Experiment 2 was designed to emulate the self-administered aversive stimulation that the fakir routinely undertook, by having the volunteer Ss hold a switch that they pressed twice/minute, giving themselves a mild shock and an aversive noise. (These were the same aversive stimuli as were used in Experiment 1.) There were 21 self-paced button presses.
Three additional measures were taken: 1. Bereitschaftspotential (BP) – the mean negative shift during the 0.3 sec interval prior to the motor response of pressing the switch 2. Postimperative component (PINV) – the mean negative shift 0.9 to 1.9 sec after stimulus onset, i.e. elicited by closing the microswitch 3. Skin conductance response (SCR) – maximum change in skin conductance level during five second interval after the motor response of pressing the switch.
The fakir, but not the control Ss, showed a pronounced precentral PINV on each single trial of Experiment 2. He also showed pronounced SCRs (indicating autonomic arousal), which was even greater than the SCRs of control Ss. His subjective pain rating was 1 in Experiment 1 (compared with 6.4 for controls) but 8 during Experiment 2 (compared with 5.7 for controls), on a scale of 1 to 10 maximum. Thus the fakir’s pain increased from Experiment 1 to 2, while for many volunteer Ss it decreased 2 or 3 points. When interviewed, he said that “intention and motor commands prevented the fakir from getting into ‘trance’ satisfactorily. Consequently, he reported to have experienced the aversive stimuli as more painful than in experiment 1. Thus it might be that the observed PINV indicates the noncontingency between the demand for coping and the failure to cope or the discrepancy between expected control and presently experienced control” (p. 307).
In their Discussion, the authors speculate that control of pain such as can be achieved by the fakir may involve dissociation of higher (possibly thalamic and cortical) and lower (reticular formation) arousal structures. Their observation of slow brain potentials (theta) recorded in anticipation of painful or aversive stimuli is in agreement with earlier published studies. However their observation of increasing negativity in anticipation of aversive stimuli is in contrast to previous research findings, in which diminution of negativity is generally observed.
Both the fakir and subjects showed a post-stimulus negative shift in response to the S2; this has been “observed in normal subjects under conditions of change from controllable to uncontrollable aversive stimuli… and/or from obvious response- consequence contingencies to unpredictable control over the S2… PINVs were associated with an unexpected change in contingency or the inability to resolve ambiguity. Since a relationship was found between PINV amplitude and subjective ratings or experienced aversiveness of the painful stimulation, it may be speculated that obvious failure in coping with pain (i.e. more experienced pain) together with the requirement to cope (induced by instructions and experimental setting, giving rise to increased expectancy for control), produced a PINV (and probably feelings of uncontrollability together with a state of reactance and frustration) in the present experiments. In accordance with this point of view, it is of particular interest that only the fakir showed a more pronounced PINV in experiment 2, in which subjects delivered the painful stimuli to themselves. A postexperimental interview revealed that intention and motor commands prevented the fakir from getting into ‘trance’ satisfactorily” (p. 307).

Stam, Henderikus J.; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1982). The Asclepian dream healings and hypnosis: A critique. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30 (1), 9-22.

The present paper critically evaluates the popular contention that the dream healings which occurred in antiquity at the Asclepian temples resulted from the unwitting use of hypnosis. This contention is found wanting and it is argued instead that these reported healings can be understood better by considering them in their cultural context.

Fromm, Erika (1980). Values in hypnotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 17 (4), 425-430.

Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness characterized by a regression in the service of the ego along with increased access to the unconscious. This makes it possible to achieve lasting therapeutic results faster in hypnosis than in the waking state. Hypnosis is also a state of decreased vigilance, a vulnerability that involves dangers if a patient is in the hands of a poorly trained, incompetent, or unscrupulous therapist. In general, the same human and moral values that guide responsible therapists with patients in the ordinary waking state must guide them with patients in hypnosis, only more so. Contemporary permissive hypnotherapists do not superimpose their own wills or personalities onto patients but provide support, help patients face the frightening parts of the unconscious, and thus aid them in coping with conflicts and gaining full autonomy and freedom from fear. (11 ref).

Prince, Raymond (1980). Variations in psychotherapeutic procedures. In Triandis, Harry C.; Draguns, Juris G. (Ed.), Psychopathology (6, pp. 291-349). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Prince points out that indigenous practitioners often capitalize on the organism’s endogenous healing mechanisms which develop spontaneously when the individual is distressed. “healers around the world have learned to manipulate and build upon these endogenous mechanisms in a variety of ways to bring about resolution of life’s problems and alleviation of suffering” (p. 292). Prince is referring here to altered states of consciousness such as dreams, trance states, dissociations, and mystical experiences of various sorts which are cultivated and elaborated by indigenous healers for therapeutic purposes. In general, Western type practitioners have denigrated these procedures….” (from Ann. Rev. of Psychol., 1982, pp 243-244).

Sheehan, Peter W.; McConkey, Kevin M. (1979). Australian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 294-304.

Australian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962) are presented and results relating to score distributions, item difficulty level, reliability, and validity are considered for 3 distinct samples of Australian students. Data are compared with both the original norms (Shor & E. Orne, 1963) and additional American (Coe, 1964) normative data. Results indicated that, in the Australian context, HGSHS:A functions as a reliable, effective predictor of hypnotic susceptibility. The psychometric properties of the scale were uniform across all of the different samples and reference groups that were considered. The accuracy of the scale appears to be most obviously limited when it is employed as a sole predictor of Ss’ special aptitude for hypnosis.

Brown, Daniel P.; Fromm, Erika (1977). Selected bibliography of readings in altered states of consciousness (ASC) in normal individuals. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 388-391.
ABSTRACT: The bibliography is divided into the following sections:
I. General Works
II. Reference material on personality in relation to altered states
III. Social and cultural determinants of altered states
IV. Cognition, information-processing, and ego-functioning
V. Methodology in the study of altered states
VI. Differentiation of hyperaroused states
VII. Shamanistic states
IX. Psychedelic states
X. The meditative states
XI. Personality differences and meditation
XII. Affective and cognitive change in meditation
XIII.Ordinary Buddhist meditation, concentration, and insight meditation
XIV. The variety of Buddhist meditation traditions

Sacerdote, Paul (1977). Application of hypnotically elicited mystical states to the treatment of physical and emotional pain. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 309-324.

Mystical states by-pass usual sensory perception and logical thinking. They often represent the ultimate goal of long apprenticeships in Eastern or Western monastic practices which stress self-discipline and meditation; or they correlate with sudden religious conversions. While interest has also been revived in mystical experiences stimulated by hallucinogens within the appropriate physical, intellectual, and emotional environment, less attention has been paid to those mystical experiences which appear spontaneously during hypnosis and Transcendental Meditation. The present author facilitates the unleashing of mystical experiences by using hypnotic approaches specifically aimed at altering space and time perceptions. Case presentations illustrate the methodologies for guiding receptive subjects to mystical states with the aim of relieving or correcting organic and functional painful syndromes unresponsive to other interventions. The probable biopsychological processes are discussed.

Sacerdote, Paul (1972). The nature of the hypnotherapeutic process. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 15 (1), 1-11.

The author presents several clinical cases where hypnosis was successfully utilized. Through detailed description of what takes place during sessions it is shown how various approaches are adapted to the intellectual, cultural, emotional and hypnotic capabilities of the patient and to the progress of therapy. The author analyzes what takes place during and after hypnotic intervention and draws some conclusions about the nature of the hypnotherapeutic process which, he feels, is essentially a convergence of the patient’s and therapist’s conscious and subconscious expectations and goals. The importance of the therapeutic ego of the doctor is brought into proper focus. One of the clinical cases illustrates how the therapist can convert a therapeutic relationship that may appear sterile or even hostile into a productive one by utilizing the patient’s responses, while avoiding stubborn insistence upon expectations of preconceived hypnotic responses. It is suggested that the hypnotherapeutic model may present, in clearer focus, what takes place in other psychotherapeutic exchanges which do not utilize hypnosis.

Meares, Ainsley (1967). The space between. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15 (4), 156-159.

Van der Walde, P. H. (1967). Trance states and ego psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15 (3), 95-105.

Devereux, G. (1966). Cultural factors in hypnosis and suggestion: An examination of some primitive data. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 273-291. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1967, 4, 294)


Pedersen, Darhl M.; Cooper, Leslie M. (1965). Some personality correlates of hypnotic susceptibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (3), 193-203.

The present research was directed principally toward determining the relationship of a number of personality variables to hypnotic susceptibility. The personality variables utilized were selected to cover the personality domain as broadly as possible. Hypnotic susceptibility was measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A. A correlational analysis was completed for 30 Ss. This included (a) the correlations between each of the personality variables and hypnotic susceptibility and (b) the intercorrelations among all of the personality measures. It was found that the following variables correlated with hypnotic susceptibility at the 5% level of confidence: age (-.37), year in college (-.36), and missionary service (.37). Social class rating of father”s occupation correlated significantly at the 1% level of confidence (.54). (29 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)
Ravenscroft, Kent, Jr. (1965). Voodoo possession: A natural experiment in hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (3), 157-183.

This paper attempts to present Haitian Vodun possession in a form allowing comparison with familiar clinical and experimental hypnotic phenomena. (17 ref). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Ludwig, Arnold M. (1963). Hypnosis in fiction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 71-80.

Some common conceptions of hypnosis found in selected literary works are presented. Many supranormal powers are attributed to hypnosis. The hypnotist is generally viewed as an evil, demonic agent and the S as a naive, but good, hapless victim. The hypnotist is almost inevitably punished for possessing these extraordinary powers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Bowers, Margaretta K. (1961). Hypnotic aspects of Haitian voodoo. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 269-282.

The voodoo ritual is analyzed within the framework of hypnosis and hypnotically induced secondary personalities. The author contends that “If the hypnotic nature of voodoo and similar religious rites were better understood the problem of discarding the evil and nurturing the good in the cultural life of people would be facilitated.” From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II69B. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Bowers, Margaretta K.; Glasner, Samuel (1958). Auto-hypnotic aspects of the Jewish cabbalistic concept of Kavanah. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 6 (1), 50-70.

The authors present material quoted from numerous Jewish mystics to support the position that many achieved self hypnosis or trance states in the course of their spiritual, especially prayer, practices. “Kavanah” means concentration in the Talmud; “the entire hope of efficacy of ritual or of prayer is wholly dependent on the person’s achieving a proper state of concentration and devotion, which is Kavanah” (p. 51). Ecstacy is one aspect of Kavanah and was induced in one way through “concentration upon the magical and mystical properties of the Hebrew letters, arranging and rearranging the letters” (p. 51) in such manner as to produce a trance. Sometimes dissociation occurred (“suddenly I saw the shape of my self standing before me and myself disengaged from me and I was forced to stop writing!” [p. 64]).
Sometimes a particular way of breathing, a particular position of the body, or fasting were used to promote trance development. Imagery and fantasy were also used, in a way resembling the work of Erickson, Kline, and Young; imagery of light and light sources was especially prevalent, reminding one of the candle flame induction technique.
“… it would appear that one of the ambitious purposes of the ecstatic Kavanah was to produce prophets” (p. 61). Some medieval prophets would describe a person’s past and predict his future like the modern Edgar Cayce. “The auto-hypnotic state of ecstasy represented by Kavanah was also used for the deliberate induction of states of hysterical dissociation so that the ‘prophet’ would be able to see his self on the opposite side of the room” (p. 63). But the practice of the mystic ecstatic Kavanah was “generally discouraged or reserved for the elite at best” (p. 65).
“… however, in the medieval Christian world ignorance of the unconscious mental processes was so profound that it made it extremely difficult for wise and prudent religious leaders to cope with the religious excitement and delusionary revelations which broke out periodically. That the Jews were not entirely immune from such excesses at this time is shown by Dr. Scholem’s [Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, 1941] report that:
‘In the writings of Eleazar of Worms …. one also finds the oldest extant recipes for creating the Golem — a mixture of letter magic and practices obviously aimed at producing ecstatic states of consciousness. It would appear as though in the original conception the Golem came to life only while the ecstasy of his creator lasted. The creation of the Golem was, as it were, a particularly sublime experience felt by the mystic who became absorbed in the mysteries of the alphabetic combinations described in the “Book of Creation.” It was only later that the popular legend attributed to the Golem an existence outside the ecstatic consciousness, and in later centuries a whole group of legends sprang up around such Golem figures and their creators'” (pp. 64-65).
Concentration was apparently used to avoid pain during torture of martyrdom and death. According to Scholem, the mystic Abraham ben Eliezer Halevi of Jerusalem recommended “to concentrate, in the hour of their last ordeal, on the Great Name of God; to imagine its radiant letters between their eyes and to fix all their attention on it. Whoever will do that, will not feel the burning flames or the tortures to which he will be subjected” (p. 66).
“We have demonstrated, therefore, that the Jewish mystics of former times, from the Biblical period through the Rabbinic period, on through the Middle Ages and almost up to the present day, used autohypnosis as a deliberate technique for the production of religious ecstasy and as a means for obtaining deeper religious insights or revelations. Both the methods by which they induced the autohypnotic trance, or Kavanah, and the ways in which they utilized it parallel some of the modern methods of hypnotic induction and of the utilization of the hypnotic trance” (p. 67-68).
“… hypnosis might well prove itself an important tool for an organized program of research into religious phenomena. Thus, for instance, hypnotic research could possibly provide us with an operational understanding of prayer and its effects. This might further lead to the development of more sophisticated and more effective techniques of prayer for use by scientifically-minded religionists. And it might even lead to the type of direct religious expreience reported by religious geniuses of former days, but unfortunately lost to modern man” (p. 68).
Note: The second author is a rabbi.

Author’s Conclusions: “In the light of the results, the following conclusions would appear to be justified:
1. Prestige suggestion can effect changes in an individual’s response to an attitudes test.
2. Repeated prestige suggestion produces no more marked effect than does a single suggestion in changing social attitudes. However, the results seem to be more lasting with repeated suggestion.
3. Repeated hypnotic suggestion is considerably more effective than repeated waking suggestion in modifying social attitudes. But waking suggestion also seems to have some effect.
4. The effects of both hypnotic and waking suggestion vary greatly with different individuals.
5. The effect of repeated prestige suggestion in changing social attitudes apparently does not follow the pattern of the usual learning curve.
6. The changes noted seem to represent changes in basic attitude, and not merely changes in the response to a particular test” (P. 74).
The attitudes involved nationality preferences (“Negro, Turk, Hindu, or Chinamen” p. 71). The prestige suggestion, given in light hypnosis, was “The results on the test I gave you were rather disappointing. Most people think that we in the South are deeply prejudiced against the colored races. But that is a mis-understanding of our position. Certainly we University people have no actual dislike of Negroes, Chinamen, or Hindus. And it is our hope, in giving this test, to demonstrate our true attitude, which is far more tolerant than most people give us credit for. I am therefore going to give you the test again. I want you, of course, to give your honest preferences. But where you find a choice difficult, give the ‘underdog’ the benefit of the doubt. Do you understand? Give the ‘underdog’ the benefit of the doubt!” (p. 72).



Matthews, William J.; Isenberg, Gail L. (1995). A comparison of the hypnotic experience between signing deaf and hearing participants. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (4), 375-385.

This study compared the hypnotic responsiveness of 17 hearing and 34 deaf individuals, all of whom received visual induction and hypnotic suggestions via some form of signing. The comparison between deaf and hearing participants was analyzed on five dependent measures: (a) the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C); (b) participants’ individual item performance; (c) overall trance depth; (d) a rapport scale; and (e) a resistance scale measuring attitudes of participants toward the hypnotist. Although all participants showed at least a moderate level of hypnotic responsiveness, the data did not indicate a significant main effect between deaf and hearing participants on any of the dependent measures. However, there was a tendency (p < .08) for hearing participants to show a greater hypnotic responsiveness than deaf participants. Additionally, there was a significant difference between all the signing participants combined when compared to the norming population on three items of the SHSS:C. Clinical and theoretical implications of these data are discussed. Repka, Renee J.; Nash, Michael R. (1995). Hypnotic responsivity of the deaf: The development of the University of Tennessee Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale for the Deaf. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (3), 316-331. The purpose of these two studies was to develop and test a measure that assesses the hypnotic responsivity of deaf individuals. The University of Tennessee Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale for the Deaf (UTHSS:D) is a signed, videotaped version of a standard hypnotic induction with 12 standard suggestions. Experiment 1 compared the behavioral and subjective hypnotic responsivity of deaf and hearing individuals using the UTHSS:D and the Field Depth Inventory (FDI), respectively. As compared to hearing subjects, deaf participants were found to be less responsive to hypnosis when assessed behaviorally (UTHSS:D) and equally responsive to hypnosis when assessed subjectively (FDI). Experiment 2 undertook a more comprehensive examination of the hypnotic responsivity of deaf individuals, using hearing individuals as controls. Three dimensions of hypnosis responsivity were assessed: behavioral (UTHSS:D), subjective (FDI), and interpersonal (Archaic Involvement Measure). Additionally, correlates of hypnotic responsivity (absorption, attitudes, expectations) were examined for the two groups. In Experiment 2, no significant differences were found between the deaf and hearing participant groups on any measures of hypnotic responsivity or on any measure of the correlates of hypnotic responsivity. 1992 Matthews, William J.; Isenberg, Gail L. (1992). Hypnotic inductions with deaf and hearing subjects - an initial comparison: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40 (1), 7-11. 17 volunteer deaf Ss were compared with 18 volunteer hearing Ss on the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) of Morgan and J. R. Hilgard (1975), and the Indirect Suggestion Scale (ISS) of Matthews and Mosher (1985) in a 2 x 2 ANOVA design. 5 dependent measures: (a) objective scale score; (b) self-report scale score; (c) S rapport with the hypnotist; (d) S resistance to the hypnotist; and (e) overall subjective rating of trance experience were employed to measure any differences between the 2 groups. For SHCS behavioral items, the two-way ANOVA failed to reveal any significant main effect or interaction differences between either group (deaf/hearing) or method of induction (direct/indirect). There was a significant main effect for deaf/hearing groups in level of resistance to the hypnotist. Deaf Ss reported feeling more resistant to the hypnotist than did hearing Ss. This may be due to the mode of communication or the fact that the hypnotist was hearing. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed. 1992 Spanos, Nicholas P.; Burgess, C. A.; Cross, P. A.; MacLeod, G. (1992). Hypnosis, reporting bias, and suggested negative hallucinations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 192-199. Examined the role of reporting bias in hypnotic negative hallucinations by using a paradigm in which reporting bias was assessed independently of perceptual change. In Experiment 1, highly hypnotizable subjects reported significant loudness reductions when tested for hypnotic deafness. Later, however, these subjects biased their reported loudness reductions in the absence of perceptual change, and their reporting bias scores were almost as large as their hypnotic deafness reports. Subjects also biased their ratings of strategy use. In Experiment 2, ratings of blindness given in response to a hypnotic negative visual hallucination suggestion were significantly correlated with reporting bias scores obtained in this paradigm. Although hypnotic blindness and hypnotic deafness correlated significantly, the partial correlation between these variables was nonsignificant when reporting bias scores were statistically controlled. Results are used to support a skeptical view of hypnotic response as being based on compliance. 1987 Nash, Michael R.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Stanley, Scott; Carlson, Victor (1987). Subjectively complete hypnotic deafness and auditory priming. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35 (1), 32-40. The present study examined the cognitive and attentional mechanisms by which auditory information is maintained out of awareness during complete hypnotic deafness. Adopting a methodology from recent work on subliminally presented pattern- masked words and dichotic listening, the study tested whether spoken words presented during complete hypnotic deafness affect lexical decisions concerning subsequently presented word choices. The response of 9 hypnotized and 15 simulating Ss to spoken stimulus words presented following hypnotic deafness instructions was compared to the response of 20 baseline control Ss who never were exposed to the stimulus words. While the response pattern of hypnosis Ss appeared different from that of baseline control Ss, hypnotic Ss showed no evidence of the priming effect found in subliminal perception and dichotic listening studies. Simulator response deviated significantly from hypnotized and baseline control responses. 10 highs capable of hypnotic deafness, screened by Harvard Group and Stanford Profile Scales (Means 11.0 and 24.7, respectively) and 15 lows (means 1.7 and 1.7, respectively) participated in the study; the low hypnotizables being in the simulation group. For the experimental session, a different E administered a standard hypnotic induction and the deafness suggestion, testing for deafness by snapping fingers near S's ear and making loud requests for motor responses. An experimental trial consisted of tapping an S on the hand, saying the stimulus word out loud, and visually presenting four words for the S to read out loud and circle one. "Of the 18 main experimental trials, the four-word array consisted of two words which were related to the stimulus (one word which was semantically related to the spoken stimulus word and one word which was phonetically related), and two neutral unrelated words" (p. 34). For example, if the spoken word were 'dream,' the word array might include 'cream, tennis, sell, sleep.' There also were "3 phonetically unrelated trials (whose arrays consisted of one phonetically related choice and 3 unrelated choices) and 2 stimulus word-unrelated trials (whose arrays consisted of the stimulus word and 3 unrelated choices) ... [and] 7 dummy trials with 4 unrelated choices only" (p. 34). Ss rated their degree of deafness on a 10-point scale after hypnosis was terminated. Possible sources of bias were examined by having 20 control Ss respond to blank tachistoscopic slides with the instructions that they were participating in a study of 'subliminal perception.' Another 22 Ss were asked to identify the semantically and phonetically related words from the word array, which for the most part they did successfully. All Ss rated themselves as '10' on the deafness scale, indicating total deafness. The principal results are seen in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 Mean Number of Related and Unrelated Responses (Percentage of Responses) for all S Groups on the 18 Mean Experimental Trials Response Category S Group N Related Unrelated Total Hypnotized 9 7.22 10.78 18 (40.13%) (59.88$) (100%) Simulating 15 12.13 5.87 18 (67.43%) (32.61%) (100%) Baseline 19 8.79 9.21 18 Controls (48.82%) (51.17%) (100%) Table 2 Mean Number of Phonetic and Semantic Responses within the Related Response Category on the 18 Main Experimental Trials Related Responses S Group Phonetic Semantic Hypnotized 1.78 5.44 (9.89%) (30.24%) Simulating 7.07 5.07 (39.27%) (28.16%) Baseline 4.21 4.58 Controls (23.38%) (25.44%) Hypnotized Ss were significantly different from simulators (Table 1) in number of related responses. Simulators gave significantly more related responses than baseline controls. Simulators also gave more phonetically related words than either the hypnotized or baseline Ss (Table 2); there was no difference between groups on semantically related words. (Authors performed other useful and detailed analyses.) In their Discussion section, the authors note that they did not obtain the expected results of hypnotized Ss producing more related responses than baseline Ss. "In fact, internal analyses of hypnotized and baseline responses revealed that the pattern of choices for hypnotic deaf Ss was opposite to the direction predicted by subception. Hypnotic Ss appeared to avoid phonetically related word choices, even for items on which baseline control Ss scored above chance. ... "This kind of non-baseline performance by hypnotic Ss can be accounted for by either a strategic enactment conceptualization of hypnosis (Spanos, 1982; Wagstaff, 1981) or Hilgard's (1979) neo-dissociation theory. Spanos might emphasize the hypnotic S's active strivings to meet the hypnotist's perceived expectations. ... Neo-dissociation theory might stress the mechanisms by which processing of auditory inputs are maintained outside of awareness via a dissociative barrier. " ... Given the tendency for simulating Ss to 'overplay' hypnotic phenomena (Levitt & Chapman, 1979), one might have expected simulators to pointedly avoid related responses, thus producing a lower frequency of related words than either the hypnotic Ss or the baseline controls (in effect being more deaf than the deaf). Just the opposite occurred. One possible explanation for this behavior presents itself: In their work with posthypnotic suggestion and the 'disappearing hypnotist' ... M. T. Orne and others found that simulating Ss may be more alert and responsive to demand cues than are hypnotic Ss. In the present study, the authors' original hypothesis was that hypnotic Ss might reveal a subception effect by above-chance responding on related word choices. If we assume that this expectation was somehow communicated to Ss by some subtle aspect of the experimental procedure, then it is conceivable that simulating Ss were able to detect and act upon these cues, while hypnotized Ss remained relatively unattuned to such subtleties. "In sum, the priming effect noted in the subliminal perception research does not appear to be a feature of complete hypnotic deafness, at least as measured in this study. The behavior of simulating Ss in the present study should be another caution to researchers that differences between hypnotized and simulating Ss may reflect simulation effects in addition to, or instead of, hypnotic effects" (pp. 37-38). 1981 Gravitz, Melvin A. (1981). Non-verbal hypnotic techniques in a centrally deaf brain-damaged patient. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 110-116. Non-verbal techniques across several sensory dimensions were utilized with a brain-damaged centrally deaf 36-year-old female patient who had been referred for hypnotherapeutic relaxation. These included optical fixation on the therapist's hand with gradual thumb and fore-finger closure, vibratory stimuli, light shoulder pressures, arm stroking, manually facilitated air currents, and reinforcing homework assignments. With hypnotherapy, the patient's physical and emotional behavior was reported by her to have improved to a significant degree. 1979 Watkins, John G.; Watkins, Helen H. (1979-80). Ego states and hidden observers. Journal of Altered States of Consciousness, 5 (1), 3-17 Hilgard and Hilgard discovered that subjects who had been rendered hypnotically deaf, or whose hand had been anesthetized under hypnosis, were hearing and sensing the pain at levels below the threshold of normal awareness. They described this phenomena as a cognitive structural state and termed it "the hidden observer." Federn theorized that the ego is subdivided into segments (organized patterns of behavior and experience) which are semi-autonomous in normal individuals, and which are manifested as completely separate entities (multiple personalities) when the internal boundaries between such parts are rigid and impermeable. He termed these entities "ego states." When activated under hypnosis each ego state experiences its self as subject (I) and the other states as objects (he, she, or it). We have discovered in hypnoanalytic therapy that these ego states act like "covert" multiple personalities, and that clashes between them often create anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms. Ego-state therapy thus becomes a kind of family or group therapy aimed at resolving conflicts between the various ego states which constitute "a family of self" within a single individual. Two studies are reported here to investigate the possibility that Hilgard's "hidden observers" are the same phenomena as these " ego states." The data derived appear to support such a hypothesis. Consideration is given to the possible influence of suggestion and operator variables. 1968 Scheibe, Karl E.; Gray, Arne L.; Kleim, C. Stephen (1968). Hypnotically induced deafness and delayed auditory feedback: A comparison of real and simulating subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 158-164. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH INDICATES THAT HYPNOTICALLY INDUCED DEAFNESS MAY REDUCE THE SPEECH INHIBITING EFFECTS OF DELAYED AUDITORY FEEDBACK (DAF). REAL AND SIMULATING HYPNOTIC SS WERE COMPARED WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPROVEMENT IN SPEECH CONSEQUENT TO THE SUGGESTION OF DEAFNESS. RESULTS INDICATE VERY SIMILAR IMPROVEMENTS OF DAF SPEECH FOR BOTH GROUPS. AN INCIDENTAL FINDING IS THAT REAL SS HAD LONGER SIMPLE READING TIMES UNDER HYPNOSIS THAN DID SIMULATING SS. (GERMAN + SPANISH SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1967 Kramer, E.; Tucker, G. R. (1967). Hypnotically suggested deafness and delayed auditory feedback. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37-43 A PILOT STUDY INVESTIGATED HYPNOTICALLY INDUCED DEAFNESS USING DELAYED AUDITORY FEEDBACK (DAF). THE FOLLOWING TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS ARE OFFERED: (1) INSTRUCTIONS TO PRETEND DEAFNESS DID DECREASE THE NUMBER OF SPEECH ERRORS PRODUCED IN THE DAF SITUATION WITH SOME SS, ALTHOUGH THE RESULTS WERE BY NO MEANS THOSE OF COMPLETE DEAFNESS; (2) HYPNOTICALLY INDUCED DEAFNESS ALSO PRODUCED A REDUCTION IN THE NUMBER OF ERRORS CAUSED BY DAF, THOUGH HERE, TOO, THE RESULTS DID NOT APPROACH THOSE OF COMPLETE DEAFNESS; AND (3) ADDITIONAL TRAINING OR EXPERIENCE IN HYPNOSIS SEEMED TO PRODUCE AN INCREASED ABILITY OF HYPNOTICALLY SUGGESTED DEAFNESS TO REDUCE SPEECH ERRORS UNDER THESE CONDITIONS. (GERMAN + SPANISH SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1966 Martorano, J. T.; Oestreicher, C. (1966). Hypnosis of the deaf mentally ill: A clinical study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 123, 605-606. Recent studies are reviewed which were concerned with the effectiveness of suggestions given under "hypnosis" and "waking" experimental treatments in alleviating allergies, ichthyosis, myopia, and other conditions and in eliciting deafness, blindness, hallucinations, analgesia, cardiac acceleration and deceleration, emotional responses, urine secretion to sham water ingestion, narcotic-like drug effects, and other phenomena. The review indicates that a wide variety of physiological functions can be influenced by suggestions administered under either hypnosis or waking experimental treatments, and direct and indirect suggestions to show the particular physiological manifestations are crucial variables in producing the effects. 1954 Kline, Milton V.; Guze, Henry; Haggerty, Arthur D. (1954). An experimental study of the nature of hypnotic deafness: Effects of delayed speech feedback. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2 (2), 145-156. The research subject was a 29 year old college student who was given delayed speech feedback in both the waking state and deeply hypnotized with suggestions of deafness. (Clinically, during hypnotic deafness he lacked the startle reflex in response to auditory stimuli and lost a conditioned response based on auditory stimulus.) Following the experimental procedures, the authors concluded: "1. Delayed feed-back in the state of hypnotically induced deafness produces distinct impairment in speech performance. This impairment involves loss of motility, increased errors in enunciation and increasing impairment in proportion to increasing difficulty of vocabulary. 2. The speech impairment found in hypnotically induced deafness is very significantly less than the impairment found in waking feed-back performance. 3. The pattern of speech performance in hypnotic deafness shows a pattern very similar to that of non feed-back with respect to constancy of performance and the linear relationship between performance efficiency and difficulty of verbal stimuli. 4. Waking feed-back performance is significantly more variable and erratic than the non feed-back or hypnotic deafness series. 5. Hypnotic deafness does not appear to follow the same neurophysiological pattern as organic deafness with regard to auditory feed-back. 6. Hypnotic deafness does alter certain behaviorial [sic] responses to audition and appears to alter the character and nature of hearing. 7. Hypnotically induced deafness would appear to represent a valid alteration of hearing function but not a state akin to organic deafness. 8. Hypnosis appears to be capable of altering feed-back mechanism of an auditory nature" (p. 155). Malmo, Robert B.; Boag, Thomas J.; Raginsky, Bernard B. (1954). Electromyographic study of hypnotic deafness. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2 (4), 305-317. "Summary and Conclusions. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the question of similarities and differences between hysterical deafness, previously studied, and hypnotically induced deafness. The study was designed to repeat the objective physiological tests previously carried out with a case of 'total hysterical deafness.' There was also the more general aim of securing objective data to enrich our general understanding of hypnosis. "Similarities between hysteria and hypnosis which we observed may be listed as follows: (a) Significantly reduced motor reaction (exclusive of blink) to strong auditory stimulation in the deaf state. (b) Complete hearing loss in the hysteric and in one of the hypnotic subjects, even with strong auditory stimulation (i.e., denial of any auditory sensation). (c) With elicitation of strong startle reaction to the first stimulus in the deaf state, much smaller reaction to the next stimulus than would have been predicted on the basis of habituation. (d) Suggestion of substitution of somesthetic for auditory sensations in all subjects (although this was much less definite in the hypnotic subjects than the hysteric). "The most outstanding dissimilarity lay in the absence of emotional reaction when 'hypnotic defense against sound' was broken through, in contrast to marked affective reaction in the hysterical subject under these conditions. "The qustion of inhibitory mechanisms in hysteria and hypnosis was discussed" (pp. 316-317). DECEPTION