This is the introduction to a film about a woman who was indicted for murder in the alleged fatal shooting of her husband. The woman was amnesic, had been drinking alcohol before the shooting. The author also provides a verbatim account of what the patient said following suggestions that “you are going to remember every detail.” On the basis of the woman’s hypnotically refreshed recall, the charge was changed from first degree murder to self-defense.

Hart, R. (1980). The influence of a taped hypnotic induction treatment procedure on the recovery of surgery patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 324-331.

A study of 40 open heart surgery patients assigned to 1 of 2 equal size treatment groups sought to evaluate the efficacy and utility of a tape-recorded hypnotic induction procedure that preoperatively prepared patients for surgery. The dependent variables included daily blood pressure measurements and postsurgical outcome data pertaining to postoperative units of blood required, state/trait anxiety, and locus of control dimensions. Results of the study tended to provide some support for the tape-recorded hypnotic induction procedure in lessening state anxiety and in promoting a more self- directed attitude toward surgical recovery.

Johnson, L. S.; Wiese, K. F. (1979). Live versus tape-recorded assessments of hypnotic responsiveness in pain control patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27 (2), 74-84.

This study compared the effectiveness of live versus tape-recorded hypnotic procedures in producing general hypnotic responsiveness in hospitalized pain patients. 30 patients individually received in counterbalanced order both a live and an audiotaped presentation of the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (Hilgard & Hilgard, 1975), which contains an induction and a 5-item test of hypnotic susceptibility suitable for bed-ridden patients. The live presentation produced a significantly higher total score than the taped procedure (p<.05), with no significant order effects. The correlation between modes of presentation was .66. Order effects were not significant but a trend in that direction was discussed. The differences were found to hold for the high and medium ranges of susceptibility. Tentative conclusions were drawn that one cannot assume taped procedures to be equivalent to live in hypnotic analgesia research with clinical populations. The non-equivalence of live and taped procedures need not invalidate the clinical use of the latter, should they prove empirically effective. A case study of low back pain is added to illustrate effective tape-induced analgesia for patients unsuccessful with self-hypnosis. 1978 Shipley, R. H.; Butt, J. H.; Horowitz, B.; Farbry, J. E. (1978). Preparation for a stressful medical procedure: Effect of amount of stimulus preexposure and coping style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 499-507. Anxiety during the stressful medical procedure of endoscopy was studied as a function of the number of prior viewings of an explicit preparation videotape and of repression-sensitization coping style. Sixty naive patients viewed a videotaped endoscopy either zero, one, or three times. Dependent measures included heart rate, behavioral ratings, tranquilizer required, and self-report. On each dependent measure, three viewings generally resulted in the least distress; one, more distress; and zero, the most distress. Most comparisons reached statistical significance. These results are interpreted as resulting from extinction and/or habituation of anxiety. The repression-sensitization factor interacted with heart rate change. Sensitizers showed a monotonic decrease in heart rate as a function of number of tape exposures. Repressors showed an inverted-U-shaped function, with one viewing producing the highest heart rate; this is interpreted as resulting from a disruption of repressing defenses by one tape exposure followed by extinction of fear by three exposures. 1977 Lick, John R.; Heffler, David (1977). Relaxation training and attention placebo in the treatment of severe insomnia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45 (2), 153-161. This study compared the effectiveness of progressive relaxation training with and without a supplementary relaxation recording, which the subjects played at home, and an attention placebo manipulation in the modification of severe insomnia in adult volunteers. The results indicated that the relaxation training procedures were significantly more effective than placebo and no-treatment controls in modifying several parameters of sleeping behavior, in reducing consumption of sleep-inducing medication, and in influencing a self-report anxiety measure. The supplementary relaxation tape did not increase the effectiveness of relaxation training conducted in the clinic, and there was no difference in the efficacy of the placebo and no-treatment conditions. Physiological data gathered during the last treatment session indicated few significant correlations between reductions in arousal associated with relaxation training and treatment outcome. 1975 Bean, Bruce W.; Duff, James L. (1975). The effects of video tape, and of situational and generalized locus of control, upon hypnotic susceptibility. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18 (1), 28-33. This study examined the effects of mode of induction (video tape vs. live), general locus of control, and situational locus of control upon hypnotic susceptibility. A total of 62 student volunteers was hypnotized in eight small groups using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Results confirmed that video taped inductions were as effective as live inductions. None of the other variables, singly or in interaction, significantly affected susceptibility scores. An analysis of variance was also performed upon subjects' subjective ratings of having experienced hypnosis. Results revealed that subjects with an external general locus of control (Rotter's I-E scale) rated themselves as having experienced hypnosis more fully. This was interpreted as a greater response to the demand characteristics of the hypnosis situation by externally controlled subjects. Discussion explores the potential flexibility provided by video tape hypnosis. Spear, J. E. (1975). The utilization of non-drug induced altered states of consciousness in borderline recidivists. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18, 111-126. Utilizing non-drug induced altered states of consciousness, various modes of interior reflection, behavior modification and reprogramming of conscious attitudes and values were utilized with 49 borderline recidivists. Such offenders were so determined by the Department of Corrections, Probation and Parole Office, District II. No coercion was used to induce such individuals to enter the program and there was no reprisal for stopping therapy at any time. Over a two and one-half year period the recidivist rate among this group was less than 5%. It is suggested that non-drug induced altered states of consciousness combined with indirect as well as symbolic techniques may prove to be the most effective means of criminal rehabilitation. NOTES 1: Berderline recidivists were "individuals, who, in the opinion of the P.O. [probation officer] were, in all probability, to be returned to prison within a few months, or less, if there wasn't a major change in attitude and actions" (p. 111). Therapy employed closed circuit TV with bi-directional audio and induction of altered state of consciousness using an ophthalmology-type rotary prism. Therapy involved (s) recall of relaxed state when under stress, (2) exploration of early conditioning events, (3) self evaluation during the ASC, (4) use of symbolic mental exercises and mental practice for similar circumstances in normal waking state, (5) suggestions for setting goals and ideals, (7) a type of logotherapy, (7) 'nudging' the person to examine their relationship with their concept of God. The author noted in the parolees: (1) low levels of self esteem, (2) depression, (3) going into deep levels of altered states once trust was established with the therapist. 1974 Field, Peter B. (1974). Effects of tape-recorded hypnotic preparation for surgery. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 22, 54-61. The day before surgery, 30 patients heard a tape recording that gave suggestions of relaxation, drowsiness, comfort during the operation, and quick recovery, and which also gave simple information about the forthcoming operation. A control group of 30 additional surgical patients heard a recording describing facilities available in the hospital. No differences between the 2 groups were found on surgeons' ratings of degree of nervousness on the day of the operation, or on speed of recovery. However, there was a significant correlation within the experimental group between depth of relaxation while listening to the recording and absence of nervousness the day of the operation, and also between depth of relaxation and speed of recovery. Verbal reports of benefit from listening to the recording were unrelated to depth of relaxation. NOTES 1: The surgeons and other ward staff were unaware of group assignment. Patients were rated by observer for: eye closure, relaxation vs. restlessness, change to a slow and regular breathing pattern, and whether they complied with a recorded instruction to take a deep breath. In terms of results, degree of rated relaxation related to nervousness during surgery, to faster recovery from the operation, but not to length of hospital stay. No significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found. Contrary to expectations, there was a tendency for more nervousness in the experimental group. Thus, though patients who relaxed more easily were less nervous during surgery and recovered more rapidly than expected, the difference cannot be attributed to the experimental intervention. In contrast to objective outcome measures, verbal reports indicated that 17 of 30 experimental group patients but only 1 of 30 control patients felt that the tape had helped them. (In the experimental group, 25% used terms like "wonderful," "terrific," "very helpful," statements never made by the control group patients.) Also, 73% of experimental vs. 23% of control patients said that they would like to hear (or wouldn't mind hearing) the recording again if they had another operation. Extensive post-operative interview data did not support a conclusion that the intervention influenced postoperative pain, anorexia, or insomnia; postoperative dreams; or self-reported anxiety during the operation. Thus, patients who claimed the intervention was helpful did not necessarily report reduced anxiety or pain. They reported greater relaxation, better knowledge of what would happen, or better ability to cope with the stress. In his Discussion the author notes that the variable of "depth of relaxation" was supposed to reflect depth of hypnosis but may not be actually a measure of hypnotic depth or of hypnotizability. The results might be due to an individual difference effect (people who can relax easily would find surgery a less stressful experience whether or not they heard a tape recording), or to the interaction between such an individual-difference variable and the experimental treatment. In the latter case, the recording might have some added effect on its own. Finally, results suggest that recordings with suggestions of this nature influence patient satisfaction rather than postoperative course. 1973 Wickramasekera, Ian (1973). Effects of electromyograph feedback on hypnotic susceptibility: More preliminary data. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82 (1), 74-77. The purpose of this double-blind study was to determine if taped verbal relaxation instructions and response-contingent electromyographic feedback training would increase suggestibility or hypnotic susceptibility over that obtained with instructions and false or noncontingent feedback, The present data appear to confirm the hypothesis 1963 Hoskovec, J.; Svorad, D.; Lanc, O (1963). The comparative effectiveness of spoken and tape-recorded suggestions of body sway. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 163-166. The relative effectiveness of tape-recorded vs. spoken suggestions of body sway was measured. Both types of suggestion produced increased body sway. Spoken suggestions following recorded suggestions were the most effective. The expectation by Ss of a greater effectiveness of live presentation may have produced this result. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1960 Jacoby, James D. (1960). Statistical report on general practice hypnodontics: Tape-recorder conditioning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8 (2), 115-120. NOTES 1: Author''s Summary: Interest of the dental profession in the use of hypnosis for dentistry has increased a thousandfold in the past several years. Periodicals and dental meetings reflect this increased interest and acceptance. Discussion is made of 308 dental patients in 1214 appointments, including all types of dentistry. The use of the tape-recorder in patient-conditioning is recommended to conserve both time and energy of the dentist. 1953 Horan, John S. (1953). Hypnosis and recorded suggestions in the treatment of migraine: Case report. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (4), 7-10. Psychological Abstracts 54: 6399) NOTES 1: Author's Discussion: "The case above is presented because of its rather bizarre features. It is notable in that in the hypnotic sessions no attempt was made to explore the dynamics of the patient's resentment or her illness, no insight was given into psychic mechanisms conected with the migraine. This had been done before, in conventional psychiatric interviewing, without much result. Under hypnosis, the only suggestions given were concerned with direct symptomatic relief of headache, insomnia and anorexia. For the patient's purposes, these were sufficient. Just how the pathological physiological state causing the migraine attacks was altered by direct and recorded suggestion is a mystery to this writer. It may be that hypnotic states can cause a dissociation of the subject from the emotional stress related to the attacks. Or perhaps the strangeness and the mystery of hypnosis was sufficient. It would be absurd to make any claims about the efficacy of hypnosis in migraine patients in general on the basis of this one case. In a disease which causes as much disability and suffering as migraine, however, it is profitable to report any safe means that gives a satisfactory result" (pp. 9-10). AUTITION 1999 Kallio, Sakari; Revonsuo, Antti; Lauerma, Hannu; Hdmdldinen, Heikki; Lang, Heikki (1999). The MMN amplitude increases in hypnosis - a case study. Neuroreport, 10 (17), 3579-3582. The neural mechanisms associated with hypnosis were investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory ERP, reflecting the preattentive discrimination of change in stimulus flow, in normal baseline state and under hypnosis. It has been proposed that the frontal inhibition associated with hypnosis can be measured as a decrease in MMN. ERPs were elicited using the passive oddball paradigm with standard and deviant sine tone stimuli of 500 and 553 Hz respectively. The measurement was repeated in five separate sessions. In hypnosis the MMN was significantly larger compared to baseline. The results indicate that hypnosis can give rise to altered information processing in the brain even at a relatively early, i.e. preattentive level and that the larger MMN measured under hypnosis does not support frontal inhibition theory. 1995 Mason, J.; Rogerson, D. (1995). Client-centered hypnotherapy for tinnitus: Who is likely to benefit?. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37 (4), 294-299. NOTES 1: The study involved 41 patients, mean age 54, who had three sessions of hypnosis. On three-month followup evaluation, those who benefitted most from hypnosis had less hearing loss in their better-hearing ear. Matthews, William J.; Isenberg, Gail L. (1995). A comparison of the hypnotic experience between signing deaf and hearing participants. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (4), 375-385. This study compared the hypnotic responsiveness of 17 hearing and 34 deaf individuals, all of whom received visual induction and hypnotic suggestions via some form of signing. The comparison between deaf and hearing participants was analyzed on five dependent measures: (a) the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C); (b) participants' individual item performance; (c) overall trance depth; (d) a rapport scale; and (e) a resistance scale measuring attitudes of participants toward the hypnotist. Although all participants showed at least a moderate level of hypnotic responsiveness, the data did not indicate a significant main effect between deaf and hearing participants on any of the dependent measures. However, there was a tendency (p < .08) for hearing participants to show a greater hypnotic responsiveness than deaf participants. Additionally, there was a significant difference between all the signing participants combined when compared to the norming population on three items of the SHSS:C. Clinical and theoretical implications of these data are discussed. 1993 Dabic-Jeftic, Mirjana; Barnes, Graham (1993). Event-related potentials (P300) during cognitive processing in hypnotic and non-hypnotic conditions. Psychiatria Danubina, 5 (1-2), 47-61. In this study authors investigated to find out if there were any specific changes of event related potentials in subjects before hypnosis, entering hypnosis, in deep hypnosis and leaving hypnosis, and to compare mental activities of subjects such as capability of correctly calculating and remembering the exact number of unexpected stimuli delivered by stimulator with their verbal or nonverbal reports during any of the conditions investigated. The methodology was of testing the cognitive evoked potentials elicited by auditive stimuli, using the oddball paradigm. Obtained results show that the most constant values of shortest latency and highest amplitudes of the cognitive waves, especially P300 were found during deep hypnosis. All five subjects in the investigation answered with the exact number of delivered target stimuli only after deep hypnosis. Conversely, in all other conditions their answers were approximate to the correct number of delivered target stimuli. (Author abstract.) NOTES 1: In this experiment, 5 adult volunteers were told to attend to one of two tones delivered through headphones. The tones were randomly delivered but one occurred 85% of the time (the 'frequent, non-target tone') and the other occurred 15% of the time (the 'rare, target tone'). The subjects were to notice, remember, and count the target tone. Measures were taken during five periods: pre-hypnosis, entering hypnosis, deep hypnosis, leaving hypnosis, and post-hypnosis. Some subjects had extensive hypnosis experience prior to the experiment; others had little. The EEG P300 wave was sensitive to condition. Latency of P300 was significantly shorter in deep hypnosis compared with other periods. Higher amplitude of P300 also occurred during deep hypnosis compared with other periods. (Notes taken from secondary reference, Ericksonian Newsletter.) Lyskov, E.; Juutilainen, J.; Jousmaki, V.; Hanninen, O.; Medvedev, S.; Partanen, J. (1993). Influence of short-term exposure of magnetic field on the bioelectrical processes of the brain and performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 14, 227-231. The influence of an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field on the bioelectrical processes of brain and performance was studied by EEG spectral analysis, auditory-evoked potentials (AEP), reaction time (Roletaking) and target-deletion test (TDT). Fourteen volunteers were exposed for 15 min to an intermittent (1 s on/off) 45- Hz magnetic field at 1000 A/m (1.26 mT). Each person received one real and one sham exposure. Statistically significant increases in spectral power through alpha- and beta- bands, as well as in mean frequency of the EEG spectrum were observed after magnetic field exposure. Field-dependent changes of N1OO were also revealed. No changes in the amplitudes or latencies of the earlier peaks were observed. No direct effects on Roletaking, nor on TDT performance were seen. However, practice effects on Roletaking (decrease of Roletaking in the course of the test-sessions) seemed to be interrupted by exposure to the magnetic field. 1992 Matthews, William J.; Isenberg, Gail L. (1992). Hypnotic inductions with deaf and hearing subjects - an initial comparison: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40 (1), 7-11. 17 volunteer deaf Ss were compared with 18 volunteer hearing Ss on the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) of Morgan and J. R. Hilgard (1975), and the Indirect Suggestion Scale (ISS) of Matthews and Mosher (1985) in a 2 x 2 ANOVA design. 5 dependent measures: (a) objective scale score; (b) self-report scale score; (c) S rapport with the hypnotist; (d) S resistance to the hypnotist; and (e) overall subjective rating of trance experience were employed to measure any differences between the 2 groups. For SHCS behavioral items, the two-way ANOVA failed to reveal any significant main effect or interaction differences between either group (deaf/hearing) or method of induction (direct/indirect). There was a significant main effect for deaf/hearing groups in level of resistance to the hypnotist. Deaf Ss reported feeling more resistant to the hypnotist than did hearing Ss. This may be due to the mode of communication or the fact that the hypnotist was hearing. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed. Spanos, Nicholas P.; Burgess, C. A.; Cross, P. A.; MacLeod, G. (1992). Hypnosis, reporting bias, and suggested negative hallucinations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 192-199. Examined the role of reporting bias in hypnotic negative hallucinations by using a paradigm in which reporting bias was assessed independently of perceptual change. In Experiment 1, highly hypnotizable subjects reported significant loudness reductions when tested for hypnotic deafness. Later, however, these subjects biased their reported loudness reductions in the absence of perceptual change, and their reporting bias scores were almost as large as their hypnotic deafness reports. Subjects also biased their ratings of strategy use. In Experiment 2, ratings of blindness given in response to a hypnotic negative visual hallucination suggestion were significantly correlated with reporting bias scores obtained in this paradigm. Although hypnotic blindness and hypnotic deafness correlated significantly, the partial correlation between these variables was nonsignificant when reporting bias scores were statistically controlled. Results are used to support a skeptical view of hypnotic response as being based on compliance. 1991 Cochrane, Gordon J. (1991). Client-therapist collaboration in the preparation of hypnosis interventions: Case illustrations. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 33, 254-262. Therapists can use hypnosis in a variety of situations to help clients utilize their own resources effectively. In both heterohypnosis and tape-assisted self-hypnosis, the respectful collaboration of therapist and client in the development of specific intervention strategies can be effective. I have described four cases to illustrate the collaborative aspect of heterohypnosis in a surgical setting and tape-assisted self-hypnosis for anxiety, tinnitus, and situational depression. In each case the clients were willing and able participants. NOTES 1: "Hypnotic interventions as adjunctive therapeutic modalities for a variety of surgical procedures have been well documented (Frankel, 1987; Gravitz, 1988; Nathan, Morris, Goebel, & Blass, 1987). The availability, relative safety, dependability, and ease of use have made chemical agents the anesthetic of choice in the majority of surgical situations, but hypnosis, either alone or in conjunction with chemical agents, can have a number of advantages for some patients (Udolf, 1987, p. 248). Some patients who have extreme preoperative pain and anxiety can learn to use self-hypnosis (Frankel, 1987); others may use hypnosis when experiencing postoperative nausea and other uncomfortable side effects of chemical anesthetics. Some may fear death under general anesthesia or react to a previous trauma arising from general anesthesia and the operating room procedures in general (Udolf, 1987, p. 250) and therefore choose hypnotic strategies. In the following case illustration the patient feared general anesthesia because of a previous negative postoperative experience" (p. 255). While collaboratively planned hypnosis often empowers the patient, contributing to a sense of personal control and well being, some patients are not able to participate in that manner. Cochrane cites patients who are severely depressed or "who struggle with narcissism and other severe pathologies" (p. 260). He notes that audiotapes are useful for supplementing in-session therapy, contributing to skill development, attitude change, and a sense of self-worth. He cites Eisen and Fromm (1983) as indicating that self hypnosis is also useful for clients "who struggle with issues of control and intimacy" (p. 260). 1990 Wood, W. E.; Gibson, W.; Longo, D. (1990). Moderation of morbidity following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy: A study of awareness under anesthesia. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 20, 93-105. In a double-blind study, 67 children, ages 3-10, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: tape recorded therapeutic suggestions repetitively recited in English or in French, and a control of continuous white noise. The English condition was associated with more favorable outcome on all parameters, although statistical significance could not be demonstrated. Favorable outcomes appeared most significant for those patients at highest risk for poor convalescence (i.e., poor status preoperative patients). 1989 Hall, H.; Minnes, L. (1989). Psychological modulation of auditory responses. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 36 (1-4), 59-63. Psychological modulation of auditory response, the effects of imagery and suggestion on auditory thresholds were examined in naive subjects. After a hypnosis-like induction, the subjects, who were not aware of the purpose of the study, were asked to generate and maintain a specific set of images before, during, and after which their auditory thresholds were tested. Following the imagery, which represented cooling and vasoconstriction in the cochlea, audiograms revealed a temporary auditory threshold shift (TTS) in the experimental group only. This TTS pattern was similar to that produced by exposure to loud noise. Information carried in the image is suggested as the basis for the observed auditory changes. Although a hypnosis-like induction was employed, the subjects' level of hypnotizability did not appear to be related to the findings. 1988 Aravindakshan, K. K.; Jenner, F. A.; Souster, L. P. (1988). A study of the effects of hypnotic regression on the auditory evoked response. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 89-95. Hypnotic regression in 6 hypnotizable Ss experienced in regression was studied by means of the auditory evoked response (AER). AER latency and amplitude is affected by arousal, attention, stimulus strength, and age. Ss aged between 27 and 61 years were regressed to the age of 7-9 years, and AERs were compared among three states of consciousness: normal awareness, hypnotic relaxation, and hypnotic regression. There was no change in AER morphology in the direction of that seen in children. Thus, age regression is not seen as a reversion to an earlier stage of neurological development but perhaps as role playing which is spontaneous and uninhibited, with the benefit of innocent belief in its accuracy. NOTES 1: Raikov (1982) regressed 2 experienced Ss, comparing his results with those of actors acting as children and low hypnotizable subjects; he claimed to be able to reproduce neonatal reflexes in the highly hypnotizable Ss but not in the actors and low hypnotizable subjects. AER's were used "because latency of the major waves and amplitude of the response is affected by level of arousal and attention..., strength of the stimulus, and, more importantly for this study, by age.... Surwillo (1981) noted that peak latencies of AERs were 16-21 msec longer in children aged 9-13 than in adults..." (p. 90) DISCUSSION reviews the literature. "Changes in the intensity of light stimulation can cause significant shifts in the amplitude and latency of the visual evoked response, but neither the amplitude nor the latency have been changed by suggested alterations in stimulus intensity during hypnosis (Andreassi, Balinsky, Gallichio, de Simone, & Mellers, 1976; Beck & Barolin, 1965; Beck, Dustman, & Beier, 1966; Zakrzewski & Szelenberger, 1981). Similarly, significant changes were seldom found in the AER with suggested variations of sound intensity during hypnosis (Amadeo & Yanovski, 1975) and in somatosensory responses to electrical stimuli applied to the fingers with suggested anesthesia during hypnosis (Halliday & Mason, 1964). Deehan and Robertson (1980) were able to abolish the AER completely during hypnosis, but their stimuli were very different from that used in the present study. "In all such studies, hypnosis and suggestions were aimed at changing the intensity of the stimulus to S's awareness, while the actual intensity of the stimulus was unaltered. In the present study, the authors attempted to find whether the morphology of the AER in children could be reproduced by age regression, without altering the nature or intensity of the stimulus in its delivery.... Like previous investigators, the present authors noticed that the tracings were cleaner and easier to produce during hypnosis (see Figure 1), although the changes in neurological development observed by Raikov (1982) were not evident" (pp. 93-94). 1987 Nash, Michael R.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Stanley, Scott; Carlson, Victor (1987). Subjectively complete hypnotic deafness and auditory priming. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35 (1), 32-40 The present study examined the cognitive and attentional mechanisms by which auditory information is maintained out of awareness during complete hypnotic deafness. Adopting a methodology from recent work on subliminally presented pattern- masked words and dichotic listening, the study tested whether spoken words presented during complete hypnotic deafness affect lexical decisions concerning subsequently presented word choices. The response of 9 hypnotized and 15 simulating Ss to spoken stimulus words presented following hypnotic deafness instructions was compared to the response of 20 baseline control Ss who never were exposed to the stimulus words. While the response pattern of hypnosis Ss appeared different from that of baseline control Ss, hypnotic Ss showed no evidence of the priming effect found in subliminal perception and dichotic listening studies. Simulator response deviated significantly from hypnotized and baseline control responses. NOTES 1: 10 highs capable of hypnotic deafness, screened by Harvard Group and Stanford Profile Scales (Means 11.0 and 24.7, respectively) and 15 lows (means 1.7 and 1.7, respectively) participated in the study; the low hypnotizables being in the simulation group. For the experimental session, a different E administered a standard hypnotic induction and the deafness suggestion, testing for deafness by snapping fingers near S's ear and making loud requests for motor responses. An experimental trial consisted of tapping an S on the hand, saying the stimulus word out loud, and visually presenting four words for the S to read out loud and circle one. "Of the 18 main experimental trials, the four-word array consisted of two words which were related to the stimulus (one word which was semantically related to the spoken stimulus word and one word which was phonetically related), and two neutral unrelated words" (p. 34). For example, if the spoken word were 'dream,' the word array might include 'cream, tennis, sell, sleep.' There also were "3 phonetically unrelated trials (whose arrays consisted of one phonetically related choice and 3 unrelated choices) and 2 stimulus word-unrelated trials (whose arrays consisted of the stimulus word and 3 unrelated choices) ... [and] 7 dummy trials with 4 unrelated choices only" (p. 34). Ss rated their degree of deafness on a 10-point scale after hypnosis was terminated. Possible sources of bias were examined by having 20 control Ss respond to blank tachistoscopic slides with the instructions that they were participating in a study of 'subliminal perception.' Another 22 Ss were asked to identify the semantically and phonetically related words from the word array, which for the most part they did successfully. All Ss rated themselves as '10' on the deafness scale, indicating total deafness. The principal results are seen in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 Mean Number of Related and Unrelated Responses (Percentage of Responses) for all S Groups on the 18 Mean Experimental Trials Response Category S Group N Related Unrelated Total Hypnotized 9 7.22 10.78 18 (40.13%) (59.88$) (100%) Simulating 15 12.13 5.87 18 (67.43%) (32.61%) (100%) Baseline 19 8.79 9.21 18 Controls (48.82%) (51.17%) (100%) Table 2 Mean Number of Phonetic and Semantic Responses within the Related Response Category on the 18 Main Experimental Trials Related Responses S Group Phonetic Semantic Hypnotized 1.78 5.44 (9.89%) (30.24%) Simulating 7.07 5.07 (39.27%) (28.16%) Baseline 4.21 4.58 Controls (23.38%) (25.44%) Hypnotized Ss were significantly different from simulators (Table 1) in number of related responses. Simulators gave significantly more related responses than baseline controls. Simulators also gave more phonetically related words than either the hypnotized or baseline Ss (Table 2); there was no difference between groups on semantically related words. (Authors performed other useful and detailed analyses.) In their Discussion section, the authors note that they did not obtain the expected results of hypnotized Ss producing more related responses than baseline Ss. "In fact, internal analyses of hypnotized and baseline responses revealed that the pattern of choices for hypnotic deaf Ss was opposite to the direction predicted by subception. Hypnotic Ss appeared to avoid phonetically related word choices, even for items on which baseline control Ss scored above chance. ... "This kind of non-baseline performance by hypnotic Ss can be accounted for by either a strategic enactment conceptualization of hypnosis (Spanos, 1982; Wagstaff, 1981) or Hilgard's (1979) neo-dissociation theory. Spanos might emphasize the hypnotic S's active strivings to meet the hypnotist's perceived expectations. ... Neo-dissociation theory might stress the mechanisms by which processing of auditory inputs are maintained outside of awareness via a dissociative barrier. " ... Given the tendency for simulating Ss to 'overplay' hypnotic phenomena (Levitt & Chapman, 1979), one might have expected simulators to pointedly avoid related responses, thus producing a lower frequency of related words than either the hypnotic Ss or the baseline controls (in effect being more deaf than the deaf). Just the opposite occurred. One possible explanation for this behavior presents itself: In their work with posthypnotic suggestion and the 'disappearing hypnotist' ... M. T. Orne and others found that simulating Ss may be more alert and responsive to demand cues than are hypnotic Ss. In the present study, the authors' original hypothesis was that hypnotic Ss might reveal a subception effect by above-chance responding on related word choices. If we assume that this expectation was somehow communicated to Ss by some subtle aspect of the experimental procedure, then it is conceivable that simulating Ss were able to detect and act upon these cues, while hypnotized Ss remained relatively unattuned to such subtleties. "In sum, the priming effect noted in the subliminal perception research does not appear to be a feature of complete hypnotic deafness, at least as measured in this study. The behavior of simulating Ss in the present study should be another caution to researchers that differences between hypnotized and simulating Ss may reflect simulation effects in addition to, or instead of, hypnotic effects" (pp. 37-38). Spellacy, F.; Wilkinson, R. (1987). Dichotic listening and hypnotizability: Variability in ear preference. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 1279-1284. 28 right-handed, English-speaking Ss were administered the SHSS:C and a whole-word dichotic listening test, which was given in both waking and hypnotized states. Lows showed the usual right-ear advantage in both waking and hypnotized states. Highs showed a different pattern of ear advantage: half of them showed left-ear advantage in the waking state, but all showed right-ear advantage in the hypnotized state. Results are interpreted to show that for subjects of high hypnotizability the narrowed attention characteristic of hypnosis produces the expected lateralizing effect. Ss of low hypnotizability showed a consistent right-ear preference in both the hypnotized and nonhypnotized conditions. The results suggest that much of the atypical ear preference shown in dichotic listening experiments may be associated with the variability in cognitive states found in persons of high hypnotic susceptibility. 1985 Marks, N. J.; Onisiphorou, C. (1985). A controlled trial of hypnotherapy in tinnitus. Journal of Otolaryngology, 10, 43-46. NOTES 1: 14 patients with unilateral tinnitus were selected because of the constant nature of their tinnitus, and its resistance to all other forms of therapy. They were subjected to hypnosis in 3 forms in random order. The induction of a trance state alone formed the control arm of the trial. Compared to this were the effects of 'ego boosting' and active suppression of tinnitus whilst in a trance state. One of the 14 patients showed a highly significant response to the latter treatment as judged by visual analogue scales. Five of the 14 patients (35%) found the induction of a hypnotic state of value. This seemed to help them tolerate their tinnitus better, although its loudness and quality were unaltered. 1984 Hogan, Marjorie; MacDonald, John; Olness, Karen (1984). Voluntary control of auditory evoked responses by children with and without hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27 (2), 91-94. Reports ability of children to voluntarily change brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER). Fifteen children were studied. Both control and hypnosis groups showed changes in interwave latencies after verbal suggestions when compared to a normal control group. These findings suggest that children may be able to modify peripheral auditory input into the brainstem through simple suggestion alone. Children in the formal hypnosis group did have more specific control for the task suggested. However, it is possible that children in the control group moved into an altered state of consciousness after listening to a taped story, reading a book, or spontaneously. They may have attained the observed changes in BAER while in a hypnosis-like state. This study encourages additional research in self-regulatory skills of autonomic processes in children. 1983 Borgeat, Francois; Goulet, Jean (1983). Psychophysiological changes following auditory subliminal suggestions for activation and deactivation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, 759-766. This study was to measure eventual psychophysiological changes resulting from auditory subliminal activation or deactivation suggestions. 18 subjects were alternately exposed to a control situation and to 25-dB activating and deactivating suggestions masked by a 40-dB white noise. Physiological measures (EMG, heart rate, skin-conductance levels and responses, and skin temperature) were recorded while subjects listened passively to the suggestions, during a stressing task that followed and after that task. Multi-variate analysis of variance showed a significant effect of the activation subliminal suggestions during and following the stressing task. This result is discussed as indicating effects of consciously unrecognized perceptions on psycho- physiological responses. Brattberg, G. (1983). An alternative method of treating tinnitus: Relaxation-hypnotherapy primarily through the home use of a recorded audio cassette. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (2), 90-97. 32 patients, varously diagnosed as suffering from tinnitus, were treated with hypnosis. Treatment consisted of a 1-hour consultation with the physician followed by 4 weeks of daily home practice while listening to an audio-tape recording of approximately 15 minutes duration. 22 of the patients treated learned in 1 month to disregard the disturbing noise, a considerable gain in the ratio of theapy to time requied. NOTES 1: The audio tape was of a 15-minute hypnotherapy session done on the first office visit, so that the home practice was more or less the same as the first visit in office. "The hypnotherapy was aimed at inducing the patient into as relaxed a state as possible, and thereafter implanting the suggestio that the patient would no longer be troubled by the noise" (p. 93). Smyth, Larry D.; Lowy, Doug (1983). Auditory vigilance during hypnosis: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (2), 67-71. Attention during hypnosis was measured by means of auditory vigilance tasks which Ss performed while being administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Hypnotic responsivity was significantly and negatively correlated with Ss' performance of the tasks, indicating that relatively responsive Ss detected fewer extraneous environmental stimuli in the form of vigilance task signals than did the less responsive Ss. Discussion ensued as to how this apparent reduction in attention to environmental stimuli came about.