Achterberg, J. (1984, October). Cancer, immunology, psychological factors, and imagery. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX.

Author developed a way of scoring imagery (which will be published in Imagery and Disease.). In terms of predicting who will die and who will survive, the content of the images doesn’t seem to be as important as the quality (strength, vividness, etc.), which supports Bernauer Newton’s (1984) findings. “The image seems to be a basic pre-verbal component of our species that has survival value.”

Achterberg, J. (1984, October). Cancer, immunology, psychological factors, and imagery. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX.

Author developed a way of scoring imagery (which will be published in Imagery and Disease.). In terms of predicting who will die and who will survive, the content of the images doesn’t seem to be as important as the quality (strength, vividness, etc.), which supports Bernauer Newton’s (1984) findings. “The image seems to be a basic pre-verbal component of our species that has survival value.”

Barinaga, Marcia (1992). Giving personal magnetism a whole new meaning. Science, 256, 967.

Cited in Noetic Sciences Review, Autumn, 1992. This geobiologist has discovered that the human brain contains billions of tiny magnets–some 7 billion of them, each so small that their total weight is only one/millionth of an ounce. In magnetite- containing bacteria, the crystals are used as a compass needle which orients the bacteria with respect to the Earth’s magnetic field. In birds, bees, and fish, where concentration of the mineral is a few orders of magnitude higher than he found in the human brain, it is used as a navigational aid. He plays down the possible connection to weak electromagnetic fields that supposedly cause cancer (unless fields could induce very weak electrical fields inside the cells, disrupting cellular function). Other possible interpretations: a means for cells to store excess iron, or part of a magnetic sensing system, or a vestigial system left over in evolution from when we were more directly connected with the earth’s magnetic field and may have relied on it for navigation or migratory movement.

Bayot, A.; Capafons, A.; Cardeqa, E. (1997). Emotional self-regulation therapy: A new and efficacious treatment for smoking.. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 40 (2), 146-156.

We described emotional self-regulation therapy, a recently-developed suggestion technique for the treatment of smoking, and present data attesting to its efficacy. Of the 38 individuals who completed treatment, 82% (47% of the initial sample)stopped smoking altogether and 13% (8% of the initial sample) reduced their smoking. A follow-up at 6 months showed that 66% (38% of the initial sample) of those who had completed the treatment remained abstinent and reported minimal withdrawal symptoms or weight gain. In a no-treatment comparison group, only 8% reduced their smoking or became abstinent.

Burish, Thomas G.; Snyder, Susan L.; Jenkins, Richard A. (1991). Preparing patients for cancer chemotherapy: Effect of coping preparation and relaxation interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59 (4), 518-525. Burish, Thomas G.; Snyder, Susan L.; Jenkins, Richard A. (1991). Preparing patients for cancer chemotherapy: Effect of coping preparation and relaxation interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59 (4), 518-525.

60 cancer chemotherapy patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (a) relaxation training with guided relaxation imagery (RT), (b) general coping preparation package (PREP), (c) both RT and PREP, or (d) routine clinic treatment only. All patients were assessed on self-report, nurse observation, family observation, and physiological measures and were followed for 5 sequential chemotherapy treatments. Results indicate that the PREP intervention increased patients’ knowledge of the disease and its treatment, reduced anticipatory side effects, reduced negative affect, and improved general coping. RT patients showed some decrease in negative affect and vomiting, but not as great as in past studies. The data suggest that relatively simple, 1-session coping preparation intervention can reduce many different types of distress associated with cancer chemotherapy and may be more effective than often-used behavioral relaxation procedures.

Cangello, V. W. (1961). The use of hypnotic suggestion for pain relief in malignant disease. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 17-22.

Using hypnotic suggestion, pain relief was attempted in 22 cases. 13 of these patients showed a decrease in narcotic requirements. Duration of effectiveness was from 1 week to 41/2 months. It is concluded that this method should be tried before resorting to either chemical or surgical procedures since it is relatively simple to perform, has no harmful complications, and is not unduly time consuming. From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2II17C. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Capafons, A. (1999). Applications of emotional self-regulation therapy. In Kirsch, I.; Capafons, A.; Cardeqa, E.; Amigs, S. (Ed.), Clinical hypnosis and self-regulation: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 331-349). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
ABSTRACT: This chapter reviews the main applications of emotional self-regulation therapy, which have received empirical support: smoking reduction, obesity, fear of flying, drug addictions, and premenstrual distress and dysmenorrhea. The logic of each treatment and main empirical results are summarized.

Clawson, T. A.; Swade, R. H. (1975). The hypnotic control of blood flow and pain: The cure of warts and the potential for the use of hypnosis in the treatment of cancer. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 17 (3), 160-169.

Case histories show that hypnosis can control massive bleeding and pain, and it can remove warts, probably by stopping blood flow to them. We propose that blood flow to cancerous tumors can likewise be controlled, which could destroy them outright, or which control could be a useful adjunct to chemo- or radio-therapy.

Crasilneck, Harold B.; Hall, James A. (1962). The use of hypnosis with unconscious patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10 (3), 141-144.

8 of 10 patients dying of cancer were found to continue a simple motor response to a hypnotic command, even though they revealed no other evidence of interaction with the environment and were considered unconscious by their physicians. Certain theoretical considerations are mentioned. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Crasilneck, Harold B.; Jenkins, M. T. (1958). Further studies in the use of hypnosis as a method of anesthesia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 6 (3), 152-158.

“At the present time it appears that there are several problems in which hpnosis is an acceptable and perhaps preferable method of anesthesia. Some of these problems include cases in which chemical analgesics and depressants are contraindicated or dangerous because of respiratory or cardiac disease. It may be indicated with patients who have demonstrated sensitivity to certain local anesthetics. Hypno-anesthesia may be used in cases in which repeated chemical anesthesia tends to have a debilitating effect on the patient with an already disturbed physiology, such as patients with thermal injuries who require multiple repeated debridements and dressings. Hypnosis may also obviate the debilitating effects of prolonged chemical anesthesia” (p. 156).

Dempster, C. R.; Balson, P.; Whalen, B. T. (1976). Supportive hypnotherapy during the radical treatment of malignancies. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 1-9.

“In summary, the radical treatment of malignancies presents a number of hypnotherapeutic opportunities. Not only can hypnotherapy help alleviate disease-related symptoms, but it can also limit some of the distressing side-effects of the treatments. The patient can gain needed hope by having the impact of his disease lessened. The hypnotherapeutic relationship also provides a useful base fom which to deal with the issues of terminal illness, of death, and of dying.
“Implications for the future basically revolve around the issue of supportive hypnotehrapy during radical treatment. As the use of chemotherapy of malignancies increases, there will be many opportunities for successful hypnotherapeutic interventions” (pp. 7-8).

Eimer, Bruce; Freeman, Arthur (1998). Pain management psychotherapy: A practical guide. New York NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

“Pain Management Psychotherapy” (PMP) provides a clear and methodical look at pain management psychotherapy beginning with the initial consultation and work-up of the patient and continuing through termination of treatment. It is a thoughtful and thorough presentation that covers methods for psychologically assessing the chronic pain patient (structured interviews, pain assessment tests and rating scales, instruments for evaluating beliefs, attitudes, pain behavior, disability, depression, anxiety, anger and alienation), treatment planning, cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, and a range of hypnotic approaches to pain management. The book covers both traditional (cognitive and behavior therapy, biofeedback, assessing hypnotizability, choice of inductions, designing an individualized self-hypnosis exercise) as well as newer innovative techniques (e.g., EMDR, pain-relief imagery, hypno-projective methods, hypno-analytic reprocessing of pain-related negative experiences). An extensive appendix reproduces in their entirety numerous forms, rating scale, inventories, assessment instruments, and scripts.
The senior author, Bruce Eimer, states in his online comments on Amazon.com that “most therapists hold the belief that ‘real’ chronic pain patients are quite impossible to help. This book attempts to dispel these misguided beliefs by providing a body of knowledge, theory, and techniques that have proven value in understanding and relieving chronic physical pain.” He also states that “the challenge for the therapist is to persuade the would-ne patient/client that he or she has something to offer that can help take way pain and bring back more pleasure. This challenge is negotiated through the therapeutic relationship. However, the therapist just can’t be ‘warm, accepting, non-judgmental and empathic’. The therapist must also have knowledge and skills relevant to relieving pain. Only then can the therapist impart such knowledge, and in teaching these skills to the pain patient, help the patient become something of a ‘self-therapist’. . . I dedicate this book to everyone who wants to find ways to make living with pain more comfortable, and to the ongoing search for better ways to relieve pain.”

Gardner, G. Gail; Lubner, Alison (1982-83). Hypnotherapy for children with cancer: Some current issues. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25 (2-3), 135-142.
The authors review some of the problems that now face clinicians and researchers working in the field of hypnotherapy for pediatric cancer patients. These include (1) understanding and dealing with resistance and refusal, (2) developing preventive hypnotherapeutic strategies for children who will survive cancer, and (3) carrying out research that clarifies the value of hypnotherapy with childhood cancer patients and elucidates when and how specific approaches can best be utilized.

Gardner, Gail G. (1976). Hypnosis and mastery: Clinical contributions and directions for research. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24 (3), 202-214.

This paper explores the concept of mastery in relation to hypnotherapy by pulling together clinical observations and suggesting directions for research. It is suggested that a sense of mastery may enhance the effectiveness of hypnosis, either by facilitating induction, or by strengthening hypnotherapeutic suggestions, or by maintaining hypnotherapeutic gains. Moreover, the qustion is raised as to whether hypnotherapy, as compared with other psychotherapeutic approaches, better facilitates the development of a sense of mastery.

Grant, Guy (1977). The psychophysiology and hypnotherapeutic management of cancer. Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5, 35-49.

Reviews research on psychophysiology of cancer, effect of stress on host resistance, cancer prediction from personality traits, psychological theories of cancer aetiology, and psychological characteristics of patients with different types of neoplasms. The hypnotherapy of cancer patients is outlined in terms of its effect upon the malignancy, relief of discomfort, and psyche of the cancer patient. Recommends direction of hypnotherapeutic treatment of cancer patients.

Grossarth-Maticek, R.; Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Creative novation behaviour therapy as a prophylactic treatment for cancer and coronary heart disease: Part II – Effects of treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 17-31.

Reports on what they call creative novation behavior therapy or “autonomy training” to prevent cancer and coronary heart disease in prone individuals. This individually tailored cognitive-behavioral program includes the use of hypnosis and of imagery. When administered individually (20-30 hours) in a group (6-15 sessions of up to several hours) or via bibliotherapy with 4-6 hours of individual therapy, the outcome was better than that of control subjects. After 13 years, 45 of 50 cancer-prone subjects in individual treatment were still alive (and none of the 5 deaths were from cancer), while among 50 control subjects, 31 died, 16 from cancer. This study along with Spiegel et al. (1989) article in Lancet have important implications for health care.

Hall, Howard R. (1982-83). Hypnosis and the immune system: A review with implications for cancer and the psychology of healing. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25 (2-3), 92-103.

This paper presents a review of the body’s immune system as an introduction to a discussion of the implications of those processes for cancer and the healing mechanisms.

Presents a review of the body’s immune system as an introduction to a discussion of the implications of those processes for cancer and the healing mechanisms.

Hall, Marian D. (1982-83). Using relaxation imagery with children with malignancies: A developmental perspective. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25 (2-3), 143-149.

Developmental theory has been the foundation for this program of relaxation-imagery therapy with its goal of increasing the efficacy of immune mechanisms, thus increasing the survival rate of children with malignancies and/or improving the comfort and quality of their lives. Three basis constructs–the impact of social stress, the positive development of attachment and the negative effects of separation and loss, and the stages of concept formation relating to the functioning of the human body, the processes of disease and death–are basic approaches to the use of imagery-relaxation as an integral part of a comprehensive care plan.

Hallaji, J, Ja’far (1962). Hypnotherapeutic techniques in a central Asian community. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10, 271-274. (Abstracted in Index Medicus, 63, Mar. S-543)

The semimonastic Sufi practitioners of Afganistan treat physical as well as psychosomatic disorders by a method which is reminiscent of Mesmerism, and they claim cures even for illnesses such as tuberculosis and cancer. A treatment session for 18 patients is described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Harper, Gary W. (1999). A developmentally sensitive approach to clinical hypnosis for chronically and terminally ill adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 42 (1), 50-60.

Adolescents who suffer from terminal and/or chronic medical illnesses must face difficult developmental issues coupled with increased burdens of physical discomfort and uncertainty about survival. Clinical hypnosis is one technique that can be used to help these individuals gain a sense of comfort and control over their lives. I describe the use of a developmentally sensitive hypnotherapeutic intervention for chronically and terminally ill adolescents. I have used the technique for the reduction of various types of physical and psychological discomfort secondary to a range of medical problems such as cancer, end-stage renal disease, organ transplant, and HIV disease. The treatment focuses on the use of personalized procedures that attempt to increase perceptions of control through interactive formats. Movement through a personally intriguing journey is used as a metaphor for controlling and moving away from discomfort. I also present three case examples as well as general treatment recommendations for clinical use.

Hendler, Cobie S.; Redd, William H. (1986). Fear of hypnosis: The role of labeling in patients’ acceptance of behavioral interventions. Behavior Therapy, 17, 2-13.

One hundred and five outpatient cancer chemotherapy patients were interviewed to assess their attitudes toward hypnosis and relaxation as well as to determine their beliefs in and willingness to try a behavioral procedure. Patients were randomly assigned to groups receiving identical descriptions labeled “hypnosis,” “relaxation,” or “passive relaxation with guided imagery.” The description stressed the behavioral components of hypnosis and relaxation rather than the nonbehavioral techniques often associated with hypnosis such as age regression and posthypnotic suggestion. Patients believed hypnosis to be a powerful process that involved loss of control and altered states of consciousness. When compared with a group of college students, patients held significantly more fearful, conservative views about hypnosis. Patients who received a description of an intervention labeled “hypnosis” were significantly less likely to believe the procedure would effectively control their nausea and vomiting and were significantly less likely to state they would try the procedure than patients in the other two label conditions. This reaction to the label occurred independently of patients’ degree of nausea, vomiting, and pain due to their chemotherapy treatments.

Hilgard, Josephine R.; LeBaron, Samuel (1982). Relief of anxiety and pain in children and adolescents with cancer: Quantitative measures and clinical observations. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 417-442.

Children and adolescents with cancer, chiefly forms of leukemia, aged 6 to 19 years, underwent medical treatments which required repeated bone marrow aspirations, normally a painful and anxiety-provoking experience. Data were obtained in baseline bone marrow observations on 63 patients, who were then offered the opportunity to volunteer for hypnotic help in pain control. Of the 24 patients who accepted hypnosis, 9 were highly hypnotizable. 10 of the 19 reduced self-reported pain substantially by the first hypnotic treatment (the prompt pain reducers) and 5 more reduced self-reported pain by the second treatment (the delayed pain reducers) while none of the 5 less hypnotizable patients accomplished this. The latter benefitted by reducing anxiety. Short case reports illustrate the variety of experiences.
Analysis of baseline observations before any therapeutic intervention revealed age and sex differences. The difference between self-reported and observed pain was not statistically significant for patients under age 10 but was significant for the patients age 10 and older (p<.001). There were minor but significant sex differences both in observed pain (p<.01) and in self-reported pain (p<.05), with the females reporting more pain. Hoffman, Mark L. (1982/83). Hypnotic desensitization for the management of anticipatory emesis in chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25 (2-3), 173-176. A hypnotic treatment employing systematic desensitization was used to alleviate anticipatory nausea and vomiting in a middle-aged man undergoing chemotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease. After four treatment sessions, all nausea associated with chemotherapy was eliminated. Results of this treatment are compared with those of another hypnotic treatment recently reported by Redd et al (1982), and reasons for differences are discussed. [Redd, W. H., Andersen, G. V. & Minagawa, R. Y. (1982). Hypnotic control of anticipatory emesis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 14-19.] Holroyd, Jean (1996). Hypnosis treatment of clinical pain: Understanding why hypnosis is useful. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44 (1), 33-51. Clinical and experimental research literature indicates hypnosis is very useful for severe and persistent pain, yet reviews suggest hypnosis is not widely used. To encourage more widespread clinical application, the author reviews recent controlled clinical studies in which hypnosis compares favorably with other interventions; links advances in understanding endogenous pain modulation to a neurophysiologic view of hypnosis and hypnoanalgesia; relates the neurophysiology of hypnoanalgesia to management of chronic pain; challenges the view that hypnotic pain control is only for the highly hypnotizable patient; and raises issues about how people learn to control pain with hypnosis. Training in hypnotic analgesia may usefully enhance nervous system inhibitory processes that attenuate pain. NOTES Hypnosis has been more effective for pain management than other cognitive behavioral interventions in studies of fibromyalgia (Haanen, Hoenderdos, Van Romunde, Hop, Malle, Terwiel, & Hekster, 1991); burn treatment (Patterson, Everett, Burns, & Marvin, 1992); and cancer bone marrow transplant procedures (Syrjala, Cummings, & Donaldson, 1992). Central nervous system gating or downward modulation of pain impulses may account for hypnotic pain control. "Hypnosis enables both amplification and attenuation of cortical response subsequent to sensory registration and prior to consciousness, depending on whether suggestions are for increasing or decreasing awareness (Blum & Barbour, 1979)" (p. 36). This type of inhibition may even be observed in the peripheral nervous system (see Hernandez-Peon, Dittborn, Borlone, & Davidovich, 1959/1960; Sharev & Tal, 1989; Kiernan, Dane, Phillips, & Price, 1995). Work by Helen Crawford (1994) suggests that frontal and limbic areas of the brain are involved in inhibitory patterns of brain activity, and that generation of theta EEG rhythms by lower centers is associated with the suppression of awareness of pain. Some very low hypnotizable people have been able to learn to control pain with hypnosis, suggesting that it is a skill that can be learned. However, few investigations of improvement of hypnoanalgesia were located. Rather, one must generalize from the fact that other kinds of hypnosis skills have been improved using special training programs, such as the Carleton University program developed by Gorassini & Spanos, 1986). Although most research on improving hypnotic response has been based on operant learning principles, a model that incorporates respondent (classical conditioning) principles might be more useful when it comes to understanding the training of a neurophysiological response, such as inhibitory brain patterns associated with hypnoanalgesia. "Historical success with clinical pain, taken together with newer findings in the neurophysiology of hypnosis, indicate that we should be spending more energy investigating how learning may improve hypnotic analgesia" (p. 43). "We should acknowledge that there are advantages to hypnosis beyond those of relaxation, a good placebo, and psychotherapy. ... Responsible care demands that we provide training or practice in hypnotic analgesia when treating pain, and especially whenever a chronic pain patient initially appears to be nonresponsive" (p. 43). Jay, Susan (1987, October). Hypnotic susceptibility and response to psychological intervention for distress related to painful procedures in leukemic children. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Los Angeles. NOTES Presented children with a cognitive behavioral intervention package that involved five elements 1. Filmed Modeling (child modeling and talking about it with good coping skills) 2. Positive Reinforcement - trophy 'for doing the best you can,' to change aversive situation to a positive situation 3. Breathing Exercises - 'puff yourself up like a tire' 4. Emotive Imagery/Distraction - super hero image (Superman), or being in a favorite place 5. Behavioral Rehearsal - dollplay, reviewing the procedure with medical equipment. For Numbers 4 and 5 the therapist would actively guide the procedures; numbers 3, 4 & 5 are hypnotic elements. Valium had lowered children's distress prior to procedures but not during the procedures. This study involved Valium plus cognitive behavior therapy. 25 Subjects ages 6-12, were measured for hypnotizability 2 groups: (1) Cognitive Behavior Therapy + Valium given just before intervention started, after film ended; (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy alone. Dependent Measures: 1. Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress coded every 15 seconds. 2. Faces Scale for Fear (self report) before procedure Faces Scale for Pain (self report) after procedure 3. Blood pressure RESULTS. No Significant Differences were found between the two groups (CBT vs CBT + Valium). Pre-Post Analyses: Post intervention scores were significant lower than Pretest on [missed notes] Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.; Katz, Ernest; Siegel, Stuart E. (1987). Cognitive-behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for children's' distress during painful medical procedures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 860-865. This study evaluated the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention package and a low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium), as compared with a minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children's distress during bone marrow aspirations. The subjects were 56 leukemia patients who ranged in age from 3 years to 13 years. The three intervention conditions were delivered in a randomized sequence within a repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Dependent outcome measures included observed behavioral distress scores, self-reported pain scores, pulse rate, and blood pressure scores. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that children in the cognitive-behavior therapy condition had significantly lower behavioral distress, lower pain ratings, and lower pulse rates than when they were in the attention- control condition. When children were in the Valium condition, they exhibited no significant differences from the attention control condition except that they had lower diastolic blood pressure scores. NOTES Lonnie Zelzer, M.D., in a UCLA Hypnosis Seminar lecture in 1992, stated that in pre-treatment with Valium the patients did worse during the procedure, vs no pretreatment with Valium, because the medicated patients didn't have clarity of attention during the cognitive behavioral learning. Jones, M. M. (1994). Apnea in postsurgical hypnotherapy of an esophageal cancer patient: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (3), 179-183. Use of clinical hypnosis in the post surgical psychotherapy of an esophageal cancer patient who could not swallow involved reenactment of the successful surgery and producing hallucinations of taste and smell, as well as working through emotions relating to the surgery and her disease. An apnea that occurred in a late phase of the treatment was addressed with the familiar arm pumping technique that had been used as a deepening technique, resulting in the patient's resuming normal breathing. The experience reminds the practitioner of the possible unexpected professional demands when working in a medical environment. It also provides clues as to the underlying psychological mechanisms and their role in successful symptom removal. A 6-year follow-up confirmed the lasting effect of this brief psychotherapy. Katz, Ernest R.; Kellerman, Jonathan; Ellenberg, Leah (1987). Hypnosis in the reduction of acute pain and distress in children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 12, 379-394. Hypnosis has been used as a behavioral approach to help children tolerate aversive medical procedures more effectively, but empirical longitudinal research evaluating the outcome of such interventions has been limited. In the present study, 36 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia between the ages of 6 and 12 years of age undergoing repeated bone marrow aspirations (BMAs) were randomized to hypnosis or play comparison groups. Subjects were selected on their behavioral performance on baseline procedures and received interventions prior to their next three BMA procedures. Major results indicated an improvement in self-reported distress over baseline with both interventions, with no differences between them. Girls exhibited more distress behavior than boys on three of four dependent measures used. Suggestions of an interaction effect between sex and treatment group were noted. The role of rapport between patient and therapist in therapeutic outcome was also evaluated. Results are discussed in terms of potential individual differences in responding to stress and intervention that warrant further research. Kaye, J. M.; Schindler, B. A. (1990). Hypnosis on a consultation-liaison service. General Hospital Psychiatry, 12, 379-383. Studied the use of hypnosis on a consultation-liaison service with a broad spectrum of medically hospitalized patients. Autohypnosis tapes were used for reinforcement. Twenty-nine women and eight men from 24-75 years of age were hypnotized for relief of depression, pain, anxiety, or side effects of chemotherapy. Results were excellent (total to almost total relief of symptoms) in 68%, fair in 22%, and poor in 11%, with no differences among the results with the various conditions. This demonstrates that hypnotherapy is an extremely useful tool in medical management of patients in consultation-liaison psychiatry. Kraft, Tom (1992). Counteracting pain in malignant disease by hypnotic techniques: Five case studies. Contemporary Hypnosis, 9, 123-129. Five cases of patients suffering from cancer are described in which hypnotic visualization techniques were successfully employed to relieve pain and anxiety. This study supports the view that hypnosis can be an effective tool for pain relief in malignant disease, particularly when traditional methods have been exhausted. Kraft, Tom (1993). Using hypnosis with cancer patients: Six case studies. Contemporary Hypnosis, 10, 43-48. Hypnosis can be used in a number of different ways for helping patients suffering from cancer. As well as pain relief, hypnosis may be used to correct insomnia that does not respond to sleeping tablets; for the reduction in skin irritation and dyspnoea when these are due to organic causes, and for treatment-related over-eating. Some patients will use hypnosis in a symbolic way. When this occurs, just as in dream interpretation, it is important to ask the patient for associations, so that these symbols can be understood. Hypnosis can be an extremely useful addition to the medical armamentarium, and should be employed as an adjunct to standard forms of cancer treatment. This paper reports six case studies in which hypnosis was used to help cancer patients. LaClave, Linda J.; Blix, Susanne (1989). Hypnosis in the management of symptoms in a young girl with malignant astrocytoma: A challenge to the therapist. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37 (1), 6-14. This paper presents the case of a 6.5-year-old girl with malignant astrocytoma of the left brain hemisphere. During the course of her chemotherapy treatment, severe vomiting developed to the degree that on several occasions she became dehydrated. Discontinuation of chemotherapy was being considered when she was referred for hypnotherapy. Despite severe neurological impairments which excluded many traditional techniques, hypnosis was successful in eliminating emesis. Hypnosis was also utilized to decrease pain and to improve sleep patterns. Drawings are presented to help show how this child resolved anxiety associated with treatment and fears surrounding the knowledge of her impending death. LeBaron, Samuel; Zeltzer, Lonnie (1982, October). The effectiveness of behavioral intervention for reducing chemotherapy related nausea and vomiting in children with cancer. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Indianapolis, IN. Eight children (nine to seventeen years, Mean age 12.1) with cancer received behavioral intervention for chemotherapy related nausea and vomiting. Within three to five days after the administration of each course of chemotherapy, patients rated (1-10 scale; 1 = none, 10 = all the time or maximal amount) their nausea and vomiting and the extent to which chemotherapy bothered them and disrupted their daily routine. After a pre-intervention assessment of 2.5 courses of chemotherapy, patients received intervention (Mean = 2.6 courses). Significant reductions following intervention (Wilcoxon matched- pairs signed ranks test) were found in nausea (Z = 2.37, p<.02), vomiting (Z = 2.52, p<.01), bother (Z = 2.24, p<.02), and disruption of activities (Z = 2.38, p<.02). This preliminary study indicates that chemotherapy side effects can be reduced through behavioral intervention. Levitan, Alexander A. (1985). Hypnotic death rehearsal. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27 (4), 211-215. Death rehearsal is a technique developed to help terminally ill patients and their families deal with anxieties about death. It has proven useful in demystifying the dying process by answering the question "What is it like to die?" Patients, who are able to hypnotically experience the death process, learn to deal with both grief and anxiety with the help of the hypnotherapist. - Author's abstract Levitan, Alexander A. (1992). The use of hypnosis with cancer patients. Psychiatric Medicine, 10, 119-131. Hypnosis has proven to be extremely valuable in the treatment of cancer patients. Specific applications include: establishing rapport between the patient and members of the medical health team; control of pain with self-regulation of pain perception through the use of glove anesthesia, time distortion, amnesia, transference of pain to a different body part, or dissociation of the painful part form the rest of the body; controlling symptoms, such as, nausea, anticipatory emesis, learned food aversions, etc.; psychotherapy for anxiety, depression, guilt, anger, hostility, frustration, isolation, and a diminished sense of self-esteem; visualization for health improvement; and, dealing with death anxiety and other related issues. Hypnosis has unique advantages for patients including improvement of self-esteem, involvement in self-care, return of locus of control, lack of unpleasant side effects, and continued efficacy despite continued use. Liossi, Christina; Hatira, Popi (1999). Clinical hypnosis versus cognitive behavioural training for pain management with pediatric patients undergoing bone marrow aspirations. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 47 (2), 104-116. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of clinical hypnosis versus cognitive behavioral (CB) coping skills training in alleviating the pain and distress of 30 pediatric cancer patients (age 5 to 15 years) undergoing bone marrow aspirations. Patients were randomized to one of three groups: hypnosis, a package of CB coping skills, and no intervention. Patients who received either hypnosis or CB reported less pain and pain-related anxiety than did control patients and less pain and anxiety than at their own baseline. Hypnosis and CB were similarly effective in the relief of pain. Results also indicated that children reported more anxiety and exhibited more behavioral distress in the CB group than in the hypnosis group. It is concluded that hypnosis and CB coping skills are effective in preparing pediatric oncology patients for bone marrow aspiration. Lyles, Jeanne Naramore; Burish, Thomas G.; Krozely, Mary G.; Oldham, Robert K. (1982). Efficacy of relaxation training and guided imagery in reducing the aversiveness of cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 509-524. Fifty cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, 25 by push injection and 25 by drip infusion, were assigned to one of three conditions for their chemotherapy treatments: (a) progressive muscle-relaxation training plus guided-relaxation imagery; (b) therapist control, in which a therapist was present to provide support and encouragement but did not provide systematic relaxation training; and (c) no-treatment control. Patients participated in one pretraining, three training, and one follow-up session. Results indicated that during the training sessions, patients who received relaxation training, relative to patients in either of the other two conditions, (a) reported feeling significantly less anxious and nauseated during chemotherapy, (b) showed significantly less physiological arousal (as measured by pulse rate and systolic blood pressure) and reported less anxiety and depression immediately after chemotherapy, and (c) reported significantly less severe and less protracted nausea at home following chemotherapy. The attending nurses' observations during chemotherapy confirmed patient reports. In general, patients in the therapist control condition and the no-treatment control condition did not differ significantly from each other. The differences among conditions generally remained significant during the follow-up session. The data suggest that relaxation training may be an effective procedure for helping cancer patients cope with the adverse effects of their chemotherapy. Margolis, Clorinda G. (1982-83). Hypnotic imagery with cancer patients. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25 (2-3), 128-134. This is a clinical report on the use of hypnotic imagery to reduce pain and discomfort in cancer patients. Deep relaxation, ego strengthening, imagery, and suggestions for changes in perception and awareness are the principal techniques used to reduce suffering and to produce a sense of well-being among cancer patients treated at different stages of disease. Hypnotic intervention involving six patients is described, with emphasis on the ease with which positive transference is established and the effectiveness with which it may be used to enhance therapeutic effects. Margolis, Clorinda G. (1984). Hypnosis and cancer: An overview of the field. [Unpublished manuscript] NOTES This paper apparently was presented either at American Psychological Association or the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. The author has two tables summarizing types of cancer associated with pain, and pain syndromes in patients with cancer. Table 3 is a list of Erickson's procedures for Controlling Pain: --Direct hypnotic suggestion for total abolition of pain --Permissive indirect hypnotic abolition of pain --Amnesia --Hypnotic analgesia --Hypnotic anesthesia --Hypnotic replacement or substitution of sensations --Hypnotic displacement of pain --Hypnotic dissociation Time and body disorientation --Hypnotic reinterpretation of pain experience --Hypnotic time distortion --Hypnotic suggestions effecting a diminution of pain (from Rossi, Ed., _Innovative Hypnotherapy_, Vol. IV of the Collected Papers of Milton H. Erickson on Hypnosis, 1980 Table 4 is a list of Sacerdote's Procedures for Controlling Pain: --Teleological approach --Reinterpretation of signals --Associating and conditioning --Dissociation --Simile of electric wiring --Development of amnesia --Positive and negative hallucinations --Induction of dreams --Time and space distortion, and elicitation of mystical states --Relaxation techniques --Glove anesthesia and analgesia --Pain management through control of autonomic functions (from Barber & Adrian, Eds., _Psychological Approaches to the Management of Pain_, 1982) The author describes cases treated by Erickson (one in which he used 12 hours of training, in one session, reported in Rossi's 1980 edited writings of Milton Erickson, Vol. IV) and by Sacerdote.