Reviews literature on hypnosis treatment for PTSD and presents a rationale, based on the type of symptoms presented (blunting vs intrusions). Case presentations are provided.
“Several types of physiological processes may underlie dissociation. State- dependent learning, in which that learned during drug-induced alterations in consciousness may only be recalled during later similar alterations, is believed to be dependent upon hippocampal mechanisms (Gerrien & Chechile, 1977).The relationship of state-dependent learning to hypnosis has remained at the level of theory (Hilgard, 1977; Rossi, 1986). A second possible explanatory construct suggests everyday experience is primarily (but not exclusively) mediated by verbal, dominant hemisphere functioning. The images and sets mediating hypnosis, PTSD, and other forms of dissociation may be mediated by analogic processing and the nondominant hemisphere (Carter, Elkins, & Kraft, 1982; Galin, 1974; Hilgard, 1977; Watzlawick, 1978)” (p.83).
Loewenstein, R. J.; Putnam, F. W. (1988). A comparison study of dissociative symptoms in patients with complex partial seizures, MPD, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Dissociation, 1, 17-23.

Depersonalization and dissociative symptoms have been widely reported in chronic seizure disorder patients, especially those with temporal lobe involvement and complex partial seizures (CPS). It has been theorized that development of multiple personality disorder may be related to temporal lobe pathology. We administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) to 12 male patients with severe chronic epilepsy, primarily of the complex partial type. Patients had epilepsy from 1 to 30 years. Most were being evaluated for intractable seizures occurring several times per week. DES data on the epileptic patients were compared with DES data on 9 male MPD patients and 39 PTSD patients. MPD and PTSD patients were significantly different from CPS patients in median DES scores and all DES subscale scores. MPD and PTSD patients were far more similar on the DES, although MPD patients had a significantly higher score on the dissociation/psychogenic amnesia subscale of the DES. The authors conclude that there is little data to support a relationship between MPD, dissociation, and epilepsy.
Lorig, Tyler S.; Schwartz, Gary E. (1988-89). EEG activity during relaxation and focal imagery. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 8, 201-208.

EEG activity was recorded in nine volunteer subjects while they engaged in eight cognitive tasks. The tasks involved mental arithmetic, relaxation imagery, food imagery and imagery related to “neutral” stimuli (bicycle and automobile). Period analysis of the EEG indicated significant differences in EEG factor activity related to tension and anxiety for the subtraction, relaxation and food imagery trials. Imagery of heaviness and the subject’s favorite dessert produced EEG factor activity most characteristic of relaxation. Results of this study are discussed in terms of the relation of odor to food imagery and the ecological validity of the use of food imagery in relaxation training.

Lorig, in a comparison of spectral and period analysis techniques, found that period analysis had greater sensitivity to task-related EEG effects. More recently, Lorig and Schwartz applied factor analysis to EEG period data and found that the factors identified tended to show greater homogeneity and correspondence to self-report than the traditional EEG bands of alpha, theta and beta. Period analysis reduces data to a histogram of the number of waves of various frequencies which occur during each 10 second data collection epoch for each task.
As is evident from Finding 1, the 8 tasks tend to stratify into two groups which either increase or decrease in Factor 1/theta activity over time. Those tasks which decrease over time seem to be performance or practice-related and include Serial subtraction of threes, of sevens, relaxation imagery of heaviness (HVY) and instructions to concentrate on the word “one” as they inhaled and exhaled (BCON). These tasks may change little in their cognitive demands on the subjects over time. The other tasks (imagery of their first bicycle, imagery of their earliest ride in a car, imagery of their favorite main course, imagery of their favorite dessert) may be more evocative to the Ss since they were asked to recall events from their personal experience. The recall of some of these experiences may kindle the subsequent recall of other events and account for the increases in theta and Factor 1. It is also possible that theta and Factor 1 are attention- related. Thus, as the S participates in a task which changes little over time, attention is diminished. If, however, the task continues to evoke other personally relevant events, attention will be maintained and may even increase over time. If this later hypothesis is correct, the Favorite Dessert task may be of use clinically since it produces EEG patterns associated with less tension and anxiety and also less boredom. This task also produced self-reports of greater happiness (p = .0001) and was not different from relaxation imagery of heaviness and instructions to concentrate on the word ‘one’ as they inhaled and exhaled in self reports of relaxation, tension or calm.
The results of this study indicate that imagery of food, especially one’s favorite dessert, has relaxation effects apparent in EEG and self-report. These effects may indicate that food-related odorants exert their relaxation effects by producing imagery of food. Such effects should not be surprising given the early history of systematic desensitization training in which food was often used as a competing stimulus for anxiety-provoking stimuli.

De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Marucci, Francesco; Penna, Pietronilla M.; Pessa, Eliano (1987). Hemispheric activity of 40 Hz EEG during recall of emotional events: Differences between low and high hypnotizables. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 5, 167-180.

This study evaluates individual differences in hypnotizability as reflected in waking-state hemispheric engagement during recollection of 3 positively and 3 negatively valenced personal life events. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Maudsley Personality Inventory, Tellegen Absorption Scale and Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (Form A) were administered. Electromyogram (EMG) and bilateral electroencephalogram (EEG) activities within the 40-Hz band were recorded during rest and task conditions in 22 high and 21 low hypnotizable women. Self-report rating scores for vividness of visual imagery and emotional feeling of the material recalled were evaluated. The 40-Hz EMG amplitude and both hemisphere 40-Hz EEG densities were obtained. A 40-Hz EEG ratio, as a measure of hemispheric asymmetry, and a hemispheric specificity index were also computed. High hypnotizables showed significantly lower 40-Hz EEG density than low hypnotizables in all experimental conditions. The relationship between lateralization of 40-Hz EEG and emotional processing was moderated by hypnotizability. High hypnotizables, with respect to rest condition, showed an increase of density over both left and right hemispheres during two of the three positive emotional tasks, while they showed a depressed activity over the left and an increased activity over the right during negative emotional tasks. Low hypnotizables, on the other hand, did not exhibit differential hemispheric patterns that could be attributed to different emotional valences. The high group showed greater hemispheric specificity in the predicted direction than the low group. High subjects exhibited greater ratings of absorptive ability and emotional feeling than low subjects. Anxiety and EMG levels did not differ between groups. EMG was dependent on the type of emotion which showed greater activity in the negative emotion condition compared with the positive one.
De Sano, Christine F.; Persinger, M. A. (1987). Geophysical variables and behavior: XXXIX. Alterations in imaginings and suggestibility during brief magnetic field exposures. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 968-970.

12 male and 12 female volunteers were evaluated for their suggestibility before and after an approximately 15-min. exposure to either sham, 1-Hz or 4-Hz magnetic fields that were applied across their mid-superior temporal lobes. During the field application subjects were instructed to view a green light that was pulsating at the same frequency as the field and to imagine countering an alien situation. Results were commensurate with the hypothesis that weak brain-frequency fields may influence certain aspects of imaginings and alter suggestibility.

“Subjects who had been exposed to the 4-Hz fields showed a significant decrease … in heart rate compared to those who had been exposed to either the 1 Hz or sham-field conditions. A significant … interaction of sex by field … was noted for the change in HIP [Hypnotic Induction Profile] scales. Whereas both men and women in the sham-field condition tended to show less induction (~ 1 unit) on the second occasion … women showed much greater (8.4 + 1.1) induction (= 3 units) if they had been exposed to the 1-Hz field while men showed much greater (8.0 + 1.5) induction (= 3 units) if they had been exposed to the 4-Hz fields. On the protocols, women reported significantly more fear responses than men. In addition, subjects who were exposed during the imaginings to the 4-Hz field showed more imaginings … and more references to vestibular experiences (e.g., self or entity rising or floating) … than those exposed to the other conditions” (p. 969).
“Dissociation scores on the HIP were correlated significantly … with vestibular (0.44), imagery (0.43), and fear (-0.45) scores from the transcripts. Floating responses on the HIP were correlated with the amount of imagery. (0.46). There was a significant positive Pearson correlation between the compliance measure and the amount of arm levitation during the second induction only. These results suggest that hypnotic susceptibility may be increased following magnetic-field exposure but that the effective frequency is not the same for each sex. In addition, the amount of the imagery (particular vestibular experiences) increased if the person observed a light that was flashing at the same frequency as a 4-Hz applied magnetic field” (p. 969).

De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Palumbo, Giovanni (1986). EEG alpha asymmetry: Task difficulty and hypnotizability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62, 139-150.

Parieto-occipital EEG alpha was recorded bilaterally, while 20 high- and 20 low-hypnotizable women performed one left-hemisphere and one right-hemisphere task of low difficulty and two other comparable tasks of high difficulty. Every task was performed twice, once with eyes open and once with eyes closed. All subjects were right-handed. The tasks were originally selected to be of high and low difficulty. The subjective rating of task-difficulty was also evaluated. The integrated amplitude alpha and the alpha ratio (R- L/R + L) were the dependent variables. The highly hypnotizable women showed significantly higher alpha amplitude in eyes-closed condition than the low scorers; this difference disappeared during task performance and in the eyes-open condition. The left- tasks showed lower alpha amplitude in both hemispheres than right-tasks and baseline. The right-hemisphere alpha amplitude was lower than left in all experimental conditions. On tasks of high and low difficulty there was different hemispheric behavior on right and left tasks. Performance reflecting the right and left hemispheres in the low-difficulty condition showed no changes between baseline, right- and left-tasks, while under high difficulty there was a decrease in alpha amplitude in the right and even more marked decrease in the left hemisphere during left-tasks. The pattern of task effects for ratio scores was the same as for alpha amplitude, however, despite the analysis of alpha scores, an interaction of hypnotizability x task-difficulty was detected. The highly hypnotizable women showed less negative alpha ratio during a task of low difficulty than during tasks of high difficulty; the reverse was true for the low-hypnotizable women. Finally, the highly hypnotizable subjects showed less subjective difficulty during performance than the low scorers.

DeBenedittis, Giuseppe; Sironi, Vittorio A. (1986). Depth cerebral electrical activity in man during hypnosis: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 63-70.

To the authors’ knowledge, hypnosis has never been induced in epileptic patients during a depth EEG study. This neurosurgical diagnostic procedure has been routinely used in medically resistant epileptic patients for the preoperative exact delimitation of the epileptogenic lesion. It offers a unique opportunity to obtain fundamental information on the possible neurophysiological mechanisms implicated in hypnosis. Observations were carried out on 1 patient affected by medically resistant partial seizures with complex symptomatology. A chronic deep electrode study explored rhinencephalic structures as well as specific target areas of the cerebral cortex. Background electrical activity during hypnosis showed a significant decrease of slow waves and an increase of alpha and beta rhythms, with constant increase of amplitude, when compared to activity in the pre- and posthypnosis states. Focal interictal abnormalities were dramatically reduced during hypnosis.

Hypnotizability was assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale in order to test for suggestibility without a prior induction of hypnosis. The patient’s score was 7 out of 8 possible. Patient was hypnotized with a standard induction procedure (Barber & Calverley, 1963).
Experimental Protocol: 15 minutes resting baseline; 15 minute test of mental imagery (waking suggestions with imagination instructions); hypnosis with progressive relaxation; suggestions for dissociation; suggestions for amnesia; arousal from hypnosis (the patient was successful with positive hallucinations, catalepsy, total amnesia, and spontaneous analgesia); and posthypnosis awake and alert (5 minutes eyes open, 5 minutes eyes closed, then 15-minute recording of post-treatment waking baseline).
EEG background activity was scored for the number of sec/minute of delta (0-4), theta (4-7), alpha (8-12), and beta (13-30) rhythms, for each 5-min period. Score = percent as related to the 1-minute epoch. Number, amplitude, and diffusion of interictal spikes also were measured but ictal activity was not recorded during the periods considered. Experimenters also measured heart rate, respiratory rate, and mean blood pressure.
ANOVA for 4 conditions (resting, waking suggestion, hypnosis, and posthypnosis) was computed for background and for focal interictal activities, and the t-test used to evaluate significant differences. ANOVA indicated a significant effect across the four experimental conditions for theta and alpha in the temporal anterior cortex, temporal posterior cortex, and frontal convexity cortex. The effect was attributable only to changes in theta and alpha between baseline and hypnosis (theta decreasing, alpha increasing as the patient went into hypnosis). No other significant difference was found. Following arousal from hypnosis, EEG activity was similar to the EEG activity before the induction.
Interictal focal abnormalities were reduced during hypnosis, compared with before hypnosis. The effect was due to changes in the area of Ammon’s horn, the amygdala, the posterior temporal cortex, the mesial temporal cortex, and the inferior temporal cortex.
In their Discussion, the authors note that their data supports earlier work indicating that the limbic system is implicated in hypnosis. The cite the publications of Arnold (1959, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis) and Crasilneck, McCranie, and Jenkins (1956). The latter authors observed EEG records taken during brain surgery on one patient. Hypnosis terminated every time the hippocampus was stimulated, leading them to suggest that the hippocampus is part of the neural circuit involved in hypnosis.
“If it is assumed that a convulsion can be considered a result of both pathophysiological and emotional events operating in the individual, emotions being the most common precipitating factor in epilepsy, then any amelioration of one will raise the convulsive threshold or lower the seizure level (Goldie, 1979; MacCabe & Habovick, 1963). Although ‘voluntary control of the alpha rhythm’ was achieved over 40 years ago (jasper & Shagass, 1941), only since 1969 has such control been used for clinical purposes (Kamiya, 1969). One striking characteristic of the EEG pattern of many epileptics is the absence of a 12 to 14 c/s rhythm normally recorded from the anterior portions of the brain (sensorimotor rhythm) and the presence of a 4 to 7 c/s rhythm at the same location (Olton & Noonberg, 1980). Biofeedback may enable the individual to increase the amount of sensorimotor rhythm and to decrease the amount of 4 to 7 c/s activity. As a consequence, clinically significant decreases in seizure activity have been found after biofeedback training (Sterman, 1973, 1977).
“The present data demonstrate that in this female patient hypnosis induced a highly significant reduction of the interictal activity, concomitant with an increase of alpha and sensorimotor rhythm and a decrease of slow activity, similar to biofeedback but without prior training.
” In conclusion, a depth EEG study in one epileptic patient comparing EEG activity during hypnosis and pre- and posthypnosis suggests the following conclusions: (a) hypnosis may be associated with significant decrease of slow activity and an increase of alpha and relatively high frequency, beta activity; (b) electrophysiological correlates of hypnotic behavior support the possible role of the limbic system in mediating the trance experience; and (c) hypnosis is effective in reducing focal interictal abnormalities in this patient and so it can be considered a promising technique to prevent and/or reduce emotional precipitating factors and the tendency to develop seizure activity” (p. 69).
The article referenced regarding biofeedback training to reduce ictal activity is: Sterman, M. B. (1973). Neurophysiologic and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: some effects on epilepsy. In L. Birk (Ed.), _Biofeedback: Behavioral medicine._ New York: Grune & Stratton, Pp. 147-165.
Sterman, M. B. (1977). Effects of sensorimotor EEG feedback training on sleep and clinical manifestations of epilepsy. In J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.), _Biofeedback: Behavioral medicine._ New York: Plenum, 1977, Pp. 167-200.

Friedman, Howard; Taub, Harvey A.; Sturr, Joseph F.; Church, Katherine L.; Monty, Richard A. (1986). Hypnotizability and speed of visual information processing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 234-241.

Following the determination of the luminance threshold of each S, high and low hypnotizable Ss were tested for speed of information processing using a backward masking paradigm with a bias-free and ceiling-free psychophysical task. No significant relationship between hypnotizability as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A (SHSS:A) of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1959) and speed of information processing was observed. The order of administering SHSS:A, pre- or postthreshold task, was significantly related to luminance threshold. Results were compared to other studies wherein some evidence for a relationship between hypnotizability and speed of visual information processing had been offered.

106 college students were tested using tachistoscopic presentation of stimuli. 52 Ss received the SHSS:A immediately prior to the experimental tasks, 54 immediately after, and testing was terminated for each Subject after they failed 3 successive items. The test flash was set at 0.3 log units above threshold, i.e. double the threshold intensity. A trial consisted of 2 observation intervals, separated by warning tones. The test flash occurred randomly in one of the two intervals. The S indicated which observation interval contained the test flash by pressing a button. Feedback tones gave S information about the correct response.
“The masking experiment was begun with the suprathreshold test flash occurring 250 milliseconds prior to the onset of the larger bright masking stimulus. As before, a two-interval forced -choice staircase procedure was used, but this time the test intensity was constant, and ISI was changed. If S ‘hit’ three trials in a row, ISI was decreased by 10 milliseconds. The ISIs continued to decrease in 10-millisec steps, until S “missed,” causing an increase in ISI” (p. 348).
RESULTS were analyzed by 2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA (Hypnotizability, sex, and order of hypnotizability measurement). High hypnotizables = 7-12 on the SHSS:A, and low hypnotizables = 0-6. Ss receiving SHSS:A prior to the tasks had a significantly lower luminance threshold (-1.99 log mL) than did those having it after tasks (-1.93 log mL), p<.05. None of the other analyses were significant. No significant relationships were observed vis a vis the masking task, and the mean masking thresholds were almost identical for the lows and highs. DISCUSSION. "Spanos (1982), in studying the effects of hypnotizability and suggestions in altering auditory sensitivity, reviewed the difficulties inherent in the measurement of perceptual accuracy and emphasized the role of response bias in the confounding of results" (p. 239). Secondly, these tasks reflect more fundamental, central processes and use more neutral stimuli than letter recognition used earlier. "Thus, while the masking effects of both the previous recognition tasks (masking by pattern) and the current detection tasks (masking by nearby contours) are presumably mediated through similar high level central processes, the differences in findings could possibly have been related to additional processing cues required in letter recognition" (p. 239). A footnote mentions, "Other studies have shown that with stimulus configurations similar to that used in the present study, there are significant central masking effects (Battersby & Wagman, 1962; Markoff & Sturr, 1971; Turvey, 1973)" (p. 239). "Quite intriguing is the luminance threshold finding which, although not as robust as one would desire, suggests that a hypnotic induction procedure given prior to a task may significantly affect sensitivity on that task. Speculatively, the relaxation suggestions inherent in SHSS:A may account for the changes in luminance threshold" (p. 239). Kissin, Benjamin (1986). Conscious and unconscious programs in the brain. (1 ). New York: Plenum Press. NOTES: Hypnosis is discussed in terms of inhibition/excitation mechanisms in the central nervous system, with both feedback and feedforward controls and lateralizing controls. The author employs a concept of engrams (neural representations of an idea, represented throughout the neocortex) to discuss sensation and perception as well as conscious and unconscious processes. Sensory information is processed serially with encoding of information mostly on the conscious level (but sometimes, less efficiently, on the unconscious level); and it also is processed in parallel. Parallel processing operates almost entirely at the unconscious level and is basic to perception. Associative phenomena are explained in terms of overlapping engrams, so that two 'related hypercomplex engrams' could be assumed to have at least one simple engram in common. With Premack, he describes three types of engrams: veridical (primary sensory data perceived), abstract (formalized representations of concepts like line drawings of dog or house; Premack's iconic representations), and symbolic (more complex entities that encompass an entire class of objects, actions, or ideas and may have artificial symbols such as words). With Neiser he suggests that thinking (verbal and nonverbal) involves logical sequential processing of cognitive engrams of external (environmental), internal (visceral),and intracerebral (ideational) origin. Evoked response investigations shed light on the nature of such engrams, their distribution in brain tissue. John, Bartlett, Slumokochi, & Kleiman (1973) found that an error in choice discrimination learning (cats learning colors) is accompanied by the cortical evoked potential of the stimulus associated with that (erroneous) behavior, not the evoked potential of the true stimulus. In other words, ERPs represented the idea, not the actual visual stimulus provided to the cat. Emotional/motivational influences are part of every cognition (R. S. Lazarus's position). Interaction of motivational-emotional and cognitive engrams seems to occur primarily in the inferior temporal lobe and the entorhinal cortex. The interaction involves the upper rhinencephalon, the amygdaloid-hippocampal complex, the septal region, the cingulate gyrus, and the inferior and medial aspects of temporal lobe of the cortex. He also explains classical and operant conditioning (on pp. 75-76) in terms of the association of engrams. The author's position is that consciousness is the subjective equivalent of brain activity in the 'alerting' and 'awareness' systems. Awareness of the environment ('general, vague') appears to involve the limbic area (thalamus and basal ganglia), while more specific awareness of the self entails a system stretching from the basal ganglia through the parietal lobe (posterior aspect). Normal alert consciousness involves the noradrenergic reticular activating system, as well as associated excitation of the general awareness system in the involved thalamic- basal gangliar nuclei and the self-awareness system in the posterior inferior parietal lobe system. Altered states of consciousness characterized by a relaxed hazy sense of the world involves thalamic activation of the self-awareness system. Dreaming involves activation from cholinergic cells in the pons. "Impaired general awareness occurs with lesions of the thalamic-basal gangliar centers while impaired self-awareness occurs with lesions in the posterior inferior parietal lobes. Finally, in certain physiological states such as sleep, hypnosis, and so on, the entire awareness system--the thalamic-basal gangliar and posterior inferior parietal nuclei--may be activated by different activation systems, such as the cholinergic in the pons or the dopaminergic in the thalamus, to produce different states of consciousness" (p. 82). Consciousness is described as having seven dimensions: alertness, attention, arousal (heart rate, GSR), activation (EEG, evoked potential), affect, and the two awarenesses. The seven are related, so that changes in any one usually are correlated with changes in others (though dissociation among the seven also can be demonstrated). Motivational-emotional arousal produces electrophysiological activation of the brain, which is translated epiphenomenally into alertness and awareness; awareness is focused through attention onto the cognitively and motivationally significant events in the internal and external environments to determine the final sequence of drive-oriented behavioral responses. The EEG is useful for diagnosing different states of consciousness: beta and gamma waves alertness, stemming from locus coeruleus and reticular activating system delta (2-4/sec) waves coma alpha synchronized relaxing influences stemming from thalamus; low level of awareness as in twilight sleep or hypnagogic states theta, delta inactivity due to less stimulus from locus coeruleus reticular activating system influences; associated with increased inhibitory thalamic and septal-hippocampal impulses radiating upward to the cortex. In some altered states of consciousness there is theta-wave activity, indicating influences from the inhibitory septal-hippocampal circuit. The reticular activating system (RAS) and thalamus interact in complex ways. The RAS is essential to maintain consciousness, but if destroyed stepwise (in animal research) a low-grade type of consciousness can be maintained by thalamus and basal ganglia. The thalamus has two kinds of influence: it inhibits the cortex, as in sleep; and stimulates the cortex in the form of activating alpha waves. "The median thalamus is also related in a feedforward-feedback circuit with the inhibitory septal-hippocampal complex which generates theta-wave activity, thus accounting for the close association between alpha and theta wave activity in sleep and in other altered states of consciousness" (p. 86). Thus there are two different activating systems originating in the lower brain stem: the norepinephrine locus coeruleus system that is associated with normal behavior, and the cholinergic FTG neurone system of REM sleep. The relationship of the latter to consciousness, awareness, self awareness, etc. is unknown, since the only time that it is readily observed is during REM sleep. The author reports that altered states of consciousness (e.g. hypnosis, fugue, alpha state) resemble Stage 1 sleep, rather than REM sleep, physiologically, with the central locus of activation in the medial thalamus rather than the RAS and locus coeruleus. "It appears then that consciousness may be driven by one or another of three different activation centers: the norepinephrine RAS (emanating from the locus coeruleus), the cholinergic FTG cell system in the pons, and the dopaminergic alpha rhythm system radiating upward from the thalamus (Fig. 6-2). Brain activation by each of these centers is associated with a different state of awareness" (p. 91). The relative contribution from each center determines qualitative aspects of awareness. The author refers to Mesulam and Geschwind (1978) who traced the self- awareness system from amygdala/hippocampus/midbrain to the inferior parietal lobe where they converge with the body's proprioceptive neural tracts. What results is "a sense of self that was not necessarily present in the sense of general awareness stemming from the median thalamic-basal gangliar complex" (p. 97). The thalamic-basal gangliar complex is both a center for emotional reception and a relay station for somatosensory events. Both somatic sensory reception and somatosensory elements of emotion are also represented in the parietal lobe. "Affective and somatosensory stimuli, which are constant and persistent even though we are unaware of them most of the time, produce the sense of one's body which is the most basic element in the 'sense of self.'... It is most probable that a major component of the sense of self is produced by the constant barrage of affective and somatosensory stimuli converging from all parts of the body; the majority of these stimuli may not reach consciousness most of the time but they must register a sense of feeling in the thalamus and parietal cortex even though the individual may be unconscious of it" (p. 100). The author presumes that most of the incoming stimuli that define self are unconscious. "Whether sense-of-self stimuli are unconscious because of constant habituation ... or whether they are unconscious because they are transmitted predominantly to the right hemisphere ..., it appears that the major components of the self- concept are unconscious rather than conscious" (p. 102). "Even the acutely self-aware component of the self-concept, by definition conscious, varies markedly in different altered states of consciousness. The conscious awareness of oneself in the alert condition is different from (1) that in the twilight state, (2) that in dreams, (3) that in hypnosis, (4) that under the influence of alcohol, (5) that under the influence of other sedatives, (6) that under the influence of stimulants, and (7) that under the influence of hallucinogens. In that sense the acute sense of self is a function of the momentary chemical and physiological state of the brain" (p. 102). " ... the decision-making apparatus of the brain is lodged largely in a consortium of neocortical centers including the prefrontal lobes (integration), the posterior inferior lobes (motivation and emotion), the anterior and posterior associational areas (cognition), the posterior inferior parietal lobes (self-awareness), the left-hemispheric language centers (language), and the precentral frontal lobe motor area (motor). Within the context of this integrated cortical complex, self-awareness functions are somewhat stronger on the right hemisphere while language and decisional activities are somewhat stronger on the left" (pp. 102-103). The Chapter titled "Attention as directed consciousness" is relevant for investigations of hypnosis but is not included in these notes. 1984 Bakker, Dirk J. (1984). The brain as a dependent variable. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 1-16. The mainstream of neuropsychological research and practice has been devoted to the impact of the brain as an independent variable on behavior as a dependent variable. Evidence is currently available to make clear that the order of causation may be reversed: Behavioral changes can have a durable impact on the brain. The results of extensive research indicate that a large number of neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and neuropsychological parameters of the animal brain can be modified through environmental manipulation, sensory experience, and systematic training. Some evidence is available to show that psychological stimulation has certain effects on the physiology of the human brain. For instance, hemisphere-specific stimulation through the presentation of words flashed in a visual hemifield appears to modify the electrophysiological activity of the contralateral hemisphere in dyslexic children and to affect their subsequent reading performance. Neuropsychology may profit from paying more attention to the ecology of the human brain. NOTES: An 18th Century anatomist in Italy, Malacarne, demonstrated increased cerebellar folds in the brains of trained (vs. untrained) dogs and birds. His approach to neuroanatomy was not continued because psychology has been more concerned with innate traits of the individual, and because of philosophical rationalism (citing Walsh, 1981). Until very recently, scientists have viewed the brain as "structurally insensitive to environmental experience" (p. 3). Now we have evidence that animal brains are modifiable by experience, in gross morphology, fine (synapse) morphology, and neurochemicals. "Rich environments [for rats] ... produce heavier and thicker cerebral cortices and callosal connections (Walsh, 1981), larger cortex/subcortex weight ratios, larger cell bodies and nuclei (Walsh, 1981), and higher metabolic activity as suggested by increased RNA/DNA ratios (Rosenzweig, Bennett, & Diamond, 1972)" (p. 4). Enrichment leads to more extensive dendritic fields (occipital and temporal cortex, some hippocampal regions); this implies that each neuron has more synapses. Researchers have found large Purkinje-cell bodies and many dendrites in richly educated monkeys. "Some evidence is available to show that 'preventive' and 'therapeutic' environments positively affect behavioral performances of brain-lesioned animals. However, knowledge about the brain mechanisms which underly these effects is, as yet, lacking" (p. 6). Rats that were handled during the first 21 days of life exhibited different brain lateralization from rats that were not (Denenberg, cited by Marx, 1983). Those stimulated early stored memories mainly in the right hemisphere. The author also reviews evidence that human brains are psychologically modifiable. Children with astigmatism generate weakened cortical response to visual stimulation (Freeman & Thibos, 1973), because they experience difficulty in processing some visual-spatial patterns. People who have visual-field defects due to brain damage can improve in vision when forced to make eye movements toward lighted targets flashed in the blind areas (Zihl, 1981). Bakker theorizes that hemispheric control of reading shifts from right to left during the learning-to-read process of normal readers; at least some aspects of reading are successively mediated by the right hemisphere at age 6 and by the left hemisphere at age 8, according to electrophysiological data in a longitudinal study (Licht, Bakker, Kok, & Bouma, 1983). He thinks P-type dyslexia results from continuing to rely on right- hemispheric strategies, leading to slow reading with fragmentation errors and repetitions. L-type dyslexia results from prematurely adopting a left-hemispheric strategy, i.e. at the very beginning of the learning process, making child insensitive to the perceptual features of script with consequent substantive errors such as omissions and additions. Thus, P- type dyslexics presumably show functional overdevelopment of the right hemisphere and L-types of the left hemisphere. Treatment would involve specific stimulation of the hemisphere that they are ignoring. He presents data suggesting that "some electrophysiological parameters of the cerebral hemispheres can be modified in dyslexic children through hemisphere-specific stimulation and loading, and that these modifications may induce better reading" (p. 12). Gott, Peggy S.; Hughes, Everett C.; Whipple, Katherine (1984). Voluntary control of two lateralized conscious states: Validation by electrical and behavioral studies. Neuropsychologia, 22 (1), 65-72. A subject is described who can voluntarily select and hold either of two qualitatively different states of consciousness. Evidence is presented which confirmed differential left or right hemisphere dominance in each state. Asymmetries of EEG alpha and task performance scores indicated a state-dependent shift in functional lateralization. Evoked response studies showed directional changes in rate of interhemispheric transmission correlated with state-related hemisphere dominance. These findings demonstrated the capability for voluntary endogenous control of cerebral dominance under natural conditions. NOTES: A personal communication (letter) from Gott indicates the S switches from one state to the other by visualizing her surroundings and imagining what it would look like in the other state. Immediately she finds herself in that other state. Her drawings demonstrate that her perspective must differ in the two states. La Briola, Flora; Karlin, Robert; Goldstein, L. (1984, October). Quantitated EEG changes from prehypnotic to hypnotic periods. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX. NOTES: Hemisphere EEG activation was measured before and during hypnosis, while Ss did tasks described as right-hemisphere (nonverbal) and left hemisphere (verbal). Highs shifted to relatively more task specificity as they went from prehypnosis into hypnosis, with a shift to right hemisphere as they went from prehypnosis to hypnosis periods. This is not due to relaxation, as both highs and lows relax. And the shift occurs not only on verbal-nonverbal tasks but on analgesia studies also. Versions of this paper were presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada, 1984, at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX, 1984, and at the 6th International Symposium on Clinical Neurophysiological Aspects of Psychiatric Colnditions, Izmir, Turkey, 1985. Lewith, G. T.; Kenyon, J. N. (1984). Physiological and psychological explanations for the mechanism of acupuncture as a treatment for chronic pain. Social Science & Medicine, 1367-1378. Many suggestions have been made about the possible mechanism of acupuncture as an analgesic therapy. This review provides a comprehensive account of the neurological, neurohumoral and psychologically-based hypotheses put forward. Although the exact mechanism of this treatment remains unclear, it is apparent that reproducible neurological and chemical changes occur in response to acupuncture, and that these changes almost certainly modify the response to, and perception of, pain. The mechanism of chronic pain is incompletely understood, but within this framework we understand acupuncture as completely as most other types of analgesic treatment. 1983 Baars, B. J. (1983). Conscious contents provide the nervous system with coherent, global information. In Davidson, Richard J.; Schwartz, Gary E.; Shapiro, David (Ed.), Consciousness and self regulation (3, ). New York: Plenum Press. NOTES: We are conscious of some content when there exists an internal representation that is global, stable, and informative. Author views nervous system as a distributed information. processing system, in which highly complex & efficient processing is performed by specialized processors in a relatively independent way. These processors may be 'data driven'--i.e. they may decide by their own criteria what is worth processing..." p. 41 [See also Gazzaniga's (1985 Psychology Today article) idea that mind/brain consists of modules.] p.44 gives references substantiating the above, e.g. Geschwind, Hilgard, La Berge, Shiffrin & Schneider. p. 45 We are in habit of thinking hierarchically about nervous system rather than distributively. p. 45 "Consciousness seems to be closely associated with a mechanism that permits interaction between specialized, dedicated processors" The 'global' data base' is like a TV station sending out information that can be processed or not by the viewer. It is not an executive, and in fact can sometimes be controlled by the processors. 'Consciousness ...[is] a certain operating mode of this medium, & consciousness can likewise be used by processors acting as executives, without itself being an executive "(p.49). The global data base is a lengua franca, so that one sense modality can communicate with others. p. 51. [Synesthesia reported by high hypnotizables implicates this system--either the communicating tracks are greased between color and smell, or the name of the destination, in computer language, is lost, or equivalent.] p. 52 Repression and the dynamic unconscious. explained in terms of controlled access to the global data base, with certain specialized processors given high priority. Context, taken by itself, is unconscious; & input, taken by itself & in the absence of the appropriate context, is also unconscious. Only when both of these conditions exist- -when there is input that can be organized within a current context--are we conscious of some percept. Contextual factors become conscious only when they are challenged. Blum, Gerald S.; Nash, John K. (1982). EEG correlates of posthypnotically controlled degrees of cognitive arousal. Memory and Cognition, 10, 475-478. Experimental control over five degrees of cognitive (as opposed to organismic) arousal has been developed by hypnotic programming techniques. Previously these posthypnotic manipulations have been applied to the investigation of diverse topics such as visual discrimination, performance on the Stroop test, selective concentration on color versus form of consonants, and cognitive "reverberation." The present study explored EEG correlates of the five degrees of cognitive arousal in a task requiring participants to visualize objects for one-minute periods while lying on a couch with eyes closed. Analysis of data from the occipital area in left and right hemispheres revealed that the highest degree of arousal was accompanied by larger amplitudes of alpha and beta power and smaller amplitudes of theta. This pattern of results was similar in both hemispheres, although more marked in the left. The findings, which provide an independent source of support for validity of the hypnotic programming, are discussed in relation to EEG literature on cognitive activity. NOTES: Hypnosis doesn't enhance imagery. It provides the conditions under which mental alertness may be manipulated, and very clear imagery is associated with the alert condition whereas blurry imagery is associated with the lowest cognitive arousal condition. The other impression comes from clinical work, i.e. that hypnosis enhances imagery. This article is an example of hypnosis used in other research--see last page. Larbig, W.; Elbert, T.; Lutzenberger W.; Rockstroh, B.; Schnerr, G.; Birbaumer, N. (1982). EEG and slow brain potentials during anticipation and control of painful stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 53, 298-309. Cerebral responses in anticipation of painful stimulation and while coping with it were investigated in a 'fakir' and 12 male volunteers. Experiment 1 consisted of 3 periods of 40 trials each. During period 1, subjects heard one of two acoustic warning stimuli of 6 sec duration signaling that either an aversive noise or a neutral tone would be presented at S1 offset. During period 2, subjects were asked to use any technique for coping with pain that they had ever found to be successful. During period 3, the neutral S2 was presented simultaneously with a weak electric shock and the aversive noise was presented simultaneously with a strong, painful shock, again under pain coping instructions. EEG activity within the theta band increased in anticipation of aversive events. Theta peak was most prominent in the fakir's EEG. A negative slow potential shift during the S1-S2 interval was generally more pronounced in anticipation of the aversive events than the neutral ones, even though no overt motor response was required. Negativity tended to increase across the three periods, opposite to the usually observed diminution. In Experiment 2, all subjects self-administered 21 strong shock-noise presentations. The fakir again showed more theta power and more pronounced EEG negativity after stimulus delivery compared with control subjects. Contrary to the controls, self-administration of shocks evoked a larger skin conductance response in the fakir than warned external application. NOTES: A published case study by Pelletier (1977) reported EEG theta enhancement during pain control states, which were maintained by EEG feedback of alpha and theta bands. That author concluded that EEG theta was necessary for the control of pain psychologically. The authors of this article measured slow brain potentials (SBPs) and vertical eye movements (VEMs). Principal components analysis of the EEG wave forms found three components: theta (4-5.6 c/sec), alpha band (9-10 c/sec) and high frequencies (above 14.4 c/sec) plus harmonics loading in frequencies of 3.2-4.5 c/sec, 7.5-9, and above 15 c/sec. Alpha "decreased over periods in the parietal record and was virtually absent in the fakir's EEG during period 3" (p. 301). The fakir had a lot of non-sinusoidal, especially square wave, activity. "Very pronounced negativity was recorded preceding the aversive S2, greater than under neutral stimulus conditions .... This difference was most pronounced at the vertex ... The late negativity increased over periods in control subjects ... especially in anticipation of the aversive S2 ... . This contrasts with the usually observed decrease of SBP components over trials. As is shown in Figure 2, the PCA [principal components analysis] yielded two components for the 2.0 sec S2 interval, a positive deflection, which can be assigned to the P300 complex (here not reported), and a negative deflection, labeled post- imperative negative variation. ... This negative component increased over periods, being more pronounced in response to the aversive stimulation ... with increasing differentiation over period ..." (p. 302-303). The fakir undertook an elaborate self hypnosis or trance induction to achieve analgesia that he had previously demonstrated in the laboratory (thrusting 4 unsterilized metal spikes into his abdomen, tongue, and neck without bleeding). This included "long- continued fixation on a point above the eye-brows. Blank facial expression, staring eyes, and a very low rate of eye-blinks indicated a trance-like state (periods without eye-blinks more than 30 min)" (p. 299). During the experiment itself, the fakir showed few ocular movements during the second and third periods. He also demonstrated large skin conductance responses, recorded from the second phalanges of the index and middle fingers of the left hand, to the aversive S1. Experiment 2 was designed to emulate the self-administered aversive stimulation that the fakir routinely undertook, by having the volunteer Ss hold a switch that they pressed twice/minute, giving themselves a mild shock and an aversive noise. (These were the same aversive stimuli as were used in Experiment 1.) There were 21 self-paced button presses. Three additional measures were taken: 1. Bereitschaftspotential (BP) - the mean negative shift during the 0.3 sec interval prior to the motor response of pressing the switch 2. Postimperative component (PINV) - the mean negative shift 0.9 to 1.9 sec after stimulus onset, i.e. elicited by closing the microswitch 3. Skin conductance response (SCR) - maximum change in skin conductance level during five second interval after the motor response of pressing the switch. The fakir, but not the control Ss, showed a pronounced precentral PINV on each single trial of Experiment 2. He also showed pronounced SCRs (indicating autonomic arousal), which was even greater than the SCRs of control Ss. His subjective pain rating was 1 in Experiment 1 (compared with 6.4 for controls) but 8 during Experiment 2 (compared with 5.7 for controls), on a scale of 1 to 10 maximum. Thus the fakir's pain increased from Experiment 1 to 2, while for many volunteer Ss it decreased 2 or 3 points. When interviewed, he said that "intention and motor commands prevented the fakir from getting into 'trance' satisfactorily. Consequently, he reported to have experienced the aversive stimuli as more painful than in experiment 1. Thus it might be that the observed PINV indicates the noncontingency between the demand for coping and the failure to cope or the discrepancy between expected control and presently experienced control" (p. 307). In their Discussion, the authors speculate that control of pain such as can be achieved by the fakir may involve dissociation of higher (possibly thalamic and cortical) and lower (reticular formation) arousal structures. Their observation of slow brain potentials (theta) recorded in anticipation of painful or aversive stimuli is in agreement with earlier published studies. However their observation of increasing negativity in anticipation of aversive stimuli is in contrast to previous research findings, in which diminution of negativity is generally observed. Both the fakir and subjects showed a post-stimulus negative shift in response to the S2; this has been "observed in normal subjects under conditions of change from controllable to uncontrollable aversive stimuli... and/or from obvious response- consequence contingencies to unpredictable control over the S2... PINVs were associated with an unexpected change in contingency or the inability to resolve ambiguity. Since a relationship was found between PINV amplitude and subjective ratings or experienced aversiveness of the painful stimulation, it may be speculated that obvious failure in coping with pain (i.e. more experienced pain) together with the requirement to cope (induced by instructions and experimental setting, giving rise to increased expectancy for control), produced a PINV (and probably feelings of uncontrollability together with a state of reactance and frustration) in the present experiments. In accordance with this point of view, it is of particular interest that only the fakir showed a more pronounced PINV in experiment 2, in which subjects delivered the painful stimuli to themselves. A postexperimental interview revealed that intention and motor commands prevented the fakir from getting into 'trance' satisfactorily" (p. 307). 1981 Chen, Andrew C.; Dworkin, Samual F.; Bloomquist, Dale S. (1981). Cortical power spectrum analysis of hypnotic pain control in surgery. International Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 127-136 Cortical power spectrum (CPS) of brain potentials was recorded from the scalp between prefrontal and parietal regions in both right hemisphere (RH) and left hemisphere (LH). A pattern of laterality shift in CPS occurred at different stages during an extensive oral surgery, performed under hypnosis, in a young female patient. Video and audio recordings as well as psychophysiological recordings were obtained through the following 6 stages: Baseline, Hypnosis, Surgery (1 hr, no cortical recording), Immediate Postsurgery Procedure, Hypnotic Re-experience, Hypnotic Rest, and Posthypnotic Baseline. Indications of anxiety and pain scores were reported in writing by the patient through verbal command by the hypnotist. In each stage, 10 min of CPS (10 spectrum/stage, 8 epochs/spectrum, 6 seconds/epoch) were analyzed by a PDP-11 computer. The results of CPS analysis demonstrated significant large total power reduction at different stages. There was significant correlation between both hemispheres at baseline, but dissociation of hemispheric power output occurred during hypnosis stages. LH was more dominant than RH during baseline and presurgery hypnosis, but both were leveled- off immediately following the surgery procedure. However, RH became more dominant during all postsurgery hypnosis stages. Interestingly, this pattern shifted back to the original relationship during the posthypnotic baseline stage. Specific changes of spectral power in theta and alpha of EEG activities in both hemispheres also occurred in conjunction with hypnosis. NOTES: Subject was a 25 year old woman, described as only medium in hypnotizability. She scored 3 on the 5-point Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale, 7 on the 12-point Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, and 3 on up-gaze, between 2 and 3 on eye roll, on the Spiegel eye roll test. The principal hypnotic approach was a suggestion of dissociation, i.e. that the patient "experience herself swimming freely and powerfully, in a deep cold mountain lake, pre-occupied with the intensity of the blue-black color of the water, the shimmering of light from above, and the possibilities of exploration of rock formations, caves, etc. It was suggested that while she was experiencing the exhilaration and strenuous stimulation of the cold water and the vigorous exercise, an 'observing-self' would remain on the shore, watching and ensuring that no harm would come to the person. The suggestion was reinforced that any stimulation experienced was experienced in the body, not in the person" (p. 129). The patient was trained in inductions and dissociation first in the therapist's office, then with two sessions in the research laboratory (where tooth pulp stimulation pain thresholds were measured), and then two sessions in the hospital dental operatory. The results of the computerized CPS were analyzed by hemispheres. "Large reductions in total power occurred at different stages associated with hypnosis and these reductions in power output of the CPS showed significant left-right differences" (p. 130). "The total energy output of LH [left hemisphere] continued to diminish as hypnosis continued by as much as 80% of baseline value, while RH [right hemisphere] power output tended to be stabilized from the initial hypnosis recording stage until the awake baseline stage" (p. 130). "Those stages involving hypnosis were characterized by dominant RH energy output in the alpha spectrum. "Alpha output for the LH decreased an average of 65% between awake baseline levels and postsurgery hypnosis stages, while RH alpha only decreased approximately 50% of resting levels. This resulted in a relative shift of alpha output which was approximately equal in both hemispheres prior to surgery, to a 2:1 shift in favor of RH alpha output as hypnosis progressed. This differential shift in laterality of alpha was reversed when the subject awakened from hypnosis. "Of interest was the observation that total power reductions and laterality shifts associated with hypnosis were not altered by the profound instrumentation of surgery and postoperative pain, nor were observed laterality shifts affected by hypnotic suggestions aimed at recreating the surgical experience (see Stage 5)" (p. 130). During the experiment when the investigators used hypnotic suggestion to recreate the surgical experience, LH output continued to diminish while RH output did not change, making the LH-RH contrast highly significant. "This suggests that the RH is active during deep stages of hypnosis and can remain so despite hypnotic suggestions which are presumed to be intensely aversive" (p. 131). In their Discussion, the authors reinforced the conclusion that overall cortical functioning is reduced during hypnosis, and that the left cerebral hemisphere shows a greater reduction than the right. They discuss the increased theta density in RH and LH during the postsurgery hypnosis stage in terms of reports that theta is associated with altered states of consciousness (Tebecis et al., 1975; Ulett et al., 1972; Anad, China, & Singh, 1961; Banquet, 1973; Kasamatsu & Hirai, 1966; Wallace, 1970) and with cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic (Dolce et al., 1974). The authors note that their results are congruent with Hilgard's neodissociation theory of hypnosis, and add that since their suggestions were dissociative in nature rather than of local anesthesia, the EEG may reflect the brain physiology of dissociation. Finally, they comment on the implications for pain neurophysiology. "The total power changes and shifting patterns in laterality of cortical functioning observed more closely tracked the hypnosis experience than the pain experience; this is, in fact, a very puzzling issue. It appears on the face of it that the EEG measurements recorded are not reflective of EEG-related pain phenomenology despite the strenuous and invasive surgical procedures used. The observations that overall power output continued to decrease during the several hypnosis stages after strenuous surgery and then increased as the patient came out of hypnosis makes reasonable the possibility that _hypnosis_ has some functional brain correlates; we cannot conclude from the present cortical power spectrum analysis that any brain correlates of surgical _pain_ were revealed. We are well aware that EEG recordings were not available during actual surgery itself, because of artifacts resulting from head movements, etc. Nevertheless, it can be fairly claimed that recordings obtained immediately after such oral surgery of one hour duration, could reasonably be expected to be associated with a person in pain. But, both by verbal report and available objective data, any surgically induced traumatic pain was of brief duration under hypnosis" (p. 135). 1980 Bauer, Herbert; Berner, Peter; Steinringer, Hermann; Stacher, Georg (1980). Effects of hypnotic suggestions of sensory change on event-related cortical slow potential shifts. Archiv fur Psychologie, 133 (3), 161-169. "The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether cortical slow potentials related to a S1-S2 paradigm are influenced by hypnotic suggestions of sensory change. Five healthy subjects susceptible to hypnosis participated each in two identical experiments with three conditions. In condition (1) and (2) each three intensities of 800 and 4000 Hz tones were presented. Preceding condition (2) hypnosis was induced and the subjects received the suggestion to hear the 800 but not the 4000 Hz tones. In condition (3), the tones were presented as S1 and a flash as S2. The subjects received the same suggestions as in (2) and a motor response to S2 was required. EEG was recorded from Cz. In (1) 800 and 4000 Hz tones caused negativities of equal amplitude, in (2) only minute negativities developed, possibly due to hypnosis induced deactivation. In (3) the S1-S2 related negativities were significantly smaller in amplitude during 4000 Hz tones than during 800 Hz tones, while the negativities preceding S2 differed only after the most intense S1. Hypnotic suggestions attenuate S1-S2 related negative potentials, possibly by affecting cognitive functions. 1978 Lehrer, Paul M. (1978). Psychophysiological effects of progressive relaxation in anxiety neurotic patients and of progressive relaxation and alpha feedback in nonpatients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (3), 389-404. Gave 10 anxiety neurotic patients 4 sessions of individual instruction in progressive relaxation; 10 patients served as waiting list controls. 10 nonpatients were assigned to each of the same conditions, and an additional 10 nonpatients were given 4 sessions of alpha feedback. Nonpatients showed more psychophysiological habituation over sessions than patients in response to hearing 5 very loud tones and to a reaction time task. Patients, however, showed greater physiological response to relaxation than did nonpatients. After relaxation, the autonomic responses of the patients resembled those of the nonpatients. The effects of relaxation were more pronounced in measures of physiological reactivity than in measures of physiological activity. Defensive reflexes yielded to orienting reflexes more readily in nonpatients than in patients. There was also a tendency for progressive relaxation to generalize to autonomic functions more than alpha feedback. 1977 Davidson, R. J.; Goleman, D. J. (1977). The role of attention in meditation and hypnosis: A psychobiological perspective on transformations of consciousness. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 291-308. A temporally based scheme for investigation of changes in consciousness, applicable to areas such as meditation and hypnosis, is proposed and is divided into 3 basic epochs: before -- predispositional variables that affect response to consciousness altering techniques; during -- the state effects of the particular technique; and after -- the trait effects of the practice. Research is surveyed which indicates the role of attentional processes during each of these 3 basic epochs in both meditation and hypnosis. Attentional flexibility is a predispositional variable affecting response to both meditation and hypnosis. The state effects of concentrative meditation involve alterations in stimulus set while the state effects of hypnosis may reflect primarily response set. The trait effects elicited by meditation depend critically on the psychobiological systems which are called into play. Evidence is discussed which suggests that concentrative meditation shares with relaxation an autonomic quiescence, but in addition enhances some attentional skills. A mindfulness technique involving the adoption of a particular attentional stance toward all objects of awareness appears to enhance cortical specificity, but a concentration technique does not. Some implications of attentional self-regulation are discussed. Fisher, R. (1977). On flashback and hypnotic recall. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 217-235. This essay deals with both the intra-individual and inter-individual varieties of arousal state-bound experiences. The former are labelled as "flashbacks" while the latter embrace the great fantasms and repetitive schemes, the ever re-written plots and images of literature, art, and religion. Flashbacks are both arousal-state and stage (i.e., set and setting) bound experiences. Flashback and hypnotic recall differ only in the ways by which they are induced. Induction methods should be distinguished from induced states on the hyperaroused perception-hallucination and hypoaroused eprception-meditation continuum. Flashbackers may be characterized by their (a) variability on perceptual-behavioral tasks; (b) tendency to minimize (or reduce) sensory input; (c) high resting heart rates; (d) hypnotizability; and, hence (e) preferential right-cerebral-hemispheric cognition; and (f) a display of EEG-alpha dominance in the resting, waking state. 1976 Cooper, Leslie M.; London, Perry (1976). Children's hypnotic susceptibility, personality, and EEG patterns. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 140-148. 19 boys and 16 girls, aged 7 to 16, were given the EEG and then the Children's Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, while a parent watched. About 1 week later, after some separate tests and interviews, each child was given a puzzle to solve in the parent's presence, while Es recorded offers and requests for help. Hypnotic susceptibility was positively correlated with the alpha duration with eyes open, but not with eyes closed. Both susceptibility and alpha duratino tended to be negatively correlated with age. Highly susceptible children tended to wait longer than low susceptibles before asking parents for help with the puzzle, and their parents tended to be more strict, anxious, and impatient than did the parents of low susceptible children. Lenox, J. R.; Bonny, H. (1976). The hypnotizability of chronic alcoholics. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 419-425. Research on the hypnotizability of alcoholics is rare, contradictory, and fails to consider the age of alcoholic samples, who are much older than college norm groups. 36 male chronic alcoholics were given the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Forms A and B of Shor and E. Orne (1962, 1963a), administered individually and then averaged. Alcoholics scored lower, but not significantly so, than controls matched for age and sex. An expected negative correlation of age with hypnotizability was not found. The implications of these results for past studies are discussed. London, Perry (1976). Kidding around with hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24 (2), 105-121. This paper reviews a long term research project relating hypnotic susceptibility to performance and personality variables. Several experiments indicated that people who are low in hypnotic susceptibility try harder than high susceptibles for maximum performances on strength, endurance, psychomotor coordination, and cognitive tests, though high susceptibles are generally more pleased with their own performances. Other experiments indicated that people of high hypnotic susceptibility have slower brain- wave patterns under relaxed, nonhypnotic conditions, than do low susceptibles. These findings, together with a third set of findings on the developmental character of hypnotic susceptibility, led to the theory that hypnotic susceptibility and brain-wave patterns are both inversely correlated with achievement motivation and with its developmental roots in childhood independence training. An elaborate research program was initiated to investigate the hypothesized relationships. 1974 Galin, David (1974). Implications for psychiatry of left and right cerebral specialization: A neurophysiological context for unconscious processes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31 (4), 572-583.