The author reports use of self hypnosis for childbirth by 30 patients. Many required no drugs or greatly reduced drugs. The obstetricians usually had no prior experience with hypnosis and were cautious in providing medication at the earliest sign of discomfort.
“Summary. A two year experimental study of the use of self-hypnosis in childbirth has indicated its general effectiveness for virtually all the patients who received this type of pre-natal preparation. Although problems of selecting patients capable of utilizing this method have not been discussed in detail in this paper, it must be understood that this study depended upon a patient population selected on the basis of specific psychological characteristics which were indicative of both the judiciousness and effectiveness of self-hypnosis for obstetrics.
“Within the limits set by these selective characteristics, which in themselves may be greatly broadened by further study, self-hypnosis as a means of patient participation in childbirth appears to have very great merit. It is a method that lends itself to simple administration and can be extended to many more patients than any other hypnotic approach. It minimizes the need of the obstetrician to utilize time and effort in patient conditioning without sacrificing any of the advantages of hetero-hypnotic techniques. Its use on a larger scale than reported upon here, with more exacting investigative techniques, seems clearly indicted” (pp. 146-147).

Kroger, William S. (1953). Hypnotherapy in obstetrics and gynecology. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (2), 61-70.

Author’s Summary
A high percentage of gynecologic complains [sic] are due to psychic factors. Therapeutic efforts, therefore, must be directed primarily toward the psychologic component. Until recently, the principal weapon of the dynamically oriented physician was orthodox psychoanalysis. However, the increased interest for a relatively rapid approach has demonstrated the diagnostic and therapeutic value of hypnoanalysis. This development has been concomitant with the psychoanalysist’s [sic] interest in ‘brief psychotherapy’ and narcosynthesis.
“In many functional gynecologic disorders, hypnoanalysis has supplanted the parent therapy even though this form of treatment utilizes the concepts of dynamic psychiatry.
“The relevant literature on the use of hypnotherapy in functional obstetrical and gynecological disorders has been reviewed.
“Significant areas for research have been pointed out.
“This review emphasizes that hypnosis _per se_ is only of value in obtaining symptomatic relief. On the other hand, hypnoanalysis elicits the responsible dynamics behind the symptom, and is effective in reaching all aspects of the personality.
“Hypnoanalysis will be more applicable in obstetrics and gynecology when there is a wider acceptance of its techniques” (p. 68).


One study that shows an increase with hypnotic suggestion has been replicated and is in press.
The present study emerges from work using hypnosis with biofeedback. Morgan’s work with athletes has suggested the relationship between imagery and physiological activation. This has been observed clinically but not heretofore documented.
We are not using formal hypnosis. Each child was asked to think about being in a quiet place, doing exciting activities, baseline, etc. The children exhibited no neurological disorders, cognitive dysfunction, nor were they on medications at time of the study.
We confirmed our clinical experience: there was an increase in pulse rate when imagery changed to activity. Skin temperature continued to go up during the period (despite imagery of being active like being on roller coaster). Skin conduction went down during baseline. EDA [electrodermal activities] was higher during active imagery.
How do average daily thinking processes impact on autonomic changes over long periods of time? Do these changes affect cardiovascular status?
Clinically we observed that some children are more labile in different modalities, and under stress they react more in that system.

Brown, Gail W.; Riddell, Rodney; Summers, David; Coffman, Brent (1994, August). Use of hypnosis by practitioners in the school setting. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

Hypnosis is a therapeutic procedure that is appropriate for some school-age clients. Through the use of hypnosis that utilizes metaphors and imagery, children can be empowered to find unique solutions to their problems. Children enjoy the feeling of power and mastery that they have when able to perform hypnotic phenomena. They like to play magic and can be told that a finger or other body part will become numb. Because a major goal of hypnotherapy is to teach a child to be an active participant in his or her own behalf, the focus is on creating solutions and mastering the situation rather than enduring the problems. Four case studies demonstrate the utility of hypnosis in the treatment of phantom pain and nausea, sleep terror disorder, school phobia, and spider phobia. In each case, treatment goals were realized. Because the solutions were self- generated, the behavioral changes maintained over time and situation.
Case #1: Hypnosis was used to help alleviate phantom limb pain and nausea during chemotherapy following amputation of the right leg at the knee due to cancer in a thirteen- year-old male. The client had indicated that he loved nature and enjoyed the mountains. The metaphor described a young tree that has just begun to grow small silvery leaves. The spring floods tear the limbs and branches from the stump. The deep roots and stump of the tree are all that remain. The tree is not the same as before the flood. Its roots are stronger, its base more sturdy compared to the branches and limbs. The young tree has withstood the catastrophe of the torrent of waters and is even stronger than before. To counter the nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy a switch mechanism metaphor was used. The client was adroit with computers and had no difficulty picturing a switch located in his brain which could “turn off” the nausea from chemotherapy. A room contained all the unpleasant feelings that were being experienced. In this room is a light of a particular color that represents all the unpleasant sensations. Press the key on the computer that controls the switch to turn off the colored light in that room. Suggestions for healing were also given. Your body has known for years how to heal. Visualize the battle between good and bad cells and the victory of the good cells.
Case #2: Hypnosis was used to alleviate sleep terror disorder in a ten-year-old female. The onset of the subject’s parasomnic symptomatology appeared to coincide with her starting kindergarten and her family’s relocation shortly before. The initial treatment consisted of progressive relaxation, deep breathing, and the visual image of her “secret safe place.” An induction utilizing a variety of images was presented. Hiking barefoot on a cool moss covered mountain trial, sitting in a an alpine meadow on a warm summer afternoon, and flying proved most effective in facilitating trance. The participant was told to “Visualize all your anxiety and tension as hard grey rocks. Pick up these rocks and place them in your pockets. Go to the front porch of your “secret safe place and on the porch is a “magic hefty bag.” Place your hard grey rocks that contain all your anxiety and tension in the magic bag. Once in the bag, the rocks will no longer weight you down, you will be free of any feelings of stress or tension. Your bed is magic; it is covered with a special glue which will keep you in a reclining position until you are fully rested and ready to awaken.”
Case #3: Hypnosis was used in the treatment of school phobia in a nine-year-old male. The student experienced intense anxiety whenever separation from the primary caretaker occurred. The teacher stated that this boy experienced frequent absences and crying spells that were only relieved by phone calls to his mother or the presence of his mother next to him in class. In preparation for the intervention, the student was asked to draw a picture of how he felt inside during a panic attack. He drew a fire. He also said that only his mother could put that fire out. This information was utilized in creating a metaphor that described a house in a small town. “The mother had left, and a young boy was left alone. While at home, the boy looked out the window and saw several boys trying to burn a neighbor’s yard! Acting quickly, he called the fire department, grabbed the fire extinguisher and unraveled the garden hose. He was able to extinguish the fire. The neighbors and friends were very happy and praised the boy’s performance. When his mother heard the good news, she quickly returned home and held a celebration in his honor.” Following the metaphor, hypnotherapy continued with suggestions about fire extinguishers that the subject could use to put out emotional fires.
Case #4: Hypnosis was used in the treatment of spider phobia. Diagnosis of phobia was made in this eleven-year-old female when the fear or avoidance behavior was distressing. The child’s strained facial expressions occurred even at the thought of seeing what she described as “a creepy, crawly creature with 8 legs.” Preparatory to her first induction the participant was read the story of Charlotte’s Web (White, 1980) to facilitate the imagery for future hypnotic work. In the following session systematic desensitization was accomplished using characters from the story of Charlotte’s Web. During the third session the subject was age regressed to the first time she remembered seeing a spider. She recalled playing in the woods outside her family home on an island and seeing a large web stretched between two trees with a very large spider in the center of its web. She was then asked to remain at that place to look closely at that spider as it was most likely Charlotte or one of Charlotte’s family. Upon closer investigation she saw not only Charlotte but “teeny-tiny babies.” The event was reconstructed as a happy experience. The imagery provided by Charlotte’s Web permitted the subject to fantasize her previous frightful experience and reframe spiders as cute little “teeny-tiny” babies with admirable human qualities.

Eisen, Marlene (1994, August). Children and adolescents in hypnotherapy in the clinical setting. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

Sanders & Sostis are publishing a book on Hypnosis with Children (Norton Press). Elliotson used Mesmeric passes for dentistry with children. Eisen thinks that the classic age-related curve for hypnotizability is wrong. She notes that some very young children respond to soothing inductions, whereas children 6-11 want to please so much that they engage in simulation. Furthermore the aged respond well to hypnotic inductions as long as you don’t ask for arm levitation.
Considering Piaget’s developmental theory, what works is related to developmental stages.
Before age 2-3 are sensorimotor operations (stroking, rocking, colored pinwheel, mobile, floating balloon).
Ages 2 1/2 to 5 or 6, preoperational stage (anthropomorphic thought – enables use of puppets; children think aloud in monologues, with no attempt to be communicative, so techniques that are nonverbal but engage child in focused activity are good (e.g. watching the fish in tank, talking about what the fish might be doing, what they would like to do); or telling stories. Physiological suggestions are useful (to feel like a raggedy doll). Using a transitional object that they have at home. Or an imaginary companion can come along, be invested with powers to protect the child.
Ages 6-12 Operational thought stage. Moving to higher levels of abstraction, becoming masters of world. Good for inductions are heroic stories of power; or magic rituals (give them magic fingers, that can do wonderful things (stop pain, not fall down). Magic buttons are good.
Adolescents can use, in addition to what we use with adults, anything involving experimentation. They play hypnotic games (e.g. light as a feather, stiff as a board).
It is important to know where patients are developmentally, not simply the chronological age.
Visual techniques: imagine your favorite place. Can suggest “there’s an animal here in your lap. What does it feel like?” etc. Or cloud gazing; or think of TV show, movie– “you can be the star of the show. Tell me what you do. And then?” Flying blanket, big bird, merrie go round, little car in amusement park, are all useful images. Ideomotor suggestions are useful (magnets).
Food images are good, because they are soothing–“filled with good feelings,” like jelly beans. Sliding down big ice cream mountain.
Story time imagery is useful: “I’m going to tell you a story. You can close your eyes to imagine all the people.”

Freyd, Jennifer J. (1994). Betrayal-trauma: Traumatic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse. Ethics and Behavior, 4.

Betrayal-trauma theory suggests that psychogenic amnesia is an adaptive response to childhood abuse. When a parent or other powerful figure violates a fundamental ethic of human relationships, victims may need to remain unaware of the trauma not to reduce suffering but rather to promote survival. Amnesia enables the child to maintain an attachment with a figure vital to survival, development, and thriving. Analysis of evolutionary pressures, mental modules, social cognitions, and developmental needs suggests that the degree to which the most fundamental human ethics are violated can influence the nature, form, processes, and responses to trauma.

A logical extension of this research direction, based on a strategy that has been very effective in cognitive neuroscience, would be to look for neuroanatomical underpinnings of the cognitive mechanisms implicated in dissociation. … For instance, the ability to dissociate current experience may depend partly on representational structures that support spontaneous perceptual transformations of incoming events. One possible perceptual transformation that is amenable to scientific investigation, would be the creation of spatial representations in which the mental ‘observer’ is spatially distinct from the real body of that observer. Such a representation would fit patient descriptions of ‘leaving their body’ during a traumatic episode and viewing the scene as if from afar. Additionally one could investigate the role of mental recoding and restructuring during memory ‘recovery’ and psychotherapy” (pp. 19-20).

Krippner, Stanley (1994, August). Improvement of academic skills for children and adolescents with hypnosis. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

Literature and research in this area are sparse, though there is clinical evidence that hypnosis is useful. My definition of hypnosis is a procedure facilitating a variety of structured goals or procedures in which a suggestion or motivation is enhanced by a mechanical device, another person, or oneself.
There are 3 areas of application in academics:
study habits
test taking
strengthening academic motivation
The hypnotist should know the specifics of academic achievement, because specific suggestions (e.g. “Imagine you are at desk focusing well for 20 minutes,”) are better. Emphasis on the positive is better than negative. Use the words “imagination,” “concentration,” or “imagining pictures,” rather than “hypnosis.” I try to determine what they expect, based in part on what words they use.
In elementary school I focus on attitude and self esteem. I have them imagine reading a story, then how well they feel; that when they notice mistakes they won’t be bothered because everyone makes mistakes.
For high school, I help them develop good habits for time motivation (e.g. suggestions to “make an outline to follow while you study”). At college level, I introduce self hypnosis. I make frequent use of mental imagery, at all levels–especially imagery rehearsal, in which the person is engaged in a particular activity.
In the NSF report on accelerated learning techniques (a project sponsored by the Army), Lozonov’s “suggestopedia” techniques were studied. This review indicated it might enhance training effectiveness and reduce training time.
I have observed the suggestopedia classes in Bulgaria and Hungary. Classes had a relaxed comfortable learning environment. Rather than individual learning, it was group learning. It included preliminary exercises, new material, and a review of what was learned. The first stage used 2/3 of the time. Then suggestions were given by the teacher to promote learning. The presentation phase took one third of the time. The method encourages students to make mental images of the material. In foreign language classes, people take on new roles.

Malinoski, Peter; Aronoff, Jodi; Lynn, Steven J.; Moretsky, Michael (1994, August). Hypnosis and early memories. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

We studied autobiographical memory in the college population, as manifested in the therapy situation, as a way of investigating an individual difference variable. Most people do not have recall before age 3 or 4 (and probably infantile amnesia begins before age 2).
Administered Autobiographical Memory Scale (AMS), and later in context of a hypnosis scale. 247 students were in phase 1, conducted as two separate experiments so that Ss wouldn’t link the AMS to measures used in the second study.
First study was presented as a study of personal memories. Asked Ss to distinguish first five birthdays, circumstances around loss of first tooth, first day of high school. Also, they were asked about their earliest memory events, rated according to 3 scales (detail, vividness, accuracy of recall). Authors summed Ss’ responses on these 3 ratings for the 8 item scale.
Part II. Administered various scales: Life Experiences, Fantasy Proneness, Wilson & Barber’s scale, Imagery Control Scale, Global Psychopathology, 25 item scale of physical and sexual abuse, Brier’s list of symptoms of abuse, and DES (Dissociative Experiences Scale). Imbedded were 12 items to test carelessness in responding (e.g. “I have never said Hello to anyone who wore eyeglasses.”)
Phase 1. Two people indicated they had memories dating to before their first birthday; an additional 5% of Ss gave memories between 12-24 months. This would probably be impossible. Another 14.4% described events between 24-36 months; 37.4% said their earliest memory was at age 3. Mean age for earliest memory was 3.4 years (which agrees with other surveys.) Only l subject stated his earliest memory was as late as the tenth year of life.
High intercorrelation was obtained, ranging .79 to .89, between ratings on any of the memory event ratings (as detailed, vivid, or accurate). There was a negative correlation of these ratings with age of recall. Ss who report more detail, vividness, and competence, were also likely to report earlier first memories.
Authors divided Ss into three groups based on age of first memory: 12 with first memory earlier than first year; those whose first memory was between 1-7 years; and those with a later first memory. The earlier memory group were more fantasy prone; and rated their memories as more reliable, vivid. This suggests there are persons who report memories that are covered by infantile amnesia, report them with greater detail, and are more fantasy prone than those who report memory events beginning later in life. This is consistent with Wilson & Barber’s finding that fantasy prone people have vivid recall of early childhood events.
None of the memory reports correlated with psychopathology or dissociation. Dissociation (DES) was correlated with abuse indicators, however. Compared top and lowest 10% and middle range on DES on their memory scores and found no relationship. There was no support for the idea that report of early life events in dissociative people is compromised. Failure to recall early memories shouldn’t suggest that people are dissociative (which some therapists tend to do).
All three memory measures were associated with Harvard Scale scores. The AMS was administered at the same time as the Harvard. Objective responding on the Harvard correlated with detail, vividness, and accuracy of recall. Also, involuntariness of response correlated with all 3 measures of the AMS. Finally, subjective involvement correlated with all three measures of AMS. At least when hypnosis is measured first, and explicit connection is suggested, there is a connection. Further research is needed to see if the relationship holds when measured in independent contexts. This may explain why High Hypnotizables are more prone to pseudo memories and leading questions. They may come to confuse them with historical reality.
The results suggest caution for early memory reports. They may be vulnerable to confusing fantasy and reality, as well as to biasing effects.

Banerjee, Sanjay; Srivastav, Anita; Palan, Bhupendra M. (1993). Hypnosis and self-hypnosis in the management of nocturnal enuresis: A comparative study with imipramine therapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36, 113-119.

Various therapeutic modalities have been used for treating enuresis due to the lack of a single identifiable cause. We carried out a comparative study of imipramine and direct hypnotic suggestions with imagery used for the management of functional nocturnal enuresis. Enuretic children, ranging in age from 5 to 16 years, underwent 3 months of therapy with imipramine (N = 25) or hypnosis (N = 25). After termination of the active treatment, the hypnosis group continued practicing self-hypnosis daily during the follow-up period of another 6 months. Of the patients treated with imipramine, 76% had a positive response (all dry beds); for patients treated with hypnotic strategies, 72% responded positively. At the 9-month follow-up, 68% of patients in the hypnosis group maintained a positive response, whereas only 24% of the imipramine group did. Hypnosis and self-hypnosis strategies were found to be less effective in younger children (5-7 years old) compared to imipramine treatment. The treatment response was not related to the hypnotic responsivity of the patient in either group.
Sivec, Harry; Lynn, Steven Jay (1993, October). Hypnosis and early memories. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington Heights, IL.

The investigators hypnotized people and asked that they recall their earliest memories. Gorham & Hafner tested highs and lows in 2 sessions, one with a hypnotic induction. Ss in hypnosis reported more themes, whether high hypnotizables or not. Ss might have held back in non hypnosis condition however.
Hypothesized that early memories would have affect-laden materials.
20 Ss in hypnosis group, 20 Ss in relaxation condition, all highs (scored minimum of 9 of 12 on the Harvard Scale). Ss were told they were randomly selected from a pool and that it was a study of personality. Ss were administered a number of questionnaires and tests.
The two groups received either a Stanford Form C Scale induction or a relaxation procedure.
We used the procedure of Bloom [spelling?] for recall of two memories, and to probe the earliest memory. Also to recall two recent memories. Counterbalanced for order of presentation.
Positive affect, negative affect, affect intensity, and primary process were rated; 12 themes were rated. ANOVA was used.
Earliest memory at 3.8 yrs. Next earliest is 7.5 for hypnosis and 5.2 for relaxation groups. 4.3 is earliest for hypnosis group; there may be a basement effect. Negative affect varied by condition and by order of administration and recency of memory assessed. When early memories were elicited first, no differences were found in groups; when elicited second, negative affect was greater for [missed words]. Affect was more abundant and intense in the hypnosis group, but only when recent memories were elicited before early memories and only in the [missed words].
Early recollections were slightly more primary process (bizarre) than later, which should alert clinicians.
Themes didn’t differ between groups. Early memories involved more trauma than later memories. Negative affect correlated with psychopathology measures for earliest memory but not later memory.
Used posthypnotic experiences scales. There is a decrease in unpleasant experiences, suggesting the benefit of catharsis when recalling early memories.

Barrett, Deidre (1992). Fantasizers and dissociaters: Data on two distinct subgroups of deep trance subjects. Psychological Reports, 71, 1011-1014

The study delineated two subgroups of highly hypnotizable subjects. The first subgroup (fantasizers) entered trance rapidly, scored high on absorption (mean of 34 on the 37-item Absorption Scale), and described hypnosis as much like their rich, vivid, and very realistic waking fantasy life. None of the fantasizers experienced unsuggested amnesia, and 5/19 failed to produce suggested amnesia. Only 2/19 fantasizers described hypnosis as very different from their other experiences. The earliest memories of fantasizers were all identified as occurring before age 3, and before age 2 for 11 of 19. The second subgroup (dissociaters) took time to achieve a deep trance (unlike Wilson and Barber’s fantasy-prone subjects, but they did achieve as deep a trance as fantasizers), experienced hypnosis as different from any prior experiences, and were more likely to exhibit amnesia for both hypnotic experience and waking fantasies. None of the dissociaters described their waking imagery as entirely realistic, and the earliest memories in this group were all over the age of 3 (mean age – 5). Of the 15 dissociaters, 7 scored below the norm on the Absorption Scale (Mean – 26).

Claridge, Karen (1992). Reconstructing memories of abuse: A theory-based approach. Psychotherapy, 29, 243-252.

The recovery of traumatic memories is an important part of therapy with survivors of abuse. This article describes a conceptual framework for memory reconstruction based on Horowitz’ (1986) theory of stress response syndromes. The client’s history of intrusive symptoms provides a way to anticipate the nature of the trauma, even when no memory of it exists. Ongoing intrusive symptoms are used to retrieve memory fragments, and their emotional impact is used to build the client’s emotional tolerance. Emphasis is placed on preparing for memories by identifying what the client will need when the memories return, building coping skills, and beginning to restructure cognitions at the “what if” stage of remembering. Case material is used to illustrate.

Hall, Howard R. (1992, October). Voluntary immunomodulation in adolescents: A cyberphysiologic approach. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington, VA.

He is working with a normal population studying neutrophils.
Gave Ss 30 minutes of an imagery exercise to increase neutrophil adherence when compared with controls; e.g., imagery could be ping pong balls in the blood stream, clumping together with honey.
Phase 1: blood sample; strategy or rest; blood sample
practice for 1 week at home
blood sample; strategy; blood sample Hypothesis 2 Healthy adolescents who practice cyberphysiologic (imagery) strategies for 2 weeks will increase neutrophil adherence compared with controls.
Phase 2:
2 week training in cyberphysiologic technique
Session 1 and Session 2 same as in first study. (Thus, these Ss had practiced the technique already.)
Results were analyzed with ANOVA. Only one factor was significant: neutrophil adherence, the one they were studying.
The experimental group with no prior training showed less adherence than controls, as did the trained group in session 1; but the trained group in session 2 showed a large increase over session 1.
Does this reflect relaxation or an active cognitive process? The group that showed the most change did not show relaxation effect of lowered pulse and finger temperature, though the other two groups lowered pulse rate some. Therefore, it is not relaxation.
There was no association of hypnotizability to the increase in neutrophils, using the Penn State Group Hypnotizability Scale, which correlates with the Stanford Scale.
In future the author will look at whether Ss can increase and decrease neutrophil adherence.

Chu, James A.; Dill, Diana L. (1991). Dissociation, borderline personality disorder, and childhood trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148 (6), 812.

Comments on the article by S. N. Ogata et al (see PA, vol 78:4681) on the high prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in inpatients with borderline personality disorder. It is suggested that dissociative symptoms in borderline patients may simply be a less severe form of intrapsychic fragmentation than multiple personalities.
Cornell, William F.; Olio, Karen A. (1991). Integrating affect in treatment with adult survivors of physical and sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61 (1), 59-69.

Presents a theoretical and technical model for affectively centered treatment of adults abused as children, focusing on the function of denial and dissociation as central defense mechanisms. The concept is introduced of working at an “affective edge.” At this experiential point, a client can maintain both cognitive understanding and emotional and bodily awareness without triggering denial and dissociation. This approach fosters careful monitoring of the client’s functioning both during and between therapeutic sessions. The proposed therapeutic approach uses noninvasive touch and body-centered techniques. Focus is on integrating affect and on the importance of the therapeutic relationship.

Sanders, Barbara; Giolas, Marina H. (1991). Dissociation and childhood trauma in psychologically disturbed adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 50-54.
Tested the hypothesis that dissociation in adolescence is positively correlated with stress or abuse experienced earlier by assessing the relationship between degree of dissociation and degree of reported childhood stress, abuse, or trauma in 47 13- 17 year old disturbed adolescents. Subjects had been institutionalized for periods of 1-13 weeks. Subjects completed a Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and a child abuse and trauma questionnaire. Scores on the DES correlated significantly with self-reported physical abuse or punishment, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and negative home atmosphere but not with abuse ratings made from hospital records. Findings support the view that dissociation represents a reaction to early negative experience and places multiple personality disorder at the extreme end of a continuum of dissociative sequelae of childhood trauma.

Rhue, Judith W.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Henry, Stephanie; Buhk, Kerry; Boyd, Patti (1990-91). Child abuse, imagination and hypnotizability. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 10, 53-63.

Research was designed to provide a rigorous test of J. R. Hilgard’s hypothesis that hypnotizability is related to a history of physical punishment and to imaginative involvements. College students who reported a history of physical abuse (N = 21) and sexual abuse (N = 23) were compared with control subjects who either lost a parent by way of death or divorce (N = 20) or who were from intact homes (N = 35), under test conditions that minimized the possibility that context effects would prejudice the findings. No support was found for the hypothesis that increased hypnotizability was associated with a history of physical or sexual abuse: All of the groups ere indistinguishable on measures of objective and subjective response to hypnosis. However, consistent with Hilgard’s hypothesis, physically and sexually abused subjects were found to be more fantasy-prone than subjects in both nonabused control conditions.

Bogenberger, Robert; Allen, Steven (1988, November). Relationship between Rorschach responses and hypnotic responsiveness. [Lecture] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Asheville, NC.

The Rorschach is stable in adults, in terms of introversive vs. extratensive direction. Investigated four dependent variables: (1) distortions (e.g. “I felt the walls closing in.”), (2) Loss of Distance (e.g. “I thought of abortions and infanticide.”), (3) abstract/conceptual, (4) irrelevant imagery (e.g. “I thought of the book Watership Down.”)
Highs gave responses more often in these groups. The combination of these four and some others discriminated Highs hypnotized from Highs not hypnotized and from Lows in both hypnotized and not hypnotized conditions.
Chu, James A. (1988). Ten traps for therapists in the treatment of trauma survivors. Dissociation, 1, 24-32.
ABSTRACT: Patients who have survived trauma, particularly those who have experienced early childhood abuse, stand out in the clinical experience of many therapists as being among the most difficult patients to treat. These patients have particular patterns of relatedness, along with intense neediness and dependency which make them superb testers of the abilities of their therapists. They often push therapists to examine the rationales and limits of their therapeutic abilities, and frequently force therapists to examine their own personal issues and ethical beliefs. A conceptual framework for understanding treatment traps is presented, along with 10 traps which these patients present, consciously and unconsciously, in the course of treatment. Included are traps around trust, distance, boundaries, limits, responsibility, control, denial, projection, idealization, and motivation.

Kuttner, Leora (1988). Favorite stories: A hypnotic pain-reduction technique for children in acute pain. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30, 289-295.

For young children (aged 3 to 6-11) with leukemia, a hypnotic trance consisting of a child’s favorite story was found to be statistically more effective than behavioral distraction and standard medical practice in alleviating distress, pain, and anxiety during painful bone marrow aspirations. Measured by a behavioral checklist and judgment ratings by physician, parent, nurse, and observers, the favorite-story hypnotic technique had immediate therapeutic impact on these young patients, and the reduction in distress, pain, and anxiety was sustained on subsequent medical procedures. Self-report measures, however, were nonsignificant.

LeBaron, Samuel; Zeltzer, Lonnie K. (1988). Imaginative involvement and hypnotizability in childhood. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 284-295.

2 pilot studies assessed the relationship between hypnotizability in children and extent of involvement in fantasy-related activities during early childhood. The Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Children and a structured interview questionnaire regarding fantasy activities based on previous work by Singer (1973) were given to 30 medical patients aged 6-18 years in the first study and to 37 healthy children aged 6-12 years from a school population in the second study. In both studies, hypnotizability correlated moderately (.42 and .39, respectively) with extent of involvement in fantasy- related activities. Results support Hilgard’s (1979) findings that hypnotizability is related in part to the development of imaginative involvement in childhood.

Noll, Robert B. (1988). Hypnotherapy of a child with warts. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 9 (2), 89-91.

Child with 82 warts was treated using hypnosis; suggestions for removal from face only resulted in 8 of 16 facial warts disappearing after one treatment and two weeks. (Child had previous experience with hypnosis for pain and anxiety associated with lumbar punctures and bone marrow aspirates.)
Jay, Susan (1987, October). Hypnotic susceptibility and response to psychological intervention for distress related to painful procedures in leukemic children. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Los Angeles.

Presented children with a cognitive behavioral intervention package that involved five elements 1. Filmed Modeling (child modeling and talking about it with good coping skills) 2. Positive Reinforcement – trophy ‘for doing the best you can,’ to change aversive situation to a positive situation 3. Breathing Exercises – ‘puff yourself up like a tire’ 4. Emotive Imagery/Distraction – super hero image (Superman), or being in a favorite place 5. Behavioral Rehearsal – dollplay, reviewing the procedure with medical equipment.
For Numbers 4 and 5 the therapist would actively guide the procedures; numbers 3, 4 & 5 are hypnotic elements.
Valium had lowered children’s distress prior to procedures but not during the procedures. This study involved Valium plus cognitive behavior therapy.
25 Subjects ages 6-12, were measured for hypnotizability
2 groups: (1) Cognitive Behavior Therapy + Valium given just before intervention started, after film ended; (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy alone.
Dependent Measures: 1. Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress coded every 15 seconds. 2. Faces Scale for Fear (self report) before procedure
Faces Scale for Pain (self report) after procedure 3. Blood pressure
RESULTS. No Significant Differences were found between the two groups (CBT vs CBT + Valium). Pre-Post Analyses: Post intervention scores were significant lower than Pretest on [missed notes]

Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.; Katz, Ernest; Siegel, Stuart E. (1987). Cognitive-behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for children’s’ distress during painful medical procedures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 860-865.

This study evaluated the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention package and a low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium), as compared with a minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children’s distress during bone marrow aspirations. The subjects were 56 leukemia patients who ranged in age from 3 years to 13 years. The three intervention conditions were delivered in a randomized sequence within a repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Dependent outcome measures included observed behavioral distress scores, self-reported pain scores, pulse rate, and blood pressure scores. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that children in the cognitive-behavior therapy condition had significantly lower behavioral distress, lower pain ratings, and lower pulse rates than when they were in the attention- control condition. When children were in the Valium condition, they exhibited no significant differences from the attention control condition except that they had lower diastolic blood pressure scores.

Lonnie Zelzer, M.D., in a UCLA Hypnosis Seminar lecture in 1992, stated that in pre-treatment with Valium the patients did worse during the procedure, vs no pretreatment with Valium, because the medicated patients didn’t have clarity of attention during the cognitive behavioral learning.

Katz, Ernest R.; Kellerman, Jonathan; Ellenberg, Leah (1987). Hypnosis in the reduction of acute pain and distress in children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 12, 379-394.

Hypnosis has been used as a behavioral approach to help children tolerate aversive medical procedures more effectively, but empirical longitudinal research evaluating the outcome of such interventions has been limited. In the present study, 36 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia between the ages of 6 and 12 years of age undergoing repeated bone marrow aspirations (BMAs) were randomized to hypnosis or play comparison groups. Subjects were selected on their behavioral performance on baseline procedures and received interventions prior to their next three BMA procedures. Major results indicated an improvement in self-reported distress over baseline with both interventions, with no differences between them. Girls exhibited more distress behavior than boys on three of four dependent measures used. Suggestions of an interaction effect between sex and treatment group were noted. The role of rapport between patient and therapist in therapeutic outcome was also evaluated. Results are discussed in terms of potential individual differences in responding to stress and intervention that warrant further research.

Aronson, David M. (1986). The adolescent as hypnotist: Hypnosis and self-hypnosis with adolescent psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 28 (3), 163-169.

This paper describes the theoretical rationale, pragmatic implementation issues, and procedure for a particular technique of clinical hypnosis which is designed as an adjunctive therapy within a multidisciplinary adolescent inpatient treatment program. A model of combined auto- and heterohypnosis which features collaborative production of audiocassettes is presented. Advantages and indications for this technique are discussed, and a case study is presented. – Journal Abstract

Olness, Karen N. (1986, March). Hypnotherapy in children: New approach to solving common pediatric problems. Postgraduate Medicine, 79 (4), 95-105.

Hypnotherapy, once thought of as magical and mysterious, is rapidly becoming accepted as an appropriate form of treatment for a wide range of disorders. Some primary care physicians are beginning to discover the value of hypnotherapy in controlling chronic disease and pain, in changing negative behavior, and in facilitating self- regulation of autonomic responses. Dr. Olness explores such use of hypnotherapy in children, the age-group that most readily acquires self-hypnosis skills and in which this technique has had dramatic results.