Compared Behavior Therapy (BT), self-relaxation (SR), transcendental meditation (TM), and a waiting-list control group (WL) on measures of cardiovascular and subjective stress response. Male and female respondents (N = 60) to an ad for therapy were evaluated in assessment sessions before and after treatment. The results indicate that BT and SR were more effective than either TM or WL in reducing cardiovascular stress response. These data were interpreted as resulting from therapeutic suggestion and positively reinforced client progress.

Beers, Thomas M.; Karoly, Paul (1979). Cognitive strategies, expectancy, and coping style in the control of pain. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 179-180

Measures of tolerance, self-reported pain threshold, and overall discomfort of cold-pressor pain were obtained from 114 male subjects in a pretest-training-posttest experiment. Training consisted of brief practice in one of four cognitive strategies: rational thinking, compatible imagery, incompatible imagery, and task-irrelevant cognition. Analyses of covariance indicated (a) that cognitive-imaginal strategies facilitated endurance of pain and raised self-reported threshold, (b) that rational thinking and compatible imagery were generally the most effective treatments, (c) that expectancy alone was not a significant pain-attenuating factor, (d) that treatments did not affect discomfort ratings, and (e) that individual differences in imaginal ability and coping style did not correlation with changes in any of the dependent measures.

Katz, Norman W. (1979). Comparative efficacy of behavioral training, training plus relaxation, and a sleep/trance hypnotic induction in increasing hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 119-127.

A social-learning-based behavioral training procedure and the same procedure with the addition of progressive relaxation instructions were compared with a traditional sleep/trance eye-fixation hypnotic induction. As predicted, the hypothesis that a social-learning training procedure would be more effective than a sleep/trance induction was supported. The hypothesis that the addition of relaxation instructions would further potentiate the social-learning treatment was not supported. The results suggest that for subjects of low and medium hypnotic susceptibility, social-learning procedures are a more effective way of increasing suggestibility than a sleep/trance induction. Changes in subjects’ conceptions of hypnosis, particularly in terms of moving toward a self-control viewpoint, were hypothesized to be an intervening variable.

Perry, Campbell; Gelfand, Robert; Marcovitch, Phillip (1979). The relevance of hypnotic susceptibility in the clinical context. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (5), 592-603.

Despite experimental evidence that hypnotic susceptibility is a relatively stable characteristic of the individual, and one that is very difficult to modify, clinical investigators tend to see susceptibility as irrelevant to therapeutic outcome. Such investigators view motivational and interpersonal variables as more essential to the therapeutic change. The evidence for the clinical relevance of hypnotizability is sparse and contradictory. Most existing studies stem from medical hypnosis and indicate that susceptibility plays an important role in the successful treatment of such conditions as clinical pain, warts, and asthma. Two studies are reported that seek to pursue a contrary finding reported by Perry and Mullen, who found that susceptibility was unrelated to the successful treatment of a socially learned behavior (cigarette smoking). Both studies confirmed the earlier finding of a lack of relation. In Study 1, however, stepwise multiple regression analysis located three inventory items concerning the motivation of cigarette smokers. The combination of items was found to predict outcome for 67.39% of 46 clients treated either by hypnosis or by rapid smoking. The finding was replicated in Study 2, which utilized a combined hypnosis – rapid smoking technique and employed a different therapist. The outcome for 9 of the 13 quitters and 37 of the 62 nonquitters across the two studies could be predicted by the three motivational questionnaire variables.
Spanos, Nicholas P.; Radtke-Bodorik, H. Lorraine; Ferguson, John D.; Jones, Bill (1979). The effects of hypnotic susceptibility, suggestions for analgesia, and the utilization of cognitive strategies on the reduction of pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 282-292.

Subjects previously stratified in terms of hypnotic susceptibility had an arm immersed in ice water for a 60-sec pretest and, afterward, were assigned to one of four treatments: (a) hypnosis plus analgesia suggestion, (b) hypnosis alone, (c) suggestion alone, or (d) no hypnosis – no suggestion. Next, the subjects were retested in ice water and then interviewed about their experiences during the retest. High susceptibles reported the use of more cognitive strategies during the retest and showed greater pretest-to-retest pain magnitude reductions than did low susceptibles. Similar effects occurred for subjects given, as opposed to not given, a suggestion. The hypnosis variable, however, failed to affect either strategy use or pain magnitude. Strategy use facilitated pain reduction only for subjects who did no worry about, and did not exaggerate, the unpleasantness of the situation (i.e., noncatastrophizers). The very few subjects who showed dramatic pretest- to-retest reductions in pain magnitude (50% reduction or more) were all high-susceptible noncatastrophizers who used one or more cognitive strategies.

Turner, Ralph M.; Ascher, L. Michael (1979). Controlled comparison of progressive relaxation, stimulus control, and paradoxical intention therapies for insomnia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47 (3), 500-508.

Assessed the effectiveness of treatment programs based on progressive relaxation, stimulus control, and paradoxical intention in the context of sleep difficulties for 50 volunteer Ss. The results indicate that each of the therapeutic procedures significantly reduced sleep complaints in contrast to placebo and waiting list control groups. No differences were observed among the 3 active techniques. (1 1/2 p ref).

Brown, Jude M.; Chaves, John F., Ph.D (1978, August). Hypnosis in the treatment of sexual dysfunction. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

Recent reports suggest that hypnosis may be a useful technique for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Five distinct strategies for the utilization of hypnosis in sex therapy can be identified: (1) as a diagnostic tool, (2) to improve self-confidence, (3) as an adjunct to behavior therapy, (4) for the direct removal of symptoms, and (5) to facilitate the resolution of neurotic conflicts. Case reports documenting these applications of hypnotic procedures typically fail to include significant information regarding patient variables, symptomatology, the nature of the therapeutic intervention, and criteria for improvement. Although the conclusions provided by these case studies are encouraging, it is essential that the efficacy of hypnotic techniques in sex therapy be evaluated by controlled studies.

Dempsey, George L.; Granich, Marina (1978). Hypno-behavioral therapy in the case of a traumatic stutterer: A case study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26 (3), 125-133.

Hypnotherapy was used to treat a 41-year-old veteran for a severe stuttering problem, which began suddenly following a traumatic accident while serving during the Korean War and persisted for an ensuing 19-year period. A detailed clinical report illustrates how hypnotherapy was integrated with other treatment modalities to treat a rather distressing, and in this case incapacitating, speech disorder. Various strategies for treament are discussed.

Porter, J. W. (1978). Suggestions and success imagery for study problems. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 63-75.

A procedure is presented for dealing with study problems in cases where patients come with an expectancy of help through hypnosis. Specific suggestions directly related to the study difficulty are given. “Success imagery” is outlined for use under hypnosis and by the student himself in his daily life. Two self-management techniques associated with the relaxation induced by exhalation are given further strength by being made posthypnotic suggestions. A direct posthypnotic suggestion for “concentration and recall” is combined with contingency management to effect more efficient performance when the decision is made to study. Four sessions are shown by clinical experience to be generally adequate to allow a transition from therapy to self-management of the problem aided by the student’s own use of self-hypnosis. A general outline of how this is achieved for the first three sessions incorporates both Wolberg’s (19656) suggestions to remove barriers preventing progress and Stanton’s (1977) Rational-Emotive Therapy suggestions to strengthen the person’s belief in himself.

Ascher, L. M. (1977). The role of hypnosis in behavior therapy. In Edmonston, William E., Jr. (Ed.), Conceptual and investigative approaches to hypnosis and hypnotic phenomena (296, ). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

He does not differentiate physical and mental relaxation (Davidson & Schwartz). Insists that hypnosis treatment not include desensitization operations.
“Two studies (Gibbins et al., and Woody and Schaube) presented data that seemed to indicate that desensitization plus a hypnotic induction procedure resulted in greater fear reduction than desensitization alone. However, an analysis of the procedures employed suggests that the conclusion may be unwarranted, or at least premature. Both studies confound the hypnotic induction with added elaboration of desensitization scenes, as well as additional direct fear-reduction suggestions. In addition, Gibbons et al. further confounded their study by placing good hypnosis subjects into the hypnotic-induction group as opposed to the desensitization or control groups. Barber has pointed out that the type of method that Gibbins et al. employed in subject assignation, as opposed to random assignment, results in the inability to control for such things as previous experience, the relationship of the subject with the experimenter, and the differential effects of these factors on the subject’s attitudes, expectancies, and motivation” (p. 256).
“Finally, some individuals writing from the context of hypnotherapy, have suggested that the effects of specific imaginal behavioral techniques may be due to the possible existence of hypnosis or the trance state unwittingly incorporated into these behavioral procedures. The difficulties of such a position have been addressed by Barber, Cautela, Johnston and Donaghue, Spanos, Spanos, et al., Spanos and Barber, and Weitzenhoffer, among others. The following, as a group, have pointed out the difficulties inherent in the position that certain procedures, not otherwise associated with hypnosis, may nevertheless result in the production of a ‘trance state’ in susceptible subjects (Barber, Chaves, and Spanos) have delineated the differences between hypnosis and various behavioral procedures (Cautela, Spanos et al., and Spanos and Barber); and have presented strong arguments for suggesting that the effectiveness of hypnotherapeutic techniques are due to the inclusion of components of desensitization in the procedure rather than to the induction of a ‘trance'” (pp. 257-258).

Barkley, R. A.; Hastings, J. E.; Jackson, T. L., Jr. (1977). The effects of rapid smoking and hypnosis in the treatment of smoking behavior. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25 (1), 7-17.

29 Ss were assigned to one of 3 treatment conditions and treated for their cigarette smoking over a 2-week period. These conditions were: group rapid smoking, group hypnosis, and an attention-placebo control group. All treatments produced significant reductions in average daily smoking rates during the treatment phase but all Ss returned to near baseline levels of smoking by the 6-week follow-up. The rapid smoking and hypnosis groups did not differ from the control group in smoking rates at treatment termination or at the 6-week follow-up. They also did not differ from the control group in the number of Ss abstaining from smoking by treatment termination but did differ at follow-up. Eventually, at the 9-month follow-up, only Ss from the group rapid smoking condition had significantly more abstainers than the control group. The results suggested that rapid smoking can work as effectively in group procedures as previous individualized approaches had demonstrated. Group hypnosis, while less effective than some previous individualized approaches had indicated, was nevertheless only marginally less effective than the group rapid smoking procedure. The use of abstinence rates as opposed to average rates of smoking was strongly recommended as the best measure of treatment effectiveness for future research in this area.

Novaco, Raymond W. (1977). Stress inoculation: A cognitive therapy for anger and its application to a case of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45 (4), 600-8.

Clinical interventions for anger disorders have been scarcely addressed in both theory and research in psychotherapy. The continued development of a cognitive behavior therapy approach to anger management is presented along with the results of its application to a hospitalized depressive with severe anger problems. The treatment approach follows a procedure called “stress inoculation,” which consists of three basic stages: cognitive preparation, skill acquisition and rehearsal, and application practice. The relationship between anger and depression is discussed.

Scott, D. S.; Barber, T. X. (1977). Cognitive control of pain: Four serendipitous results. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 569-570.

The experiment was designed to determine whether specific cognitive strategies are effective in reducing pain. Subjects were tested either on cold pain or pressure pain. Although the cognitive strategies did not significantly alter pain tolerance or pain intensity, the following four findings emerged: (a) males and females responded in a similar manner to the painful stimuli, (b) both the experimental subjects and the controls had surprisingly high tolerance of pain, (c) subjects typically generated their own thoughts and images to control pain, and (d) subjects responded to cold pain and to pressure pain in a similar manner.

80 subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups, in the following conditions: 1. detailed instructions on how to interpret pain sensations as non-painful 2. a condensed version of the same instructions 3. instructions to imagine pleasant events during the pain stimulation 4. no instructions (controls)
Half were tested on cold pain, half on pressure pain.
Pain tolerance and also ratings of pain severity were not significantly different under any one of the four treatments. [A subsequent experiment (Scott & Barber, 1976) included somewhat similar experimental treatments but extended maximum allowable tolerance time from 3 min to 10 min. In this case, marked differences in pain tolerance were produced by the experimental treatments. It appears that results obtained in experiments on pain tolerance may depend on whether the ceiling for tolerance is set low or high.]
Post experimental interviews indicated that the typical subject used his assigned cognitive strategy part of the time during his exposure to the pain stimulation. During the remaining part of the pain period, the typical subject did not use any strategy or used a strategy for pain control derived from his own previous experience.
In general, the subjects tolerated the cold pain for the same length of time they tolerated the pressure pain and they rated the two kinds of pain as equally severe.

Stanton, Harry E. (1977). The utilization of suggestions derived from rational-emotive therapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25 (1), 18-26.

A series of positive suggestions derived from Ellis’ rational-emotive therapy were compared with Hartland’s “ego-strengthening” technique in terms of patients’ belief in their efficacy. Both pre- and post-treatment ratings were collected. Patients tended to approach treatment with a positive feeling that the treatment would help them with their problem and this belief was strengthened after the 10 therapy sessions had been completed. Further ratings taken 6 months later indicated that patients’ belief in the value of the suggestive therapy had not decreased over time.

Chaves, John F.; Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1974). Cognitive strategies, experimenter modeling, and expectation in attenuation of pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83 (4), 356-363.

Verbal reports of pain were obtained from 120 subjects during a base-level pretest and also during a posttest conducted under one of several experimental treatments. The pain stimulus was a heavy weight applied to a finger for two minutes. During the posttest, subjects who had been asked to utilize cognitive strategies for reducing pain (to imagine pleasant events or to imagine the finger as insensitive) showed a reduction in pain as compared to uninstructed control subjects. Subjects led to expect a reduction in pain, but not provided with cognitive strategies, also showed reduced pain during the posttest as compared to control subjects, but the reduction was smaller than for subjects using cognitive strategies. An experimenter modeling procedure, used with one half of the subjects under each experimental treatment, was effective in reducing verbal reports of pain only for subjects with high pretest levels who were asked to imagine pleasant events.

Russell, Elbert W. (1974). The power of behavior control: A critique of behavior modification methods. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30 (2), 111-136.

In summarizing the effectiveness of behavior therapy the author states, “At this point there does not appear to be sufficient evidence to demonstrate that all of the effectiveness of various types of behavior therapy is produced by non-specific, especially placebo, effects. In fact, it is more probable that many of these techniques will be found to have elements that are not due to non-specific effects and, as such, they will be the treatment of choice for certain limited problems, such as aversive therapy for autistic children or training of the mentally retarded. Nevertheless, concerning the central issue in this monograph, it is increasingly apparent that a very large proportion of the ‘power’ of behavior methods is due to non-specific, suggestion or placebo effects.
“As such, this ‘power’ is neither behavioristic, new, nor particularly threatening. It is not new since it has been known to medicine for many decades. As Shapiro states, ‘the history of both physiologic and psychologic treatment is largely the history of the placebo effect; those who forget it are destined to repeat it’. In support of the age of this problem, Shapiro also quotes from the compiler of the remedies of the Paris Pharmacologia, a century ago, ‘What pledge can be afforded that the boasted remedies of the present-day will not, like their predecessors, fall into disrepute, and in their turn serve only as a humiliating memorial to the credulity and infatuation of the physicians who recommended and prescribed them'” (p. 120-121).
“The large amount of suggestion or placebo effect in behavior therapy does raise at least two vital problems. The first problem involves the ethics of using suggestion or a placebo. Is it ethical to give the patient a false or questionable explanation for the source of the effectiveness of behavior procedures? Such an explanation would be that they are based on proven scientific behavior principles when major people in the field do not believe this and evidence is mounting that the primary source of effect is suggestion. Secondly, what will be the effect on the attitude of the general public toward professional psychology when they realize that the effectiveness of psychological behavior therapy methods is primarily a matter of suggestion? Will they not consider it a modern patent medicine? The damage that could be done to the prestige of psychology might take decades to repair. JH

Tori, Christopher; Worell, Leonard (1973). Reduction of human avoidant behavior: A comparison of counterconditioning, expectancy, and cognitive information approaches. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41 (2), 269-278.

This study was designed to compare the fear-reducing efficacy of procedures based on three major theories that have been proposed to account for the success of systematic desensitization therapy: (a) cognitive information storage and retrieval, (b) cognitive expectancy, and (c) counterconditioning. Predictions were confirmed in that the outcome measures of the high-expectancy placebo group and the two cognitive-coping groups were significantly superior to those of the counterconditioning and no-treatment groups. Thus, this experiment supports the supposition that changes in human avoidant behavior may be attributed to demand and expectancy variables rather than the conditioning of “antagonistic responses” as has been previously suggested.

Moorefield, C. W. (1971). The use of hypnosis and behavior therapy in asthma. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 13, 162-163.

Nine patients with asthma were treated with hypnosis and behavior therapy. All of these patients showed subjective improvement to a rather marked degree, except for one patient who has had three slight attacks of asthma since the onset of her treatment. These patients have been followed from eight to approximately 24 months. The results so far have been rather encouraging and the author believes this form of treatment will prove to be of benefit in the treatment of asthma and possibly many other related conditions.

Davis, Daniel; McLemore, Clinton W.; London, Perry (1970). The role of visual imagery in desensitization. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8 (1), 11-13.

Summary: a measure of visual imagery ability was obtained for 33 females who and participated in desensitization therapy for snake phobia. Visual imagery was positively related to pretherapy performance (closeness of approach to a live snake), but not to improvement. On the basis of these results and the results of two other studies, it was hypothesized that the fear of good imagers tends to be based on imagination while that of poor imagers tends to be based on sensory experience.
Most psychologists now recognize behavior therapy as effective in alleviating a wide variety of fears, but the nature of the processes underlying the various methods remains an open issue. Imagery has been of particular interest as a possible common denominator among various desensitization techniques. Lazarus (1961), for example, asserts that a “prerequisite for effective application of desensitization is the ability to conjure up reasonably vivid images,” and Wolpe (1961) claims, “it is essential for visualizing to be at least moderately clear.” London suggests that theoretically opposed treatments such as reciprocal inhibition (Wolpe, 1958) and implosion (Stampfl and Levis, 1967) may both be facilitated by repeated imagery which “produces a discrimination set such that the patient learns to distinguish between the imaginative, cognitive, affective aspects of experience, and the sensory and overt muscular aspects” (1964, p. 130). However, no systematic studies linking visual imagery to desensitization have been reported. This study examined the relationship between visual imagery and success in desensitization therapy.

Meyer, Robert G.; Tilker, Harvey (1969). The clinical use of direct hypnotic suggestion: A traditional technique in the light of current approaches. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17 (2), 81-88.

Described a psychotherapeutic procedure which utilized hypnosis and aspects from the behavior therapies. Direct manipulation of behavior in an efficient, effective, and replicable procedure was the goal. Posthypnotic suggestions for the manifestation of desired behaviors were combined with attempts to induce S to reinforce his own behavioral changes. The 2 cases presented are of male prison inmates diagnosed as having character disorders. Positive and substantiated changes in physiological, behavioral, and attitudinal areas occurred. These continued without decrease over 6 mo. (with some indication of healthy adjustment at 1 yr.) for 1 S, and for 15 mo. with some continuous improvements for the 2nd S. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)


Kennedy, James; Coe, William C. (1994). Nonverbal signs of deception during posthypnotic amnesia: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (1), 13-19.

The question of hypnotic subjects complying with instructions, perhaps even purposely deceiving the hypnotist or deceiving themselves, has arisen from the state-nonstate (skeptical-credulous) theoretical controversy. However, experimental testing of competing hypotheses has been difficult. The current report offers methodological procedures that may prove useful. Subjects who were given posthypnotic amnesia instructions were tested on free recall and implicit recall of a 20-word list. To detect the possibility of deception, videotapes of real subjects and simulating subjects during and after posthypnotic amnesia were rated for nonverbal signs of deception, signs taken from the works of Ekman, Ekman and Friesen, and Zuckerman et al. Preliminary results were gathered on a small pilot sample, and recommendations for procedural improvements are proposed.

Ader, Robert; Felton, David; Cohen, Nicholas (1990). Interactions between the brain and the immune system. In Cho, Arthur K.; George, Robert; Blaschke, Terrence (Ed.), null (30, pp. 561-602). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews Inc..

Without attempting to cover all the literature, we have used stress effects and conditioning phenomena as illustrations to point out that behavior can influence immune function. We have also described data indicating that the immune system can receive and respond to neural and endocrine signals. Conversely, behavioral, neural, and endocrine responses seem to be influenced by an activated immune system. Thus, a traditional view of immune function that is confined to cellular interactions occurring within lymphoid tissues is insufficient to account for changes in immunity observed in subhuman animals and man under real world conditions.
“These data question seriously the notion of an autonomous immune system. … The immune system is, indeed, capable of considerable self-regulation, and immune responses can be made to take place in vitro. The functions of that component of adaptive processes known as the immune system that are of ultimate concern, however, are those that take place in vivo. There are now compelling reasons to believe that in vivo immunoregulatory processes influence and are influenced by the neuroendocrine environment in which such processes actually take place … . The immune system appears to be modulated, not only by feedback mechanisms mediated through neural and endocrine processes, but by feedforward mechanisms as well. The immunologic effects of learning, an essential feedforward mechanism, suggest that, like direct neural and endocrine processes, behavior can, under appropriate circumstances, serve an immunoregulatory function in vivo. Conceptually, the capacity to suppress or enhance immune responses by conditioning has raised innumerable questions about the normal operation and modifiability of the immune system via neural and endocrine processes.
“We do not yet know the nature of all the channels of communication between the brain and the immune system or the functional significance of the neural and endocrine interrelationships that have been established….
“This integrated circuitry has extensive ascending and descending connections among the regions cited. These regions also share many similarities. They are sites intimately involved in visceral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine regulation. The cortical and limbic forebrain regions mediate both affective and cognitive processes and may be involved in the response to stressors, in affective states and disorders such as depression, in aversive conditioning, and in the emotional context of sensory inputs from the outside as well as the inside world. From an immunologic perspective, these regions are the sites in which lesions result in altered responses of cells of the immune system; they are the regions that respond to immunization or cytokines by altered neuronal activity or altered monoamine metabolism; and they are the regions that possess the highest concentration of glucocorticoid receptors and link some endocrine systems with neuronal outflow to the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems. Thus, this circuitry is the major system of the CNS suspected to play a key role in responding to immune signals and regulating CNS outflow to the immune system” (pp. 587-589).

Pereira, Robert Peter (1986, July). The role of organismic involvement in hypnotic emotional behavior (Dissertation, Wayne State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (1), 385-B. (Order No. DA8605027)

“Two hundred college undergraduates were pretested via the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A. Fifty subjects scoring in the range 7-12 were designated as Reals, while 25 subjects scoring in the range 0-4 were designated as Simulators. Reals and Simulators were given differential instructions before the administration of a second hypnotic induction procedure, which was accompanied by a task in which subjects were asked to relive each of three emotional experiences, i.e., fear, anger, and happiness. Reals were given instructions encouraging cooperation, while Simulators were instructed to try to convince a group of experienced hypnotists that they were deeply hypnotized, when, in fact, they would not be. “Physiological, overt-behavioral, and cognitive measures taken either during or following the relived-emotions task served as indices of Sarbin’s organismic involvement construct. A post-experimental measure of the realness of subjects’ relived emotional experience was regressed on these organismic indices in order to test Sarbin’s assumption of a positive linear relationship between organismic involvement and belief-in imaginings, using data from the Real group only. Results indicated that, across all three emotions, the linear composite of organismic indices shared statistically significant amounts of variance with the criterion of experiential realness. Obtained amounts of shared variance ranged from 22% (during anger) to 55% (during happiness). These findings were interpreted as offering clear and robust support for Sarbin’s theory of hypnosis. Suggestions for further research were offered. “The question of Real-Simulator differences was explored through several multivariate analyses of variance and covariance, using the organismic indices as dependent variables. These analyses were performed on the original sample of Reals and Simulators, and on two subsamples of Reals/Highs and Simulators/Lows which were created through the use of pre- and/or post-experimental exclusion criteria. Reals/Highs showed statistically higher levels of effort than did Simulators/Lows during all three emotions, as well as higher levels of skin conductance and finger temperature during anger. These findings were interpreted as being of theoretical and practical significance. Multiple replications of the physiological findings were recommended in order to assess the extent to which the skin conductance and finger temperature variables might be used in practical, i.e., forensic contexts” (p. 385-B).

Sands, Steven (1986, August). The use of hypnosis in establishing a holding environment to facilitate affect tolerance and integration in impulsive patients. Psychiatry, 49.

This paper is concerned with the use of hypnosis in establishing a facilitating and holding environment in the treatment of impulsive behavior across a range of diagnoses. The reason for this cross-diagnostic viewpoint is to underscore the common sources of such action and the needs to be met in its treatment. Illustrations from work with two patients are presented: One was a hypomanic and bulimic woman who was successful in her profession; the other was an underemployed and sometimes unemployed schizophrenic man. Both were inclined to self-defeating impulsive action—bulimia in the woman, assault in the man.

Kirsch, Irving (1985, November). Response expectancy as a determinant of experience and behavior. American Psychologist, 40 (11), 1189-1202.

Response expectancies, defined as expectancies of the occurrence of nonvolitional responses, have generally been ignored in theories of learning. Research on placebos, hypnosis, and fear reduction indicates that response expectancies generate corresponding subjective experiences. In many cases, the genuineness of these self- reported effects has been substantiated by corresponding changes in behavior and physiological function. The means by which response expectancies affect experience, physiology, and behavior are hypothesized to vary as a function of response mode. The generation of changes in subjective experience by corresponding response expectancies is hypothesized to be a basic psychological mechanism. Physiological effects are accounted for by the mindbody identity assumption that is common to all nondualist philosophies of psychology. The effects of response expectancies on volitional behavior are due to the reinforcing properties of many nonvolitional responses. Classical conditioning appears to be one method by which response expectancies are acquired, but response expectancy effects that are inconsistent with a conditioning hypothesis are also documented.

Vickery, Anne R.; Kirsch, Irving; Council, James R.; Sirkin, Mark I. (1985). Cognitive skill and traditional trance hypnotic inductions: A within-subjects comparison. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53 (1), 131-133

Comparison of a traditional trance hypnotic induction and a cognitive skill induction in a within-Ss design with 40 undergraduates showed that the cognitive skill induction enhanced subjective responses to suggestions and produced significant increments in behavioral responses when it was preceded by the trance induction. The trance procedure led to greater self-reported alterations in consciousness. Findings suggest that skill induction teaches cognitive strategies that enhance responsivity to suggestions in subsequent hypnotic experiences, independent of alterations in consciousness elicited by trance induction.

Tellegen, Auke (1981). Practicing the two disciplines for relaxation and enlightenment: Comment on ‘Role of the feedback signal in electromyograph biofeedback: the relevance of attention’ by Qualls and Sheehan. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 217-226.

High and Low Absorption Ss differ in set rather than in capability for attending to external or internal stimuli, as Qualls and Sheehan suggest. Trait x Treatment interaction for Absorption illustrates concept of personality dispositions being inherently interactive functional units. Provides a content analysis of Absorption scale (subscales) and relates absorption to other constructs in psychology. “It is not the internal versus external focus per se that play a decisive role but the subject’s experiential versus instrumental set. For example, with two treatment levels, one would expect to obtain an Absorption x Treatment interaction even if both treatment conditions required an external attentional focus, as long as they contrasted an experiential and an instrumental set” (pp 223-224).

Gerschman, Jack; Burrows, Graham D.; Reade, Peter; Foenander, George (1979). Hypnotizability and the treatment of dental phobic behavior. In Burrows, Graham D.; Collison, David R.; Dennerstein, Lorraine (Ed.), Hypnosis 1979: Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Hypnosis and Psychosomatic Medicine, Melbourne, Australia (pp. 33-39). New York: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.

Found significant relationship between hypnotizability scores on the Diagnostic Rating Scale (O’Connell, D. N., Orne, M. T., & Shor, R. D., 1966) and responsivity to treatment employing hypnosis for dental phobia.

Lick, John R. (1975). Expectancy, false galvanic skin response feedback, and systematic desensitization in the modification of phobic behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43 (4), 557-567.

This study compared systematic desensitization and two pseudotherapy manipulations with and without false galvanic skin response feedback after every session suggesting improvement in the modification of intense snake and spider fear. The results indicated no consistent differences between the three treatment groups, although all treatments were significantly more effective than no treatment in modifying physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of fear. A 4-month follow-up showed stability in fear reduction on self-report measures for the three treatment groups. Overall, the results of this experiment were interpreted as contradicting a traditional conditioning explanation of systematic desensitization. An alternate explanation for the operation of systematic desensitization emphasizing the motivational as opposed to conditioning aspects of the procedure is discussed.

Bloom, Richard F. (1974). Validation of suggestion-induced stress.

Technical Memorandum 23-74 (October 1974), US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005, AMCMS Code 5910.21.68629, Contract No. DAAD05-73-C-0243, Dunlap and Associates, Inc. (now Stamford, CT), AD002557.
Sixty college men, divided into three equal groups, each attended two induced stress sessions in which their physiological, psychological and performance reactions were measured. Their responses were compared to determine if valid stress reactions could be induced through suggestion in an altered state (in this case, hypnosis), and also to determine the validity of such reactions if the subject had never before experienced that stress situation. It was demonstrated that valid stress reactions can be induced in an individual with the aid of suggestions, especially if the real stress situation has been experienced before. If no previous experience with that real situation exists, the subject still exhibits stressful reactions; however, the closest resemblance to real stress is found in the subjective or psychological measures, less similarity is found in the physiological measures, and the least similarity is found in the performance measures.

Sutcliffe, J. P. (1961). ‘Credulous’ and ‘Skeptical’ views of hypnotic phenomena: Experiments on anesthesia, hallucination, and delusion. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 189-200.

The author distinguishes between 2 interpretations of hypnotic phenomena: the credulous (S does or does not experience what the hypnotist suggests) and the skeptical (S reports what is suggested regardless of the “reality” of his experience). 2 groups of Ss (distinguished with respect to the presence or not of genuine hypnotic behavior and posthypnotic amnesia) were placed in a 3 [control (not under hypnotic trance), hypnotic trance, nontrance acting (S asked to act as if conditions were as suggested)] by 2 (stimulus present or not) design involving paraesthesias, hallucinations, and delusional thinking. Evidence (such as GSR, interference in thinking due to feedback, test measures of delusion) suggests that S does not misperceive the real situation, but misreports it. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II89S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1958). Hypnosis as perceptual-cognitive restructuring: II. “Post”-hypnotic behavior. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 6 (1), 10-20.
The author presents “experimental evidence indicating that there is no essential difference between ‘hypnotic’ behavior and ‘post-hypnotic’ behavior” (p. 11).
“Summary and Conclusions
“When ‘somnambulistic’ subjects were told to ‘wake up’ after they were given a ‘post-hypnotic suggestion’ and ‘amnesia for the suggestion’ they behaved as follows:
1. They opened their eyes and became relatively more aware of their surroundings.
2. They were aware that the signal for the ‘post-hypnotic- behavior had special significance for them.
3. They were ‘set’ to ‘obey the hypnotist’s suggestions’ from the moment they were told to ‘wake up,’ until they were convinced that their interpersonal relationship with the operator was no longer that of subject and hypnotist.
4. When the ‘post-hypnotic suggestion’ was uncomplicated and fitted into the normal pattern of behavior, the subjects carried it out without ‘going deeper into trance,’ i.e., without becoming relatively more ‘detached’ from their surroundings. However, when the ‘post-hypnotic suggestion’ was of such a nature that it was necessary for the subjects to ‘go deeper into trance’ to properly carry it out, the subjects _did_ ‘go deeper into trance.’
“Whether the subjects did or did not have amnesia for the ‘post-hypnotic suggestion’ was not important. ‘Amnesic’ and ‘non-amnesic’ subjects carried out the ‘post-hypnotic’ behavior in essentially the same way.
“These experiments indicate that:
1. If the operator properly manipulates the situation, the ‘good’ hypnotic subject is ‘set’ to carry out the operator’s commands in the ‘post-hypnotic’ period in the same way as during ‘hypnosis.’
2. If, in order to properly carry out the ‘post-hypnotic suggestions,’ it is necessary for the subject to ‘go deeper into trance’ — i.e., to become relatively inattentive to stimuli not emanating from the operator — the good subject will do so.
3. There is no _essential- difference between the subject’s behavior in the ‘hypnotic’ period and in the ‘post-hypnotic’ period.
4. If we are to continue speaking of ‘suggestions’ to be carried out in the post-hypnotic period we should term them ‘post’-hypnotic ‘suggestions'” (pp. 19-20).

Gravitz, Melvin (2002). Hypnosis as a counter-measure against the polygraph test of deception.. Polygraph Journal, 31, 293-297.

This article presents a bibliography of experimental and applied studies for reference by those interested in the use of hypnosis as a counter-measure in the “lie detector” test.

Nash, Michael R.; Minton, Ann; Baldridge, Jeffrey (1988). Twenty years of scientific hypnosis in dentistry, medicine, and psychology: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 198-205.

This paper examines the number of hypnosis articles appearing over the past 20 years in the scientific literature. A comprehensive index of all hypnosis articles published from 1966 to 1985 was obtained by using 5 computer reference data bases (Psychological Abstracts, Index Medicus, Psych Info, Psych Alert, Medline, and Index to Dental Literature). Over 3,500 scientific articles on hypnosis were categorized as to year published (1966 to 1985); journal title; and journal discipline (dental, medical, psychological, core hypnosis specialty journals, and interdisciplinary journals). The period 1966-1969 witnessed a relative prominence of hypnosis articles. For the next 12 years, the number of articles modestly declined. During the most recent 4-year period (1982-1985) there has been a sharp increase, with more articles published in this period than any other. The authors conclude: (a) that there is a stable level of acceptance and interest in hypnosis methodologies across years and disciplines and (b) that this stability, along with the growth of hypnosis specialty journals, signals maturation of the field. A list of dental, medical, psychological, and interdisciplinary journals which publish hypnosis articles is included.

Gravitz, Melvin A. (1987). Two centuries of hypnosis specialty journals. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35 (4), 265-276.

Hypnosis under a variety of names has been utilized in clinical practice and scientific research for more than 2 centuries. During that time, there have been numerous periodicals which functioned as specialized outlets for publications related to the modality. In addition, there have been hundreds more which contained hypnosis articles within more general contexts. A comprehensive compilation of these specialized journals has not been available, however, and the present research presents the most complete listing to date. A total of 139 different titles was located through a search of the literature. The largest single group of these was published in French, while English was the second most frequent language used. The oldest hypnosis periodical was the Annales de la Societe Harmonique des Amis-Reunis de Strasbourg which was published in Strasbourg, France, in 1786, under the possible editorship of A. M. J. Chastenet de Puysegur. The first English language journal was published in London in 1816 with Francis Corbaux as editor and was entitled the Magnetiser’s Magazine and Annals of Animal Magnetism. In the United States, 1842 was the initial year for the publication of the first 3 hypnosis journals.

Hollender, M. H. (1987). The Albert Moll hypnosis collection. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35 (1), 1-7.