284-294.

The basic assumption underlying the present study was that emotional factors may influence not only recovery but also blood loss and blood pressure in maxillofacial surgery patients, where the surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Eighteen patients were administered a hypnosis tape containing preoperative therapeutic suggestions, 18 patients were administered hypnosis tapes containing pre- and perioperative suggestions, and 24 patients were administered a hypnosis tape containing perioperative suggestions only. The patients who received taped suggestions were compared to a group of matched control patients. The patients who received preoperative suggestions exhibited a 30% reduction in blood loss. A 26% reduction in blood loss was shown in the group of patients receiving pre- and perioperative suggestions, and the group of patients receiving perioperative suggestions only showed a 9% reduction in blood loss. Lower blood pressure was found in the groups that received pre- and perioperative and perioperative suggestions only. Rehabilitation was facilitated in the group of patients receiving perioperative suggestions only.

Repka, Renee J.; Nash, Michael R. (1995). Hypnotic responsivity of the deaf: The development of the University of Tennessee Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale for the Deaf. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (3), 316-331.

The purpose of these two studies was to develop and test a measure that assesses the hypnotic responsivity of deaf individuals. The University of Tennessee Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale for the Deaf (UTHSS:D) is a signed, videotaped version of a standard hypnotic induction with 12 standard suggestions. Experiment 1 compared the behavioral and subjective hypnotic responsivity of deaf and hearing individuals using the UTHSS:D and the Field Depth Inventory (FDI), respectively. As compared to hearing subjects, deaf participants were found to be less responsive to hypnosis when assessed behaviorally (UTHSS:D) and equally responsive to hypnosis when assessed subjectively (FDI). Experiment 2 undertook a more comprehensive examination of the hypnotic responsivity of deaf individuals, using hearing individuals as controls. Three dimensions of hypnosis responsivity were assessed: behavioral (UTHSS:D), subjective (FDI), and interpersonal (Archaic Involvement Measure). Additionally, correlates of hypnotic responsivity (absorption, attitudes, expectations) were examined for the two groups. In Experiment 2, no significant differences were found between the deaf and hearing participant groups on any measures of hypnotic responsivity or on any measure of the correlates of hypnotic responsivity.

Page, Roger A.; Handley, George W. (1993). The use of hypnosis in cocaine addiction. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36, 120-123.

An unusual case is presented in which hypnosis was successfully used to overcome a $50-0 (five grams) per day cocaine addiction. The subject was a female in her twenties. Six months into her addiction, she acquired a commercial weight-control tape that she used successfully to stop smoking cigarettes (mentally substituting the word “smoking”), as well as to bring her down from her cocaine high and allow her to fall asleep. After approximately 8 months of addiction, she decided to use the tape in an attempt to overcome the addiction itself. Over the next 4 months, she listened to the tape three times a day, mentally substituting the word “coke.” At the end of this period, her addiction was broken, and she has been drug free for the past 9 years. Her withdrawal and recovery were extraordinary because hypnosis was the only intervention, and no support network of any kind was available.

Blankfield, Robert; Scheurman, Kathleen; Bittel, Sue; Alemagno, Sonia; Flocke, Sue; Zyzanski, Stephen (1992, October). Taped therapeutic suggestions and taped music as adjuncts in the care of coronary artery bypass graft patients. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington, VA.

18 studies have explored the issue with an experimental design; half used tapes, half didn’t; majority of studies found benefits; 2 were of heart surgery patients.
This study used taped suggestions with coronary bypass patients. Used tape recorder rather than person delivering suggestions because it was more convenient; used tape intra-surgery and post-operatively for more impact.
We hypothesized: shorter length of stay, less narcotic analgesia, less anxiety, faster recovery, more positive mental outlook, resume activities sooner, have less symptoms postoperatively, etc.
Used a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial in 2 community hospitals in Cleveland with coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Study was done between Dec 1989 – Feb 1992.
3 groups were involved: (1) Suggestion, (2) music, and (3) tape. Control subjects had a blank tape. Tapes were played continuously and repeatedly with headphones. Postoperatively, a different tape was played.
Excluded: Patients with emergent surgery, hearing impairment, poor comprehension of English, patients who died in hospital, patients whose hospital stay lasted longer than 14 days (3 of them). 5% of sample were eliminated for last 2 reasons.
Music: Herb Ernst, Dreamflight II. Suggestions: Music background, permissive, based on Evans & Richardson’s study.
Outcome Measures: Nurse assessment of anxiety and progress post operatively, Symptom scale, Depression scale.
Mean age 62, 3/4 men, 92% white, 75% married. The groups were same on a variety of preoperative variables (status of heart and arteries). Length of stay was 6.5 in all 3 groups. No difference in narcotics use, in nurse assessment of anxiety or of progress; of depression scale, or activities of daily living.
Recategorized data into patients who said the tapes were helpful (both music and suggestion) N = 33 vs the other patients N = 62. No difference in the variables evaluated.

Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.; Roberts, Laura L.; Lynch, Greg V. (1992, August). The validation and standardization of the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
ABSTRACT: This research investigates the reliability and validity of the Computer- Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS), a twelve-item computer administered hypnotic ability scale. In a counter-balanced, within-subjects, repeated measures design, 130 subjects experienced both a computerized hypnosis (CAHS) and hetero-hypnosis (SHSS:C). For each hypnosis session, responsiveness was assessed along three dimensions: Behavioral (using the CAHS and SHSS:C), subjective depth (using the Field Depth Inventory), and relational involvement (using the Archaic Involvement Measure). Subjects also completed a SHSS:C self-scoring measure and the Tellegen Absorption Scale. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. The various dimensions of CAHS hypnotic responsiveness were highly positively related, and the CAHS compared favorably with the SHSS:C across the three dimensions assessed. However, an unexpected interaction was noted: For the three dimensions of hypnotic responsiveness assessed, SHSS:C scores were lower when the SHSS:C was preceded by a CAHS than when the SHSS:C administration was first. CAHS scores for the three dimensions were not significantly affected regardless of whether or not a SHSS:C administration preceded the CAHS administration. Results are discussed in terms of the theory and practice of hypnotic ability assessment, and directions for future research are noted. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall 1992, Vol. 1, No.3.)

Sheehan, Peter W. (1992). The phenomenology of hypnosis and the Experiential Analysis Technique. In Fromm, Erika; Nash, Michael R. (Ed.), Contemporary hypnosis research (pp. 364-389). New York: Guilford Press.
The problem with behavioral assessment methods such as hypnotizability scales is that similar behavioral responses to hypnotic suggestions may occur for very different reasons. It is important to assess the phenomenological experience of hypnotic Ss. The Experience Analysis Technique (EAT) is a method for assessing the phenomenology of hypnosis. The EAT “consists of gathering the comments of hypnotic subjects about their hypnotic behavior and experience, as they view the video playback of their hypnotic sessions” (p. 372). The EAT draws its origins from Kagan’s method of Interpersonal Process Recall [IPR], in which “counselors in training could review and react to, their contact with clients immediately after therapy sessions. An independent person, present at the review of the session, would inquire into the interaction between the counselor and client by stopping the tape and questioning the client about his or her underlying feelings and thoughts, so facilitating and clarifying the information being recalled” (p. 371). It is important that the interviewer be a different person than the hypnotist.

Hammer, Walker & Diment (1978) applied the IPR to hypnosis, using audiotape.

Using the videotape EAT with hypnosis, Sheehan & McConkey (1982; Sheehan, McConkey & Cross, 1978) noted that hypnotic Ss might exhibit any of three different response styles, sometimes related to hypnotic task complexity: 1. Concentrative/cooperative style – S focuses on hypnotist’s words, imagining a literal interpretation 2. Independent style – S interprets hypnotist’s words in a way that is meaningful to them 3. Constructive style – S considers the communications “from a position of preparedness to process incoming stimuli in a schematic way, so as to structure or re-organize events according to the hypnotist’s suggestions”
Some Ss who are high in susceptibility show greater flexibility in the use of cognitive styles than low susceptibility Ss.
Examples of the use of the EAT to evaluate several phenomena observed in experimental and clinical settings are provided: ‘duality’ during age regression, trance logic, posthypnotic amnesia, pseudomemories, and rapport.
The author reviews the concept of ‘countering.’ “Countering occurs when a S responds in accord with the wishes of the hypnotist when social influences to respond otherwise are also present in the situation. … Counterers display a constructive (i.e. active and idiosyncratic) style of cognizing which enables them to make personal sense of the conflicting demands by preserving the integrity of each. … Counterers, even though they demonstrate a higher degree of involvement with the hypnotist, fail reliably to score as highly on standard tests of susceptibility (e.g. the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C) as subjects who do not counter (Sheehan, 1980). This second finding points to differential effects of rapport on Ss which are not explicable in terms of level of hypnotic susceptibility or simple willingness to comply with anticipated, obvious suggestions. Techniques like the EAT, which are sensitively attuned to detect the personal commitment of subjects to the hypnotist, are needed to detect subtle processes of this kind” (pp. 385- 386).
The author evaluates different reporting techniques used to examine the phenomenological experience of hypnosis (the Chicago Paradigm of Fromm & Kahn, 1990; Shor’s phenomenological method; the Field’s Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth) and evaluates the effects of rapport with the E on the measurement of subjective response. He suggests various experimental controls (e.g. disguising the true aims of the experiment). A measure of rapport or psychodynamic transference to the hypnotist, the Archaic Involvement Measure (AIM) has been developed by Nash and Spinler (1989).
“Experience cannot simply be observed objectively; it may not be reported spontaneously by the experiencer; and it may not even be elicited through ordinary forms of interaction” (p. 388).
“What phenomenological research has shown over the last decade is that hypnotic experience is both multifaceted and complex. It has given us a view of the hypnotic subject as a person who participates actively in the hypnotic process, who is susceptible to the influence of motivations and expectations, and who employs a variety of cognitive strategies so as to manage and respond to multiple levels of communication received in the hypnotic setting. Standard techniques of assessment, especially those emphasizing the primacy of behavioral data and those offering structured choices, are not equipped to reveal the full meaning of hypnotic responsiveness” (p. 388).
“If an instrument of assessment assumes a unidimensional underlying process when there are multiple dimensions operating, then that instrument will be deficient in measuring experience by producing equivalent ratings for very different experiences, and thus will be deficient in measuring overall experience. Measurement of trance-depth poses just such a problem, and measurement of hypnotic experience in its full complexity even more so” (pp. 388-389).

Kirkeby, Judith L.; Payne, Paul A.; Hovanitz, Christine; Moser, Steven (1991). Increasing hypnotizability: A comparison of a multimedia form of the Carleton Skills Training Program with a self-administered written form. Contemporary Hypnosis, 8, 161-165.

Compared a group-administered form of the multimedia Carleton Skills Training Program (CSTP) to a self-administered training program similar in content, but limited to written materials. One hundred and forty-one female subjects were administered one of four conditions: (1) the multimedia CSTP; (2) the self-administering booklet training; (3) a practice-only condition; or (4) a no-practice control condition. Subjects then responded to a shortened form of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A). [6 items: arm lowering, arm rigidity, hands together, fly hallucination, eye catalepsy, and amnesia.] Results indicated that objective and subjective hypnotizability measures were higher in both of the training conditions than in the practice-only or control conditions. In comparisons of the two training conditions, the booklet program was judged to be equal in effectiveness to the multi-media group form of the CSTP.
Group Hypnotizability Scale: Means for Behavioral (B), Experiential (E), Involuntariness (I) and Behavioural/Involuntariness (B/I) measures
Range 0-6 0-18 0-18 0-6 CSTP 39 4.67 12.46 11.54 3.64 Booklet 39 4.62 12.18 11.31 3.77 Practice 31 3.58 9.81 8.42 2.32 Control 32 3.44 10.66 9.22 2.75

Kaye, J. M.; Schindler, B. A. (1990). Hypnosis on a consultation-liaison service. General Hospital Psychiatry, 12, 379-383.

Studied the use of hypnosis on a consultation-liaison service with a broad spectrum of medically hospitalized patients. Autohypnosis tapes were used for reinforcement. Twenty-nine women and eight men from 24-75 years of age were hypnotized for relief of depression, pain, anxiety, or side effects of chemotherapy. Results were excellent (total to almost total relief of symptoms) in 68%, fair in 22%, and poor in 11%, with no differences among the results with the various conditions. This demonstrates that hypnotherapy is an extremely useful tool in medical management of patients in consultation-liaison psychiatry.

McLintock, T. T.; Aitken, H.; Downie, C. F.; Kenny, G. N. (1990). Postoperative analgesic requirements in patients exposed to positive intraoperative suggestions. British Medical Journal, 301 (6755), 788-790.

Sixty-three women undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy were randomly assigned to a tape of positive suggestions or a blank tape during the operation. Anesthesia was standardized for all of the women. Postoperative analgesia was provided through a patient-controlled analgesia system for the first 24 hours. Pain scores were recorded every 6 hours. The outcome measures were morphine consumption in the first 24 hours and pain scores. Mean morphine requirements were 51.0 mg in women who were played positive suggestions, and 65.7 mg in those played a blank tape (p = 0.028). Pain scores were similar in the two groups. It was concluded that intraoperative suggestions seem to have a positive effect in reducing patients’ morphine requirements in the early postoperative period.

Wood, W. E.; Gibson, W.; Longo, D. (1990). Moderation of morbidity following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy: A study of awareness under anesthesia. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 20, 93-105.

In a double-blind study, 67 children, ages 3-10, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: tape recorded therapeutic suggestions repetitively recited in English or in French, and a control of continuous white noise. The English condition was associated with more favorable outcome on all parameters, although statistical significance could not be demonstrated. Favorable outcomes appeared most significant for those patients at highest risk for poor convalescence (i.e., poor status preoperative patients).

Bryant, Richard A.; McConkey, Kevin M. (1989). Hypnotic blindness: A behavioral and experiential analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 71-77.

“This research examined the influence of visual information on a decision task that subjects were administered during hypnotically suggested blindness. Real, hypnotizable subjects and simulating, unhypnotizable subjects were tested in two experiments. Experiment 1 focused on behavioral responses, and Exper. 2 focused on experiential reactions. In both experiments, the findings indicated that the behavioral responses of reals were influenced by visual info. despite their reported blindness. The behavioral responses of reals and simulators were essentially similar. The experiential data in Experiment 2 provided information about the phenomenal nature of subjects’ reported blindness. The experiential reactions of reals and simulators were essentially different. The research is discussed in terms of the issues that need to be considered in the development of a model of hypnotic blindness” (p. 71).

Grant, Guy (1989, June). An investigation of hypnotic susceptibility in self-hypnosis and imagery (Dissertation, University of Utah). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (12), 5517-5518-B.

“There were two phases in the study. In Phase One hypnotic susceptibility scores were assessed for 43 graduate student subjects by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (HGSHS:A). In addition, the Self-Hypnosis Research Questionnaire (an experimental scale) provided performance scores for subjects under three hypnosis conditions: heterohypnosis, self-directed self-hypnosis, and tape-assisted self-hypnosis. The first purpose in Phase One was to calculate correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and each of the hypnosis conditions. The second purpose was to determine if there were significant differences across the three types of hypnosis. The third purpose was to discover if any existing differences were dependent on level (e.g., low, medium, or high) of hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis of the data yielded significant correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and (a) heterohypnosis, (b) self-directed self- hypnosis, and (c) tape-assisted self-hypnosis. There were significant performance differences across the three hypnosis conditions with heterohypnosis being somewhat superior to tape-assisted self-hypnosis, and tape-assisted self-hypnosis being slightly superior to self-directed self-hypnosis. This relationship held true regardless of level of hypnotic susceptibility (e.g., low, medium, and high).
“In Phase Two, 49 graduate student subjects were administered the shortened form of the Betts’ Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery (QMI) as well as the HGSHS:A, and to determine if mental imagery is an important component of hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis yielded a significant correlation between the two measures.
“Based on the current data, it was concluded that the HGSHS:A had some utility for predicting performance in hypnosis. It was noted that, as compared with self-hypnosis, heterohypnosis provided the greatest chance of eliciting a positive hypnotic response from subjects not trained or experienced in hypnosis. It was also concluded that the QMI was correlated with and had some utility for predicting performance on the HGSHS:A. It had difficulty, however, differentiating between low and medium hypnotizability” (pp. 5517- 5518).

Hammond, D. Corydon; Haskins-Bartsch, Catherine; Grant, Claude W.; McGhee, Melanie (1988). Comparison of self-directed and tape-assisted self-hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 129-137.

Previous research on self-hypnosis has concentrated on the relationship between heterohypnosis and either self-directed self-hypnosis or self-initiated self- hypnosis. Despite widespread use of audiotapes to assist the process of self-hypnosis, no previous research has compared tape-assisted and self-directed self-hypnosis. Forty-eight inexperienced volunteers were hypnotized and taught self-hypnosis by posthypnotic suggestion and immediate practice in the office. They were randomly assigned to one of two experimental orders to practice self-directed and tape-assisted self-hypnosis. No differences were found between heterohypnosis or either type of self-hypnosis in response to behavioral suggestions. Experiential ratings, however, consistently favored heterohypnosis over either type of self-hypnosis. Tape-assisted self-hypnosis was consistently evaluated as superior to self-directed practice by newly trained subjects.

The tapes were more or less identical with the in-office hypnosis, including voice of the hypnotist, except that those doing self-directed self hypnosis received a posthypnotic suggestion for how to enter hypnosis by themselves. (All Subjects received written instructions to remind them about the procedures for home practice.)
When self hypnosis was evaluated, use of a tape produced greater concentration and absorption, less distraction, greater subjective depth, greater perception of nonvoluntary response to suggestion, and more changes in body perception (e.g. loss of awareness of the body, feelings of heaviness or of floating). Therefore, the tape-assisted experience could be viewed as more convincing to the Subjects. People tended to fall asleep more when they did self-directed self hypnosis than when they used a tape. However, people enjoyed heterohypnosis more than either self hypnosis experience, and reported more nonvoluntary experiences. The more positive response to heterohypnosis replicates research by Johnson et al. (1983)., in which preceding self-hypnosis by a heterohypnosis induction may results in less positive experiences with the self-directed self hypnosis.
In their Discussion, the authors note that finding no differences between self hypnosis and heterohypnosis in the number of behavioral suggestions successfully passed replicates earlier research (Shor & Easton, 1973; Ruch, 1975; Johnson, 1979; Johnson, Dawson, Clark, & Sikorsky, 1983).
“Thus, our present study has replicated previous findings concerning the relationship of heterohypnosis and self-directed self-hypnosis. In clinical practice, it appears that a heterohypnosis experience virtually always precedes training in self- hypnosis. Our findings and those of the Johnson (1983) study suggest, however, that generally patients will experience self-hypnosis as significantly less powerful than their previous office experience. But, by using a tape to assist the patient in initial practice, the discrepancy between the quality of the experiences appears reduced. It should be noted that Johnson et al. (1983) provide the innovative suggestion that there may be something gained by having self-hypnotic instruction and practice precede a hypnotic experience by a therapist. Initial self-hypnotic experience may create a mental set of being more actively involved” (p. 136).
“However, we know nothing about how tape-assisted vs self-directed experiences are perceived by Ss with more self-hypnotic and heterohypnotic experience, and particularly if they are utilizing the same tape recording(s) over and over again. Other research (Hammond, 1987) recently followed up premenstrual syndrome patients who were trained in self-hypnosis. In this study, patients showed a clear preference for using tapes to assist them in self-hypnosis shortly after initial training. However, on 6-month follow-up, patients were found to be utilizing self-directed self-hypnosis much more frequently than tapes, with which they may have become somewhat bored. The issue of boredom has thus far not been adequately addressed in the self-hypnosis literature” (p. 136).
Omer, H.; Darnel, A.; Silberman, N.; Shuval, D.; Palti, T. (1988). The use of hypnotic-relaxation cassettes in a gynecologic-obstetric ward. In Lankton, S. R.; Zeig, J. K. (Ed.), Research, comparisons and medical applications of Ericksonian techniques (pp. 28-36). New York: Brunner-Mazel.
They did three studies in which they gave women having gynecologic procedures tapes with a Rapid Induction Analgesia hypnosis experience.
STUDY 1. Women heard tapes before a painful Fallopian tube procedure (salpingography). The patients reported less pain, tension, anxiety, and fear than control patients. (N.B. Physicians’ ratings did not show that difference.)
STUDY 2. Women practiced with the tapes at home before labor and delivery. One day after delivery, there was no difference in pain report or experience report between treated and control patients.
STUDY 3. Women used the tapes during labor. They reported worse pain and labor experiences than the control patients.
The authors conclude that their research does not support the hypothesis that Rapid Induction Analgesia is useful for acute pain.

Aronson, David M. (1986). The adolescent as hypnotist: Hypnosis and self-hypnosis with adolescent psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 28 (3), 163-169.

This paper describes the theoretical rationale, pragmatic implementation issues, and procedure for a particular technique of clinical hypnosis which is designed as an adjunctive therapy within a multidisciplinary adolescent inpatient treatment program. A model of combined auto- and heterohypnosis which features collaborative production of audiocassettes is presented. Advantages and indications for this technique are discussed, and a case study is presented. – Journal Abstract

Morrow, Gary R. (1984). Appropriateness of taped versus live relaxation in the systematic desensitization of anticipatory nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52 (6), 1098-1099.

Investigated the suggestion that the relaxation part of systematic desensitization–an effective treatment for the nausea and vomiting experienced by approximately 25% of cancer patients in anticipation of chemotherapeutic treatments– could be learned from a prerecorded audiotape prior to meeting a psychologist for treatment. 10 cancer patients who had developed anticipatory nausea or vomiting were assigned to either a live-relaxation or a tape-relaxation group. Results show that 4 of 5 Ss assigned to the tape-relaxation group experienced nausea while listening to the prerecorded audiotape, while none of the patients in the live-relaxation group reported nausea when subsequently listening to an audiotape made during the live presentation of relaxation.

Brattberg, G. (1983). An alternative method of treating tinnitus: Relaxation-hypnotherapy primarily through the home use of a recorded audio cassette. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (2), 90-97.

32 patients, varously diagnosed as suffering from tinnitus, were treated with hypnosis. Treatment consisted of a 1-hour consultation with the physician followed by 4 weeks of daily home practice while listening to an audio-tape recording of approximately 15 minutes duration. 22 of the patients treated learned in 1 month to disregard the disturbing noise, a considerable gain in the ratio of theapy to time requied.

The audio tape was of a 15-minute hypnotherapy session done on the first office visit, so that the home practice was more or less the same as the first visit in office. “The hypnotherapy was aimed at inducing the patient into as relaxed a state as possible, and thereafter implanting the suggestio that the patient would no longer be troubled by the noise” (p. 93).

Nogrady, Heather; McConkey, Kevin M.; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Perry, Campbell (1983). Dissociation, duality, and demand characteristics in hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

Examined hypnotic dissociation (as indexed by the “hidden-observer” method), duality in age regression, and the potential impact of situational cues on these phenomena. 12 high- and 9 low-susceptible undergraduates (as determined by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale) were tested in an application of the real-simulating paradigm of hypnosis; 10 high- to medium-susceptible Ss were also employed. Inquiry into Ss’ experiences was conducted through the experiential analysis technique, which involves Ss viewing and commenting on a videotape playback of their hypnotic session. Results demonstrate that neither the hidden-observer effect nor duality could be explained solely in terms of the demand characteristics of the test situation. The hidden-observer effect was observed in high-susceptible Ss only; all Ss who displayed the hidden-observer effect also displayed duality in age regression. High-susceptible Ss were distinctive in their reports of multiple levels of awareness during hypnosis. Findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive skills that Ss bring to hypnosis and the degree to which the hypnotic setting encourages the use of dissociative cognitive processes. (43 ref).

Lehrer, Paul M. (1982). How to relax and how not to relax: A re-evaluation of the work of Edmund Jacobson: I.. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20 (5), 417-428.

Contrasts E. Jacobson’s (1928-1970) method of progressive relaxation with modified techniques that emphasize suggestion, brevity, and the feeling of large differences between tension and relaxation. The literature suggests that the modifications may have been premature. The psychophysiological effects of suggestion are weaker than those of progressive relaxation. Tape-recorded instruction appears to be completely ineffective as a method for teaching relaxation as a skill that can be used across situations. Live training contributes more than simple feedback; its effectiveness may lie in individualized adaptation of training technique. EMG biofeedback makes taped training more effective but contributes nothing to intensive live training. Despite its greater length, Jacobson’s original technique is preferred to the modified techniques, particularly when psychophysiological effects are important. Length of training does not appear to be a critical factor. (116 ref)

McConkey, Kevin M.; Sheehan, Peter W. (1981). The impact of videotape playback of hypnotic events on posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90 (1), 46-54.

Examined the breakdown of amnesia by showing 48 hypnotic and nonhypnotic undergraduates (Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) a videotape of the hypnotic events they had experienced. The extent of the amnesia for these events was defined precisely, and simulating procedures were employed to analyze the cues in the overall test situation. Videotape display of the hypnotic events was presented via the Experiential Analysis Technique and served to optimize conditions for breakdown. Some hypnotic Ss’ amnesia could not be broken down even though they were exposed via videotape playback to the events to be recalled and when suggestions for the period of amnesia were quite explicit. Simulators showed breaching of amnesia but attributed their recall to the videotape rather than to the hypnotic session. Hypnotic Ss were distinctive in their inability to recall experiential aspects of their performance even though they could recall behavioral aspects. The data are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that dissociative cognitive mechanisms underlie posthypnotic amnesia. (22 ref).

Crasilneck, Harold B. (1980). The case of Dora. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 95-97.