Twenty-eight 7-12-year-old children entered a controlled study of the effects of self-hypnosis on asthma. Asthma belief and behavioural inventories were collected before, and at one and two years after intervention. Asthma diaries were kept daily and mailed monthly. Subjects were randomly assigned to (a) experimental (self- hypnosis), (b) waking suggestion (no hypnosis), (c) attention placebo (no hypnosis or asthma discussion), or (d) traditional control groups. Twenty-four completed one-month follow-up, 16 completed six months, and 13 completed two years. Results included: (a) fewer emergency room visits in the experimental group (p<0.05); (b)less school missed in the experimental group compared to the traditional control group (p<0.001) and to the waking suggestion group (p<0.005); (c) no differences in psychological evaluations between groups; and (d) surprising findings regarding hypnotic and hypnotic-like experiences among subjects. Jones, M. M. (1994). Apnea in postsurgical hypnotherapy of an esophageal cancer patient: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (3), 179-183. Use of clinical hypnosis in the postsurgical psychotherapy of an esophageal cancer patient who could not swallow involved reenactment of the successful surgery and producing hallucinations of taste and smell, as well as working through emotions relating to the surgery and her disease. An apnea that occurred in a late phase of the treatment was addressed with the familiar arm pumping technique that had been used as a deepening technique, resulting in the patient's resuming normal breathing. The experience reminds the practitioner of the possible unexpected professional demands when working in a medical environment. It also provides clues as to the underlying psychological mechanisms and their role in successful symptom removal. A 6-year follow-up confirmed the lasting effect of this brief psychotherapy. 1993 Kraft, Tom (1993). Using hypnosis with cancer patients: Six case studies. Contemporary Hypnosis, 10, 43-48. Hypnosis can be used in a number of different ways for helping patients suffering from cancer. As well as pain relief, hypnosis may be used to correct insomnia that does not respond to sleeping tablets; for the reduction in skin irritation and dyspnoea when these are due to organic causes, and for treatment-related over-eating. Some patients will use hypnosis in a symbolic way. When this occurs, just as in dream interpretation, it is important to ask the patient for associations, so that these symbols can be understood. Hypnosis can be an extremely useful addition to the medical armamentarium, and should be employed as an adjunct to standard forms of cancer treatment. This paper reports six case studies in which hypnosis was used to help cancer patients. Morgan, William P. (1993, October). Use of hypnosis in exercise and sport psychology. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington Heights, IL. NOTES: Performance of exercise is rated as equal effort with hypnosis and waking conditions; but with hypnotic suggestion they will perceive it as more or less effortful (uphill exercise vs going down the hill). When they think they are going up hill both cardiac and respiratory response increase physiologically, with catecholamine differences. Mitchell (1981) suggests that respiration changes with exercise do not result from muscle feedback, but that central motor brain signals go to both the cardiovascular centers and to exercising muscle. Actually, it appears that both muscle and cortex give signals, and their synergy governs whether ventilation or heart rate increase. Wang & Morgan, Psychophysiological responses to imagined exercise, Sport Psychology Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Reported that both external (watching someone else) and internal (imagining oneself) visualizing give responses similar to actual exercise. We have done research on the prediction of respiratory distress (dyspnea) - work we have done with fire fighters. The best predictor of this on treadmill with air supply is trait anxiety. Sometimes the firefighters who took off face mask even though they had air did not know why they did. It is an opportunity to use hypnotic age regression. SCUBA divers described in Lynn & Rhue also were age regressed to obtain information that was repressed. They have demonstrated stress responses like panic in a 12 foot tank also. For active people and athletes there is an "iceberg" profile on the POMS, below average on tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion, but higher on vigor. But the divers who panic have a flat profile, around the 50th percentile on all POMS scales. Middleman et al used Navy divers in 25 degree C. water and used hypnosis to increase and decrease their body temperature--one of the best papers on the topic. Ss who were best able to use imagery, to think of a beach, had the poorest responses; the ones who could relax did poorest, because shivering produces heat and keeps you warm. It is opposite of what is needed. In our work, we took 5 highest and 5 lowest anxiety Ss; the latter had higher rates of respiration than the former. All Ss are similar in oxygen use whether volunteers or not. When people volunteer for research before they know hypnosis will be used, the males are lower than females [on hypnotizability?] when they finally volunteer. [He presents a lot of different tests on which volunteers do not differ from nonvolunteers personality wise.] Ikai & Steinhaus is a classic study of Disinhibition of Inhibitory Mechanisms. Taking Ss up to their maximum (in weight training) to a plateau, Ikai & Steinhaus said this is a pseudomaximum. They showed that strength increases if - you fire a starter pistol behind them - you ask them to shout just as they do it - they have alcohol - they have amphetamine sulfate - they have hypnosis It is disinhibition of the inhibitory mechanisms. [He referred to the book Mind of the Marathoner.] In Tibet an anthropologist was amazed to see a man running into their camp, and he ran straight through--a monk carrying messages. He created a non-cultic form of meditation in the laboratory (trained to visually "fix" on mountaintop, to have respiration in synchrony with locomotion, and to use a pseudo mantra "down" each time they put their foot down). Placebo condition was used also. Ss were tested by blinded lab assistants. Endurance time increased from 16 minutes to 20, while controls decreased a minute. Now we can predict who will win a race. Elite runners do not dissociate; they use association strategy. They pay close attention to race strategy, they monitor themselves constantly (they slow down when they feel bad), and attempt informally to stay loose, not get tight, and relax. Dissociation has, however, been used for the last 300 meters of a marathon (New Zealander Dixon). 1992 Garssen, Bert; de Ruiter, Corine; Van Dyck, Richard (1992). Breathing retraining: A rational placebo?. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 141-153. Breathing retraining of patients with Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS) and/or panic disorder is discussed to evaluate its clinical effectiveness and to examine the mechanism that mediates its effect. In relation to this theoretical question, the validity of HVS as a scientific model is discussed an is deemed insufficient. It is concluded that breathing retraining and related procedures are therapeutically effective, but probably due to principles other than originally proposed, namely decreasing the tendency to hyperventilate. An alternative principle is the induction of a relaxation response, presenting a credible explanation for the threatening symptoms, giving a distracting task to practice when panic may occur, and promoting a feeling of control. NOTES: Goal of treatment is to (1) reduce respiratory rate, and (2) cognitive reattribution of physical symptoms to hyperventilation instead of other more catastrophic causes. Reviews a number of studies, mostly small sample, including panic disorder studies, and concludes that the majority point to a therapeutic effect of breathing retraining and cognitive reattribution of physical symptoms to hyperventilation for patients suffering HVS and the closely related panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. However, the _specificity_ of these techniques for HVS is questionable. Vlaander-van der Giessen (1986) found relaxation training just as effective as breathing retraining; and Hibbert & Chan (1989) found breathing retraining equally effective as a placebo treatment, and not more effective with patients who had recognized symptoms at a hyperventilation provocation test than with those who had not. Isenberg, S. A.; Lehrer, P. M.; Hochran, S. (1992). The effects of suggestions and emotional arousal on pulmonary functions in asthma: A review and a hypothesis regarding verbal mediation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 192-216. This paper reviews the empirical literature on the relation between asthma, suggestion, and emotion, and proposes the hypothesis that these effects are mediated parasympathetically. The literature indicates that, among asthmatics, suggestion can produce both bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation, and that stress can produce bronchoconstriction. The proportion of asthmatic subjects showing bronchoconstriction to both suggestion and stress averages 35%-40% across studies, but, because of methodological considerations, might be conservatively estimated as closer to 20%. The effect is smaller for suggestion of bronchodilation, and is very short-lived among nonasthmatics. No clear connection has been found between these responses and such subject variables as age, gender, asthma severity, atopy, or method of pulmonary assessment, although some nonsignificant tendencies appear. Most studies in this literature used small n''s and did not systematically examine various somatic, environmental, and demographic factors that could influence results. A hypothesis is presented regarding vagal mediation of psychological effects on the airways, as well as possible alternative mechanisms, and recommendations for future research to evaluate these hypotheses. Isenberg, S. A.; Lehrer, P. M.; Hochron, S. (1992). The effects of suggestion on airways of asthmatic subjects breathing room air as a suggested bronchoconstrictor and bronchodilator. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, 769-776. Thirty-three asthmatic subjects were told they were receiving, alternately, an inhaled bronchoconstrictor and inhaled bronchodilator, although they actually were only breathing room air. No subjects showed suggestion-produced effects on FEV1, although two (of the 19 on whom FEF50 was measured) showed effects of greater than 20% on measures of maximal midexpiratory flow. The incidence of the effect is smaller than reported previously, possibly because some subjects in previous studies inhaled saline, a mild bronchoconstrictor, and reversal of effect was not required for classification as a reactor. Higher percentages of subjects in this study showed decreased MMEF in response to the ''bronchoconstrictor'', but this appeared to reflect fatigue rather than suggestion effects. However, the fact that the effect occurred in a relatively non-effort-dependent measure suggests that real changes occurred in bronchial caliber, not just in test effort. Suggestion had a significant effect on perception of bronchial changes, but the correlation between actual and perceived changes was minimal. There was an increase in FVC prior to administration of the ''bronchoconstrictor'', possibly reflecting a preparatory response to the expected drug. Correlations among self-report variables suggested the existence of three personality dimensions among our population related to suggestion and asthma: cognitive susceptibility to suggestion of bronchial change; feeling of physical vulnerability; and anxiety. However, there was no significant relationship between airway response to suggested changes and hypnotic susceptibility, as measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. 1991 Acosta-Austan, Frank (1991). Tolerance of chronic dyspnea using a hypnoeducational approach: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 33, 272-277. A 48-year-old woman with severe, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was instructed in the use of peak-flow feedback and hypnotically induced relaxation to reduce the intensity of dyspnea during periods of anxiety. Peak-flow information provided physiologic feedback as well as a safety feature in the event that subjective improvement did not correspond with objective physiologic improvement. I used a progressive relaxation method for inducing hypnosis and gave her suggestions of well-being and muscle relaxation. Peak-flow feedback was useful in enhancing the patient's confidence that hypnotic relaxation was successful in improving respiratory function. Kleinhauz, Moris (1991). Prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39 (2), 82-92. A therapeutic approach is presented which involves the use of prolonged hypnosis for the treatment of diverse medical and/or psychological conditions, including intractable pain. This approach may be indicated either as a complementary tool used in conjunction with other treatment approaches or as the only method of intervention. The technique is based on achieving a prolonged hypnotic response, during which hypno- relaxation serves as the foundation for the delivery of an individualized therapeutic plan which includes self-hypnosis, suggestive procedures, metaphors, and constructive imagery techniques. In debilitated patients, medical supervision and nursing care are essential, and hospitalization is recommended if necessary. Theoretical assumptions underlying this approach are presented, and clinical implications are discussed. The method is illustrated through case presentations. NOTES: The general procedure involves: 1. A flexible plan concerning the duration of treatment: days, weeks, or longer. 2. Information is given to the patient, the family and the medical staff if in hospital. Emphasize that while the patient may be in a 'twilight-like' state, most of the time he/she is able to fulfill his or her basic physiological needs, (drinking, eating, taking care of personal cleanliness, etc.). 3. The method of hypnotic induction is individualized. 4. The patient is trained in self- hypnosis, and for using signals for induction and dehypnotization either for self hypnosis or for the hypnotist to use. Thus if there is a physiological or emotional need for self-hypnosis the patient can do it. Suggestions and training are given and reinforced concerning the patient's capability to fulfill his/her basic physiological needs. 5. The family and/or the medical staff are instructed and trained in induction and dehypnotization, until the patient responds to them satisfactorily. 6. At this stage, therapeutic suggestions aimed at ego-boosting and a change of attitudes and meanings towards the symptom and symptom removal/amelioration/substitution are added. 7. Metaphoric constructive imagery is introduced when indicated. 8. If required, other hypnotic phenomena are elicited and used (e.g. dissociation, time distortion, age regression, rehearsal, hypno/analgesia, change of muscular tonus, displacement of emotions, abreaction, etc.). 9. An audio cassette which contains the wording of the therapeutic intervention is used with some patients. 10. The family and/or the medical staff are instructed to supervise the patient properly and to avoid potential complications. 11. Termination of prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy is gradual to permit appropriate re-orientation towards reality. 12. Treatment is evaluated and a posttreatment plan is outlined. They provide case reports and discuss precautions. All the cases reported were treated while the patients were hospitalized for their physical condition (although in Case 3, prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy was also continued at home after the patient's discharge form the hospital), and the patients were monitored by the medical staff. In very debilitated patients, special care should be taken to avoid potential complications arising from their passivity, mainly the development of decubitus ulcer and of aspiration/choking while drinking or eating. Although precaution is taken routinely with these patients, these measures should be emphasized while the patient is in a state of prolonged hypno-relaxation. 1990 Pekala, Ronald J.; Forbes, Elizabeth J. (1990, Spring). Subjective effects of several stress management strategies: With reference to attention. Behavioural Medicine, 39-43. This study assessed variations in reported attentional experience associated with several stress management techniques (hypnosis, progressive relaxation, deep abdominal breathing) and baseline (eyes closed) as a function of hypnotic susceptibility. Three hundred nursing students experienced the stress management conditions and afterward completed a self-report inventory, the Dimensions of Attention Questionnaire (DAQ), in reference to each condition. The DAQ quantifies 12 aspects of attentional experience in a reliable and valid manner. The results demonstrated that progressive relaxation, hypnosis, and deep abdominal breathing are characterized by differences in reported attentional experience that are further moderated by an individual's hypnotic susceptibility. The clinical implications of these results are discussed. NOTES: "Significant main effects were found for conditions for perspicacity, absorption, and control, with progressive relaxation associated with increased perspicacity and absorption, but with decreased control vis-a-vis hypnosis. "Significant main effects for groups were found for perspicacity, locus, direction of attention, absorption, control, and vigilance. ... [Post-hoc comparisons] revealed that high susceptibles (vis-a-vis low susceptibles) reported increased perspicacity, absorption, a more inward-focused attention, more feelings of being out of their bodies, and decreased control and vigilance. High-mediums were also different from lows (in the same direction) for all of the above comparisons except for direction of attention. Low-mediums, along with lows, were different from highs for absorption and control. "Significant interactions between conditions and groups were found for absorption, control, and vigilance. Whereas low susceptibles reported significantly increased absorption but significantly decreased control and vigilance during progressive relaxation than during hypnosis, high susceptibles reported no significant differences between relaxation and hypnosis for absorption, control, or vigilance" (p. 41). The authors describe the differences found for deep abdominal breathing on p. 41. "The interaction effects suggest that the experience of hypnosis and progressive relaxation are moderated by a person's hypnotic susceptibility--low susceptibles experience significantly greater absorption, but decreased control and vigilance during progressive relaxation than during hypnosis, although there are no such differences for high susceptibles. This suggests that progressive relaxation may be a 'better' procedure than hypnosis to use with low susceptibles, at least if one wants to increase absorption and decrease vigilance and control" (p. 42). The authors also note that "deep abdominal breathing is associated with increased 'calmness of mind,' in reference to a baseline condition, as demonstrated by increased attentional detachment and equanimity, and decreased vigilance and density (the 'amount' of thoughts going through one's mind)" (p. 42). Sturgis, Laura M.; Coe, William C. (1990). Physiological responsiveness during hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38, 196-207. Four physiological measures - electromyogram, respiration rate, heart rate, and skin conductance - were recorded for 11 high and 11 low hypnotizability Ss. It was hypothesized (a) that physiological responsiveness during hypnosis would vary depending on the nature of the task instructions, and (b) that high hypnotizability Ss would show more physiological responsiveness than low hypnotizability Ss. The first hypothesis was substantiated across all 4 measures. Only heart rate levels supported the second hypothesis. The results are discussed as they relate to the 1 hypotheses and to future research. 1989 Murphy, A. I.; Lehrer, P. M.; Karlin, R.; Swartzman, L.; Hochron, S.; McCann, B. (1989). Hypnotic susceptibility and its relationship to outcome in the behavioral treatment of asthma: Some preliminary data. Psychological Reports, 65, 691-698. NOTES: Twelve subjects from an experiment on relaxation therapy for asthma were given the Harvard. Hypnotizability was positively correlated, at a borderline significance, with improvement in the methacholine challenge test, a measure of asthma severity. Performance on the amnesia item of the Harvard was correlated with improvement in self- reported symptoms of asthma. 1988 Anderson, Edgar L.; Frischholz, Edward J.; Trentalange, Mark J. (1988). Hypnotic and nonhypnotic control of ventilation. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 118-128. The present study examined the effects of: 1) breathing air versus breathing 5% CO2; 2) waking versus self-hypnotic conditions; and 3) neutral versus reduced respiratory rate instructions on four measures of ventilatory functioning (respiratory rate, tidal volume, expired minute ventilation, and end-tidal Pco2). Twelve high-hypnotizable normal volunteer subjects were studied in a repeated- measures, multivariate analysis of variance design; Significant main effects were observed for each experimental condition, whereas none of the two or three way interactions proved noteworthy. Breathing 5% CO2 produced increased ventilatory functions (e.g., increased respiratory rate, tidal volume, expired minute ventilation, and end-tidal Pco2). Being in a state of self-hypnosis is associated with reduced respiratory rate, with a significant increase in expired minute ventilation and end-tidal Pco2, but with no significant increase in tidal volume. Finally, reduced respiratory rate instructions were effective in significantly reducing respiratory rate and expired minute ventilation when breathing 5% CO2 as evidenced by increases in end-tidal Pco2 levels that were used to monitor ventilation outcomes. Dougherty, John E.; Payne, Paul A. (1988). The use of breathing rhythm to enhance the vividness of mental imagery. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 8 (2), 175-179. The study assessed Jencks' claim that responses to certain suggestions are enhanced by being paced with different phases of the breathing cycle. Following hypnotic induction, twenty-four subjects were given four treatments in counterbalanced order: 1) exhalation-enhanced suggestions paced to exhalation, 2) inhalation-enhanced suggestions paced to inhalation, 3) inhalation-enhanced suggestions counterpaced to exhalation, and 4) exhalation-enhanced suggestions counterpaced to inhalation. Subjects' reports of imagery vividness provided marginal support (p < .06) for Jencks' hypothesis. Post-experimental inquiry indicated subjects were unaware of the breathing contingency. Results suggest that appropriate pacing may make a greater difference for the energy-confidence group of suggestions (inhalation-paced) than for the calm-relaxation group (exhalation-paced). Morrison, J. B. (1988). Chronic asthma and improvement with relaxation induced by hypnotherapy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 81, 701-704. After one year of hypnotherapy, 16 chronic asthmatic patients inadequately controlled by drugs had a fall in admissions from 44 in the year before starting therapy to 13 in the year after. Duration of stay was reduced for 13 patients by 249 days; prednisone was withdrawn in 6, reduced in 8, and increased in none. Side effects of drugs were reduced. Although 62% reported improvement on a visual analogue scale, observations of air flow gave variable results. Pagano, Robert R.; Akots, Normund J.; Wall, Thomas W. (1988). Hypnosis, cerebral laterality and relaxation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 350-358. This study attempted to determine if hypnosis produces a shift towards more dominant right hemisphere functioning and if this increased dominance can be adequately explained by general somatic relaxation rather than being due to some other aspect of the hypnotic process. 14 right-handed, medium to highly hypnotizability Ss performed a dichotic listening task while in a prehypnosis, hypnosis, and post-hypnosis repeated measures design. Throughout the experiment, somatic relaxation was monitored physiologically by recording heart rate, respiration rate, and frontalis EMG. The results showed a highly significant shift toward a greater left ear advantage during hypnosis. There was no change in EMG. Respiration rate increased during the hypnosis condition and remained at an increased rate during the posthypnosis condition. Heart rate decreased during the hypnosis condition and remained at a decreased rate or decreased further during the posthypnosis condition. These results replicate and extend those reported by Frumkin, Ripley, and Cox (1978) and do not support the view that changes in general somatic relaxation can adequately account for this hypnotic effect. NOTES: Frumkin et al. (1978) presented syllables simultaneously to two ears of subjects, requiring them to state which syllable they heard most clearly (e.g. 'Ka' vs 'Ga'). They found a right ear advantage (REA) during waking conditions, which shifted toward a left ear advantage (LEA) during hypnosis. Their interpretation was that hypnosis results in more right cerebral hemisphere involvement. Two recent investigations did not find the shift in ear with advantage (H. J. Crawford, K. Crawford, & Koperski, 1983; Levine, Kurtz, & Lauter, 1984) but they were not actual replications of the Frumkin et al. (1978) investigation. This study is a replication of Frumkin et al., and is designed to learn whether relaxation could account for the results. Subjects were 14 volunteer students of medium to high hypnotizability (Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale: Adult scores of 3-5). The dichotic listening tape has been used in other research at Haskins Laboratories (Yale University), and was developed by Dr. Terry Halwes. "Each run of the tape consisted of 96 dichotic pairs presented in 4 groups of 24. Six syllables from the English stop consonants k, g, p, d, b, and t preceded and followed by the vowel a, composed the pairs" (p. 352). The experimenters also recorded heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and EMG. There were two sessions for each subject: (1) screening and measuring hypnotizability with SHCS: Adult, (2) dichotic listening task within three conditions: pre- hypnosis, hypnosis, and posthypnosis. Table 1 (not shown here) gives for each S the SHCS score and the Laterality Quotient for each of the three conditions. RESULTS. "Laterality quotients were computed for each S by the formula (R- L/R+L) X 100, where R = right ear score and L = left ear score. A positive score indicates a predominate REA, and a negative score indicates a predominate LEA" (p. 353). The analysis by ANOVA for repeated measures indicated that there was a significant shift to LEA during hypnosis; the means were 11.34 prehypnosis, 3.17 hypnosis, 8.93 posthypnosis. All 14 subjects demonstrated this directional shift. Heart rate decreased between prehypnosis (70.4 beats/minute) and hypnosis (67.8) and remained lower (67.9) during posthypnosis. However respiration significantly increased during hypnosis, from 13.5 breaths/minute prehypnosis to 16.2 for hypnosis and 15.2 for posthypnosis. There were no significant changes for EMG. Self-reported depth of hypnosis remained the same for the first and second sessions. In their Discussion, the authors interpret the shift toward greater LEA during hypnosis (and return to greater REA posthypnosis) as greater right hemisphere involvement, confirming Frumkin et al. They noted that the changes were not due to increased error in the right ear, but to identification of more syllables in the left ear. Several experimental design differences could account for why this study and Frumkin obtained the shift and two other investigations did not. These investigators and Frumkin used a competing response paradigm (requiring that subjects identify which syllable is heard more clearly) and the other two studies did not. "In evaluating the possible confound of general somatic relaxation with hypnosis per se, the physiological data provide salient information. Davidson & Schwartz (1976) have discussed the limitations in evaluating the relaxation response as a unitary concept and have recommended looking at patterns of multiple physiological measures. Failing this, the best single measure is HR (Davison & Schwartz, 1976)" (p. 356). In this case, HR decreased over the three conditions, remaining low in posthypnosis when laterality shifted back to REA. If the cerebral shift were due to relaxation, presumably there would not have been low HR during posthypnosis. The authors note the lack of convergence in physiological measures (EMG showing no change, RR increasing during hypnosis and remaining high, HR decreasing during hypnosis and remaining low). Lack of convergence is typical in physiological studies of the relaxation response (Davidson & Schwartz, 1976). "However, whether the three physiological measures are considered as an overall pattern in determining level of somatic relaxation or whether HR is considered alone, increased somatic relaxation due to hypnosis cannot adequately account for both the shift toward more dominant right hemisphere activity in the hypnosis condition and the shift back to more dominant left hemisphere activity during the posthypnosis condition" (p. 356). The authors acknowledge that the absence of either a low hypnotizable subject group or a relaxation control group suggests caution in interpretation of the results. 1987 Kotses, H.; Rawson, J. C.; Wigal, J. IK.; Creer, T. L. (1987). Respiratory airway changes in response to suggestion in normal individuals. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 536-541. Thirty normal individuals were told they were inhaling a substance that would either cause breathing difficulty (N - 15) or not affect breathing (N - 15). Total respiratory resistance was measured prior to and during inhalation. In reality, the subjects inhaled no substances; inhalation consisted of breathing normally into a respiratory resistance recorder. Individuals who received the former suggestion exhibited increased total respiratory resistance, whereas individuals who received the latter suggestion did not. These observations demonstrated that the ability of suggestion to affect the respiratory airway is not limited to asthmatic individuals. Pastorello, E. A. (1987). The role of suggestion in asthma. I. Effects of inactive solution on bronchial reactivity under bronchoconstrictor or bronchodilator suggestion. Annals of Allergy, 59, 336-338. Twenty-eight Ss affected by perennial asthma were selected in order to investigate the possibility of inducing or relieving an asthmatic attack by means of suggestion. 25 were positive to a methacholine challenge test, and among them, 11 reacted to an ultrasonic nebulized distilled water test. The effect of suggestion on airway response was assessed by 8 inhalations of normal saline at 32 degrees Centigrade alternately presented as a bronchoconstrictor or as a bronchodilator drug. 8 inhalations of the same diluent without any psychic stimulus were used as a control test. 7 patients reacted with bronchoconstriction to both positive and negative suggestion and to the control test. Further, this group of patients showed a lower methacholine PD10 when compared with the other Ss. In this study, the effects of suggestion on bronchial reactivity were not observed and bronchoconstriction belonged to an individual hyperactivity of the airways. Pastorello, E. A.; Codecasa, L. R.; Gerosa, A.; Buonocore, E.; Sillano, V.; Zanussi, C. (1987). The role of suggestion in asthma. II. Effects of a bronchoconstrictor drug on bronchial reactivity under bronchoconstrictor or bronchodilator suggestion. Annals of Allergy, 59, 339-340. Previous studies have shown that suggestion may modify bronchial reactivity to both inactive diluents and pharmacologically bronchoconstrictor or dilator substances. In our study, 14 patients were subjected to 2 methacholine challenge tests presented, respectively, as a bronchoconstrictor or as a bronchodilator drug. Forced expiratory volumes in one second were recorded and a PD20 was determined. No significant differences were reported in PD20 values of each patient after the 2 kinds of suggestion. 1985 LaRiccia, P. J.; Katz, R. H.; Peters, J. W.; Atkinson, G. W.; Weiss, T. (1985). Biofeedback and hypnosis in weaning from mechanical ventilators. Chest, 87, 267-269. Weaning patients from mechanical ventilation can be hindered by both physical and psychologic factors. Biofeedback has been used successfully as an adjunct in difficult weaning problems. We have used a combination of hypnosis and biofeedback to wean a patient with neurologic disease who previously failed weaning by standard procedures. A 30-year-old woman with respiratory failure secondary to multiple sclerosis with transverse myelitis was given eight sessions of biofeedback over 12 days in which the movements of her chest wall, as monitored by magnetometers, were displayed on an oscilloscope. The patient was praised for targeted respiratory rate, amplitude, and rhythm. These sessions included hypnosis in which the patient was given suggestions of well-being and that she could breathe as she had five years earlier. In this manner the patient was successfully weaned. Respiratory biofeedback and hypnosis appear to be useful adjuncts in weaning patients form ventilators. Olness, Karen N.; Conroy, Mary Margaret (1985). A pilot study of voluntary control of transcutaneous PO 2 by children: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 1-5. This pilot study took place to determine whether or not children could voluntarily change tissue oxygen as measured by a transcutaneous oxygen monitor. It tested 2 hypotheses: (a) children can voluntarily change tissue oxygen as reflected by a transcutaneous oxygen monitor and (b) children, experienced in use of self-hypnosis exercises, will be able to change tissue oxygen to a greater degree than children unfamiliar with such exercises. 11 children between the ages of 7 and 17 year were studied. 8 children were previously experienced in the use of self-hypnosis; 3 were not. A Novametrix transcutaneous O 2/CO 2 monitoring system provided a constant read-out of PO 1, PCO 1 and local perfusion. After stabilization, children were asked to attempt increases of oxygen. 9 children increased tissue oxygen significantly. Of those, 8 children had previous self-hypnosis training. 1 had not. Only 2 children with no previous self- hypnosis training were unable to change oxygen values. This pilot study upholds both hypotheses; however, it does not conclude that self-hypnosis mediated the changes noted or that self-hypnosis would be essential to success in voluntary control of tissue oxygen. 1984 Brown, Erick L.; Kinsman, Robert A. (1984). Resolving intractable medical problems through psychological intervention: A clinical report. Psychotherapy, 21, 452-455. Treatment of chronic physical illness is often complicated by psychological factors that maintain and exacerbate the illness. Hypnotic techniques, coupled with insight-oriented psychotherapy comprised an effective strategy for favorably influencing medical outcome. A clinical report illustrates how psychological intervention initiated the resolution of severe medical problems in an asthmatic patient. Holmes, David S. (1984). Meditation and somatic arousal evidence. American Psychologist, 39 (1), 1-10. The conceptual and methodological issues associated with research on the effects of meditation are reviewed. A summary of the research in which the somatic arousal of meditating subjects was compared to the somatic arousal of resting subjects did not reveal any consistent differences between meditating and resting subjects on measures of heart rate, electrodermal activity, respiration rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, skin temperature, oxygen consumption, EMG activity, blood flow, or various biochemical factors. Similarly, a review of the research on the effects of meditation in controlling arousal in threatening situations did not reveal any consistent differences between meditating and nonmeditating (no-treatment, antimeditation, or relaxation) subjects. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. Wideman, Margaret V.; Singer, Jerome E. (1984). The role of psychological mechanisms in preparation for childbirth. American Psychologist, 39, 1357-1371. Psychoprophylactic (Lamaze) preparation for childbirth consists of six to eight classes held during the last trimester of pregnancy. These classes include instruction in the anatomy and physiology of gestation and parturition, respiration techniques, controlled neuromuscular relaxation, visual focusing, and the training of a labor coach. Although the techniques are based upon psychological principles, they have remained largely unstudied by either psychologists or physicians. This article presents a brief history of the development of the training regimen and critically examines the few empirical studies that have been conducted. Because explanations for the efficacy of the preparation, if it exists, are equivocable, literature on the explicit components of the training--that is, information, respiration techniques, conditioned relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and social support--in situations other than child delivery are reviewed and their implications for the Lamaze method discussed. However, because there exist several, more implicit factors that may affect the type of child delivery a prepared woman experiences, the literature concerning social comparison, the effects of commitment and conformity, perceived control, and endorphin secretion are also discussed as they may apply to psychoprophylactic preparation. Problems associated with the study of childbirth preparation are presented, and suggestions for the direction of future research are made. 1979 Di Piano, Frank A.; Salzberg, H. C. (1979). Clinical applications of hypnosis to three psychosomatic disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 1223-1235. Studies of hypnosis in the treatment of skin disorders, headaches, and asthma were reviewed in terms of outcomes and methodological soundness. Some studies focused on changing physiological functions, others on increasing insight in their patients, and still others on altering patients' perceptions of their symptoms. Methodological weaknesses included lack of control groups, nonrandom assignment of patients to treatment conditions, and confounding of treatment effects or lack of control for placebo effects. Additional weaknesses centered around the use of single outcome measures and the failure to assess the specific roles of mediating variables. Most of the studies reviewed showed positive treatment effects. However, there is equivocal evidence that hypnosis can directly influence autonomic functioning. Hypnosis may be valuable in facilitating one's capacity to gain insight into how one's symptoms developed and are maintained. In addition, hypnotic procedures have resulted in some success when used to indirectly alleviate symptoms by altering how individuals perceive their disorders and how these disorders affect their lives. Jackson, J. Arthur; Gass, Gregory C.; Camp, Elizabeth M. (1979). The relationship between posthypnotic suggestion and endurance in physically trained subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 278-293. 55 male Ss were assigned to 5 groups: control, hypnosis alone, motivation alone, low susceptible hypnosis with motivation, or high susceptible hypnosis with motivation. Ss performed 2 runs on a treadmill to their maximum capacity, as measured by oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, and respiratory quotient. Groups involving hypnosis performed in the posthypnotic state. A significant increase in endurance performance was revealed in the motivation alone Ss and in high susceptible hypnosis Ss who were given motivational suggestions. Maximum ventilation was significantly increased in high susceptible hypnosis Ss when compared with control Ss and significant increases in blood lactate concentrations were revealed when the high susceptible hypnosis Ss were compared with low susceptible hypnosis and motivation alone Ss. The reasons for the changes in metabolic variables are discussed. Findings demonstrated that in achieving greater endurance performance, motivational suggestions alone are as effective as identical suggestions given to high susceptible Ss. 1978 Parwatikar, Sadashiv D.; Brown, Marjorie S.; Stern, John A.; Ulett, George A.; Sletten, Ivan S. (1978). Acupuncture, hypnosis and experimental pain - I. Study with volunteers. Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutic Research: International Journal, 3, 161-190. An experiment was designed to evaluate the protective effects of different agents - acupuncture, hypnosis, Morphine, aspirin, Diazepam and placebo - upon experimentally-induced pain in humans. Twenty normal, healthy volunteers were subjected to cold water and tourniquet- induced pain and the protective effects of 35 minutes of hypnotic suggestion, electro- stimulation of both acupuncture points and non-acupuncture points, 10 mg/kg of Morphine, 5 grains of aspirin, 10 mg of Diazepam and a mild sugar placebo were evaluated. Data was collected on subjective evaluation of pain, EKG, EEG, respiration, skin temperature, peripheral vascular activity and EMG. A special study was also done to evaluate the effects of all the above agents on the somatosensory evoked potentials and EEG. The data were further analyzed on the basis of hypnotic susceptibility of the volunteers. The results indicated: 1) Hypnosis, acupuncture at specific sites with electrical stimulation and Morphine Sulphate had about the same reduction in experimental pain. 2) Hypnosis produced different effects from those resulting from acupuncture stimulation on EEG. 3) Acupuncture stimulation in specific loci resulted in a latency increase in the early secondary response on somatosensory evoked potential. 4) Cold water pain was remarkably reduced after true acupuncture point stimulation. 5) Tourniquet (ischemic) pain was reduced by both hypnosis and true acupuncture site stimulation. 6) Skin temperature was significantly reduced on the side of acupuncture points (true) stimulation. Thorne, D. E.; Fisher, A. G. (1978). Hypnotically suggested asthma. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 92-103. 15 asthmatic and 19 non-asthmatic Ss were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962) and accordingly assigned to one of three susceptibility groups -- low, medium, or high. Subsequently, all Ss were exposed to a hypnotically suggested asthma experience. Subjective and physiological measures of respiratory efficiency were administered before, during, and after the hypnotically suggested asthma experience. Ss did respond significantly differently in these three conditions, but the physiological measures did not reveal typical asthma physiological patterns. High and medium susceptible Ss were ostensibly convinced that they "experienced" asthma, but the low susceptible Ss were uniformly unimpressed. One of the most noteworthy findings was that Ss' ability to respond differentially (according to the asthma suggestions) was enhanced by greater susceptibility to hypnosis yet not "enhanced" by their history of previous asthma. Collison, David R. (1975). Which asthmatic- patients should be treated by hypnotherapy?. Medical Journal of Australia, 1 (25), 776-781. Retrospective analysis of 121 asthmatic patients who were treated by hypnotherapy. Subjects were first broken down into one of three possible groups: "light," "medium," or "deep," according to the depth of trance typically achieved. Hypnoidal states were included in the light trance group and somnambulistic state in the deep trance. All sessions concentrated on suggesting physical and mental relaxation since we know this is one of the causes of the appearance of the "asthma attack." The actual wording varied however, and this involved discussion under hypnosis, of the main personalities of the environment, fears, failures, aims, hopes and frustrations. Post-hypnotic suggestions of continued relaxation and ability to cope with the various situations of life were given in all the cases. Auto-hypnosis was taught to enable the patient to reinforce the above suggestions and to remain in or selectively achieve a relaxed state. Results were classified into four different categories: "excellent," "good," "poor," and "nil." It was found that those patients who experienced a "high" trance depth were more likely to show excellent improvement than those who were measured as "medium" or "low" trance subjects. 1973 Crystal, Thomas H.; Gish, Herbert; Bloom, Richard F. (1973, June). Psychophysiological factors affecting speaker authentication and identification. (See Notes field for additional reference information and information about ordering.) NOTES 1: Research and Development Technical Report ECOM-0161-F; AD-913 696L; Contract DAAB07-71-C-0161 with Signatron, Inc. (Lexington, MA). Distribution limited to U.S. Government agencies only; Other requests for this document must be referred to Commanding General, U.S. Army Electronics Command, ATTN: AMSEL-PP-CM-CR4, Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703. NOTES 2: This document reports on a U.S. Army research project using hypnosis to collect high fidelity samples of the voice under "combat stress" conditions in the laboratory. Using hypnotic regression, combat veterans "re-experienced" their own, actual high stress combat situations. Besides subjective reports of stress levels by subjects, physiological stress measures were obtained from polygraph recordings of heart, respiration and GSR activity. The voice samples were later analyzed by spectrographic techniques to determine which factors remain invariant to identify and authenticate the speaker in a military communications situation. Hypnotic techniques were shown to be useful in establishing controlled emotional states for laboratory research purposes. (Richard Bloom) 1971 Moorefield, C. W. (1971). The use of hypnosis and behavior therapy in asthma. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 13, 162-163. Nine patients with asthma were treated with hypnosis and behavior therapy. All of these patients showed subjective improvement to a rather marked degree, except for one patient who has had three slight attacks of asthma since the onset of her treatment. These patients have been followed from eight to approximately 24 months. The results so far have been rather encouraging and the author believes this form of treatment will prove to be of benefit in the treatment of asthma and possibly many other related conditions. 1970 Maher-Loughnan, G. P. (1970). Hypnosis and auto-hypnosis for the treatment of asthma. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18 (1), 1-14. Conducted 2 controlled studies into the use of hypnosis in 252 asthma patients. Several different control procedures were used. Methods and results were summarized, and the same conclusion was reached: That hypnosis supplemented by autohypnosis was significantly more effective than control procedures. An outline is given of details of treatment methods. A current analysis of Ss involving up to 6 yr. of follow-up, is presented to provide a working guide to the regime in regular practice. To be fully effective hypnosis should be employed before steroids are started. Steroid-dependent asthma is rarely totally relieved by hypnotherapy. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 1969 Baykushev, S. (1969). Hyperventilation as an accelerated hypnotic induction technique. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 20-24. Describes a rationale and procedure for the use of hyperventilation as a facilitator of hypnotic trance induction. Results with 56 neurotic patients are reported. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1968 Summary: An investigation of hypnosis in asthma was made among patients aged 10 to 60 years with paroxysmal attacks of wheezing or tight chest capable of relief by bronchodilators. One group of patients was given hypnosis monthly and used autohypnosis daily for one year. Comparisons were made with a control group prescribed a specially devised set of breathing exercises aimed at progressive relaxation. Treatment was randomly allocated and patients were treated by physicians in nine centres. Results were assessed by daily diary recordings of wheezing and the use of bronchodilators, and by monthly recordings of F.E.V. and vital capacity. At the end of the year independent clinical assessments were made by physicians unaware of the patients'' treatment. There were 252 patients (127 hypnosis and 125 controls) accepted for analysis, but a number of them did not continue the prescribed treatment for the whole year: 28 hypnosis and 22 control patients failed to cooperate, left the district, or had family problems; one hypnosis and one control patient died. Seven hypnosis and 17 control patients were withdrawn as treatment failures, the difference between the two groups being statistically significant. As judged by analyses based on the daily " score " of wheezing recorded in patients'' diaries, by the number of times bronchodilators were used, and by independent clinical assessors, both treatment groups showed some improvement. Among men the as-sessments of wheezing score and use of bronchodilators showed similar improvement in the two treatment groups; among women, however, those treated by hypnosis showed improvement similar to that observed in the men, but those given breathing exercises made much less progress, the difference between the two treatment groups reaching statistical significance. Changes in F E.V. and V.C. between the control and hypnosis groups were closely similar. Independent clinical assessors considered the asthma to be " much better " in 59% of the hypnosis group and in 43% of the control group, the difference being significant. There was little difference between the sexes. Physicians with previous experience of hypnosis obtained significantly better results than did those without such experience. Collison, D. R. (1968). Hypnotherapy in the management of asthma. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 11, 6-11. Following a brief history of the use of hypnosis in the management of asthma, hypnotherapy with 20 ambulant non-hospitalized patients is described. Of 7 females and 13 males, 11 had an excellent response, 5 a good response, and 4 a poor response. 1967 Rose, S. (1967). A general practitioner approach to the asthmatic patient. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 10, 30-32. NOTES 1: