3 types of ‘posthypnotic suggestion,’ based upon factor analytic studies, were administered to high hypnotizability Ss (reals) and to low hypnotizable Ss instructed to simulate hypnosis (simulators) (N = 12 high and 6 low hypnotizable Ss per suggestion). The ‘posthypnotic suggestions’ consisted of instructions given to Ss following a hypnotic induction that, when the posthypnotic cue was later given, they would re-enter the hypnotic state and perform a certain task at that time. Ss were then tested 6 times for durability of ‘posthypnotic response’ during an 8-week period. Responses to the ‘suggestions’ were rated by research assistants (objective scores) and by Ss themselves (subjective scores). There was a significant Trials x Type of ‘Suggestion’ interaction for both types of scores for the reals but not for the simulators, indicating different rates of decline with time for the different ‘suggestions’ for the hypnotic Ss. Depth of reported hypnotic trance during the assessment sessions was found to be strongly related to performance of the ‘posthypnotic suggestion’ for both real and simulating Ss.

Block, Robert I.; Ghoneim, M. M.; Sum Ping, S. T.; Ali, M. A. (1991). Efficacy of therapeutic suggestions for improved postoperative recovery during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 75, 746-755.

There have been claims that the postoperative course of patients may be improved by presentation during general anesthesia of therapeutic suggestions which predict a rapid and comfortable postoperative recovery. This study evaluated the effectiveness of such therapeutic suggestions under double-blind and randomized conditions. A tape recording predicting a smooth recovery during a short postoperative stay without pain, nausea, or vomiting was played during anesthesia to about half the patients (N = 109), while the remaining, control patients were played a blank tape instead (N = 100). The patients were primarily undergoing operations on the fallopian tubes, total abdominal hysterectomy, vertical banding gastroplasty, cholecystectomy, and ovarian cystectomy or myomectomy. The anesthesia methods consisted of either isoflurane with 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen to produce end-tidal concentrations of 1.0, 1.3, or 1.5 MAC; or 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen combined with high or low doses of opioids. Assessments of the efficacy of the therapeutic suggestions in the recovery room and throughout the postoperative hospital stay included: the frequency of administration of analgesic and antiemetic drugs; opioid doses; the incidence of fever; nausea, retching, and vomiting; other gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms; ratings of pain; ratings of anxiety; global ratings of the patients’ physical and psychological recoveries by the patients and their nurses; and length of postoperative hospital stay. There were no meaningful, significant differences in postoperative recovery of patients receiving therapeutic suggestions and controls. These negative results were not likely to be due to insensitivity of the assessments of recovery, as they showed meaningful interrelations among themselves and numerous differences in recovery following different types of surgery. Widespread utilization of therapeutic suggestions as a routine operating room procedure seems premature in the absence of adequate replication of previously published positive studies. (Key words: Anesthesia, depth: Awareness, Memory, Recall, Learning.)

Patients ages 19-55 were accepted into the study and they were paid for participation. (Older patients were excluded to guard against memory or hearing problems.) Other criteria for exclusion were: ASA physical status 4 or 5 indicating significant systemic disease, visual or hearing problems, middle ear disease (because it increases probability of nausea and vomiting), if their condition might require heavy sedation, if they were currently taking medication that interferes with memory (e.g. benzodiazepines, if there were intolerance to opioids, or if there were a likelihood of using postoperative pain treatment other than opioids.
The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered before surgery. Either suggestions (lasting 6 minutes) or a blank tape were played through headphones, starting 5 minutes after the surgical incision. The tape was played once for the first 59 patients, continuously for the remaining 150 patients. The first 139 patients received additional verbal materials on the tape, for memory tests to test possibility of learning under anesthesia. Operating room sounds were recorded by a tape recorder near the patient’s head, throughout period of unconsciousness (except when tape was being played).
After the first 25% of cases, the team decided that lack of effect on therapeutic suggestions attributable to type of anesthesia did not warrant restriction to a single anesthetic method; also, multiple presentations of the suggestions on tape did not show an effect different from a single presentation.
After the patient regained consciousness and was reoriented, pain, nausea, retching, and vomiting were assessed every 30 minutes. Pain was rated orally on a scale from 1 to 10 in the recovery room, then on visual analogue scales every 2 hours on the day of surgery and the second day, and every 4 hours on subsequent hospital days during waking hours. Variables that were rated by staff every 24 hours included: opioids, other analgesics, antiemetics, nausea, vomiting, retching, presence or absence of nasogastric tube, passage of flatus, bowel movement, fluid intake, solids intake, urination. Temperature was recorded every 4 hours for the first 2 days after surgery, and after that less often. The anxiety measures were repeated on Day 3 postsurgery, as well as self ratings and nurse ratings on physical and psychological recovery. Staff recorded length of postoperative hospital stay and reasons for any delay of discharge. Separate analyses were performed for patients receiving opioids via patient-controlled analgesia (52%) vs traditional administration (48%), but no differences were found for effects of therapeutic suggestions except on postoperative Day 8.
“The inability to detect beneficial effects of therapeutic suggestions probably was not due to insensitivity of the measures of recovery. These measures were sensitive enough to show numerous significant differences in recovery after different types of surgery” (p. 751). The authors supported their contention that the measures were sufficiently sensitive by demonstrating meaningful correlations among the measures themselves; and by demonstrating adequate statistical power for detecting the effects of theoretical interest–at least 1 day in postoperative hospital stay or one half day in fever.

The authors note that a recent investigation that found positive results in a double-blind, randomized design with 39 hysterectomy patients (Evans & Richardson, 1988. Improved recovery and reduced postoperative stay after therapeutic suggestions during general anaesthesia. Lancet, 2:491-493) may not have controlled for variables such as presence of malignancy, physical status of patients before surgery, or ethnicity. Authors note that Evans and Richardson observed shorter periods of pyrexia despite there being no relevant suggestions, but no differences in pain intensity, nausea, vomiting, or urinary difficulties despite there being suggestions relating to those symptoms. There also were no differences in mood and anxiety test scores postoperatively for the experimental and control groups.
The authors note that McLintock, Aitken, Downie, & Kenny (Postoperative analgesic requirements in patients exposed to positive intraoperative suggestions. Br M J 301:788-790. 1990) reported a 23% reduction in opioids by patients receiving suggestions, but no reduction in pain, nausea, or vomiting. They contrast the present study with these earlier studies that had obtained positive results.
“We studied patients who had more than one type of surgery to obtain a large sample size and to assess the possibility that beneficial effects of therapeutic suggestions would be restricted to certain types of operations. Had this been the case, interactions of therapeutic suggestions with type of surgery would have been significant in the overall analyses, and follow-up analyses would have indicated that they were attributable to beneficial effects of therapeutic suggestions for certain surgeries. This did not occur. The two types of surgeries involving the largest numbers of patients seemed particularly promising for demonstrating beneficial effects. It has been reported that therapeutic suggestions presented during anesthesia are likely to be less successful with major and extensive surgery. Certainly, surgery on the fallopian tubes and gastric stapling did not involve a great deal of tissue trauma and blood loss. Patients were motivated to have the surgery and to recover quickly; particularly motivated were those having operations on the fallopian tubes, who were very eager to become pregnant, and those having vertical banding gastroplasties, who wanted desperately to lose weight” (pp. 753-754).
“In practice, we observed no beneficial effects of therapeutic suggestions, and there was no hint that anesthesia methods influenced the efficacy of the therapeutic suggestions. Interestingly, anesthetic methods also did not influence learning under anesthesia in the implicit memory tests we have used previously. Patients anesthetized with nitrous oxide and opioids did not differ from those anesthetized only with inhalational agents. In general, implicit or unconscious memory occurs in patients regardless of anesthesia methods or dosages of drugs” (p. 754).
“The few significant effects of therapeutic suggestions in our study did not point toward a beneficial influence of these suggestions. We found, in fact, an increased frequency of retching (but not nausea or vomiting) in the experimental group. The multiple variables examined in this study increased the likelihood of significant differences arising by chance, such that the null hypothesis was rejected when it should have been accepted. This is the way we interpret the effect on retching—i.e., as a type I error. We used in our therapeutic suggestions one negative or exclusionary sentence, ‘You won’t feel nauseous or have to vomit’, among several positive or affirmative statements, e.g., ‘You will enjoy eating, drinking…You will swallow to clear your throat and everything will go one way, straight down. . . The food will taste good….Your stomach will feel fine.’ We do not think that the negative sentence led to paradoxical results. Evans and Richardson (personal communication) used in their therapeutic suggestions a negative sentence (‘You will not feel sick’), which they repeated, yet the reported incidence of nausea and vomiting did not differ between the experimental and control groups” (p. 754).

Kleinhauz, Moris (1991). Prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39 (2), 82-92.

A therapeutic approach is presented which involves the use of prolonged hypnosis for the treatment of diverse medical and/or psychological conditions, including intractable pain. This approach may be indicated either as a complementary tool used in conjunction with other treatment approaches or as the only method of intervention. The technique is based on achieving a prolonged hypnotic response, during which hypno- relaxation serves as the foundation for the delivery of an individualized therapeutic plan which includes self-hypnosis, suggestive procedures, metaphors, and constructive imagery techniques. In debilitated patients, medical supervision and nursing care are essential, and hospitalization is recommended if necessary. Theoretical assumptions underlying this approach are presented, and clinical implications are discussed. The method is illustrated through case presentations.

The general procedure involves: 1. A flexible plan concerning the duration of treatment: days, weeks, or longer. 2. Information is given to the patient, the family and the medical staff if in hospital. Emphasize that while the patient may be in a ‘twilight-like’ state, most of the time he/she is able to fulfill his or her basic physiological needs, (drinking, eating, taking care of personal cleanliness, etc.). 3. The method of hypnotic induction is individualized. 4. The patient is trained in self- hypnosis, and for using signals for induction and dehypnotization either for self hypnosis or for the hypnotist to use. Thus if there is a physiological or emotional need for self-hypnosis the patient can do it. Suggestions and training are given and reinforced concerning the patient’s capability to fulfill his/her basic physiological needs. 5. The family and/or the medical staff are instructed and trained in induction and dehypnotization, until the patient responds to them satisfactorily. 6. At this stage, therapeutic suggestions aimed at ego-boosting and a change of attitudes and meanings towards the symptom and symptom removal/amelioration/substitution are added. 7. Metaphoric constructive imagery is introduced when indicated. 8. If required, other hypnotic phenomena are elicited and used (e.g. dissociation, time distortion, age regression, rehearsal, hypno/analgesia, change of muscular tonus, displacement of emotions, abreaction, etc.). 9. An audio cassette which contains the wording of the therapeutic intervention is used with some patients. 10. The family and/or the medical staff are instructed to supervise the patient properly and to avoid potential complications. 11. Termination of prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy is gradual to permit appropriate re-orientation towards reality. 12. Treatment is evaluated and a posttreatment plan is outlined.
They provide case reports and discuss precautions. All the cases reported were treated while the patients were hospitalized for their physical condition (although in Case 3, prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy was also continued at home after the patient’s discharge form the hospital), and the patients were monitored by the medical staff. In very debilitated patients, special care should be taken to avoid potential complications arising from their passivity, mainly the development of decubitus ulcer and of aspiration/choking while drinking or eating. Although precaution is taken routinely with these patients, these measures should be emphasized while the patient is in a state of prolonged hypno-relaxation.

Jupp, J. J.; Collins, J. K.; Walker, W. L. (1989). Relationships between behavioural responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions and estimates of hypnotic depth following 11 sequential instances of hypnosis. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 93-98.

Behavioral responsiveness to suggestions was assessed in an initial hypnosis session, and hypnotic depth was assessed in this session, followed by 10 weekly standardized hypnotic experiences. Correlations were calculated between behavioral responsiveness, initial and subsequent depth estimates, and between successive trance depth estimates. Levels of trance depth estimates were found to increase through weeks 1 to 11. Significant positive correlations were found between behavioral responsiveness scores and trance depth estimates to the fourth week but not beyond. Significant positive relations were found between successive estimates of trance depth except for the correlation between estimates for the fourth and fifth weeks. These results are discussed in terms of the estimates of trance depth being attributions from self-observations of behavioral responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions.

Kahn, Stephen P.; Fromm, Erika; Lombard, Lisa S.; Sossi, Michael (1989). The relation of self-reports of hypnotic depth in self-hypnosis to hypnotizability and imagery production. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 290-304.

Studied multidimensional nature of self-hypnotic depth in 22 high hypnotizables who volunteered for self hypnosis research. On personality scales, they were distinguished from the population at large by: strong theoretical orientation, high level of curiosity, disregard for opinions of others, and high Mf scale on the MMPI. Used the Stanford Profile Scale, SHSS:C and HGSHS:A, which measure the entire range of phenomena ordinarily used in experimental studies of hypnosis, including ideomotor phenomena, hypnotic fantasy and dreams, hypermnesias and age regressions, analgesias, negative and positive hallucinations, amnesias, posthypnotic phenomena, and cognitive and affective distortions. They asked Subjects to experience self hypnosis for 60 minutes/day for 4 weeks. Journals were coded for imagery production by scoring for both reality-oriented and primary process imagery. Subject had been taught to monitor their hypnotic depth using a slightly revised version of the Extended North Carolina Scale (ENCS) of Tart (1979). Previously, ENCS has been used only with hetero-hypnotic Subjects. The self- reports of depth using ENCS correlated highly with hypnotizability as measured by the Revised Stanford Profile Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility… and with imagery production. Results demonstrate that ENCS scores are also a valid indicator of self-hypnotic depth among highly hypnotizable Subjects. Furthermore, they indicate that both hetero- hypnotizability and imagery production are related to self-hypnotic depth, but that the association between imagery and hypnotizability is due to their individual relationships to self-hypnotic depth.

Kumar, V. K.; Pekala, Ronald J. (1989). Variations in phenomenological experience as a function of hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility: A replication. British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, 6, 17-22.

Phenomenological experiences associated with a baseline (eyes closed/open) condition and an hypnotic induction were compared across individuals of differing hypnotic susceptibility. The results indicated individuals of differing hypnotic susceptibility reported different intensities of phenomenological experience during the baseline condition. The induction further augmented intensity differences for low, medium and high susceptible subjects, but more so for high than for low subjects. These results replicate earlier research, are not inconsistent with trait and situational interpretations of hypnotic susceptibility and highlight the importance of the interaction between these factors on the resulting hypnotic experience reported by the subject.

Matheson, George; Shu, Karen L.; Bart, Catherine (1989). A validation study of a short-form hypnotic-experience questionnaire and its relationship to hypnotizability. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 32, 17-26.

Investigated the validity of a 16-item scale inquiring about hypnotic experience, drawn from the Hypnotic Experience Questionnaire developed by Kelly (1985) to measure components of hypnotic experience. We administered the HEQ-S and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (HGSHS:A) to 198 students. Factor analysis of the scale produced three stable principal components accounting for 70% of the data variance: Dissociation/Altered State (DAS), Rapport (RAP), and Relaxation (REL). Subscales representing these three factors and a composite measure, “General Depth,” were constructed. Subscale correlations with HGSHS:A scores were highest for the DAS subscale (.69) and lowest for REL (.41). Applications of the HEQ-S in clinical and research use are considered.
Using the phenomenological studies and theories of J. R. Hilgard (1979) and Shor (1962), Kelly (1985) constructed the Hypnotic Experience Questionnaire (HEQ), a 47- item scale designed to demonstrate the existence of five factors of the hypnotic experience. These factors included dissociation/altered state, relaxation, rapport, visual imagery, and a negatively correlated factor of cognitive rumination measuring the amount of anxious self-reflective, and interfering thought. A composite scale, General Depth, was also derived to provide a summary measure of the subjective quality of the hypnotic experience. The HEQ was developed as a research instrument.
The HEQ-S was administered immediately after Ss completed the Harvard response record. Items were responded to on a 5-point Likert scale ranging form one (No, none or not at all) to 5 (Yes, a great deal, or almost completely).
Radtke, H. Lorraine (1989). Hypnotic depth as social artifact. In Spanos, Nicholas P.; Chaves, John F. (Ed.), Hypnosis: The cognitive-behavioral perspective (pp. 64-77). Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

Zamore, Neal; Barrett, Deirdre (1989). Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics. Psychiatry Journal of the University of Ottawa, 14 (4).

This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson’s dream inventory and Hilgard’s theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability as measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory. For Ss as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotizability to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams, and precognitive dreams.

Cardena, Etzel (1988, November). The phenomenology of quiescent and physically active deep hypnosis. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Asheville, NC.

Twelve highly susceptible undergraduate students participated in three conditions (lying down on a bed, pedaling a stationary bicycle at a comfortable rate, and having a motor do the pedaling at an approximately constant, comfortable rate) in deep hypnosis and non-hypnosis conditions. They were asked for their expectations about deep hypnotic experience, exposed to a number of traditional hypnotic phenomena before the deep hypnosis and comparison sessions, and given the opportunity to explore their own ways of inducing and deepening their state.
Even without cues or suggestions, participants gave comparable reports of their experiences at light, medium and deep hypnosis. The first one consisted mostly of relaxation and other changes in body sensations. Medium hypnosis was characterized by having complex imaginal experiences. Very deep hypnosis involved experiences of light, emptiness, and other phenomena associated with spiritual experiences.

McCue, Peter A.; McCue, Elspeth C. (1988). Literalness: An unsuggested (spontaneous) item of hypnotic behavior? A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 192-197.

Milton Erickson claimed that the large majority of hypnotized individuals respond in a peculiarly literal way to questions/requests such as, “Would you mind telling me your name?” and he viewed this behavior as a manifestation of the ‘hypnotic state.’ In the present study, numerous Ss were exposed to hypnotic induction procedures and tested for literalness. Since it is possible that Erickson obtained literal responses by inadvertent cueing, some of these Ss were asked questions in a ‘distorted’ manner that was thought likely to elicit literal responses. A minority of the latter Ss gave literal responses, but with Ss who were asked questions in a normal manner, no clear-cut literal responses of the type described by Erickson were noted.

Laurence, Jean-Roch; Nadon, Robert (1986). Reports of hypnotic depth: Are they more than mere words?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 215-233.

The empirical work relating hypnotizability, the hypnotic situation, and the reports of hypnotic depth is reviewed and evaluated. Asking Ss to assess their hypnotic depth is a complex task involving the interaction of experiential, cognitive, and contextual variables. Accordingly, future experimental work should take into account this multidimensionality; phenomenological, situational, cognitive, and motivational factors implicated in verbal reports should be explored in terms of their respective relationships with both hypnotizability and self-ratings of hypnotic depth. More sophistication in the experimental inquiries of hypnotic depth is required in order to further our understanding of the cognitive and affective structures underlying the hypnotic experience.

In past years, hypnotic susceptibility and hypnotic depth were regarded as the same thing, and depth was inferred from responses to test suggestions on hypnotizability scales (e.g. Davis & Husband, 1931; LeCron, 1953).
There has been little investigation of the relationship between Subjects’ subjective experiences and reported “depth.” Research suggests that “hypnotic depth reports are usually significantly higher for Ss who have undergone a hypnotic treatment than for those who have received task-motivation (Ham & Spanos, 1974; Spanos & Barber, 1968; Spanos, Stam, D’Eon, Pawlak, & Radtke-Bodorik, 1980); imagination-control; or relaxation-control instructions (Connors & Sheehan, 1978; Gilbert & Barber, 1972; Spanos & Barber, 1968; Spanos, Radtke-Bodorik, & Stam, 1980, Experiment 2)” (pp. 217-218). Others have found that changes in inward experiencing (e.g. feelings of unreality, a sense of disappearance of body parts) could not be attributed simply to sitting quietly with the eyes closed (Barber & Calverley, 1979). [A footnote on p. 218 indicates some studies didn’t find this difference between a hypnosis group and a task-motivation control group.]
When Ss are asked to estimate subjective depth after having experienced hypnotizability test items, they are likely to infer depth from whether or not they passed the items (and indeed, early scales promoted that assumption). Reports of subjective depth taken before rather than after the test items still correlate with overall hypnotizability score, though not to as high a degree (E. R. Hilgard & Tart, 1966; Tart, 1970). Although usually depth estimates correlate with hypnotizability in the .50 to .75 range (Perry & Laurence, 1980), the correlations were obtained in the hypnotic context, and Ss may use their own behaviors as one determinant of their estimated depth.
From another line of study it is observed that Ss’ subjective depth may be at variance with behavioral performance on hypnosis scales (Bowers, 1981). High hypnotizables judge their own depth from their performance on cognitive items (e.g. amnesia, hallucinations) while mediums and lows judge their own performance based on their responses to motor items and challenge items (Kihlstrom, 1981). In one experiment on amnesia, it appeared that Ss did not judge their own depth by how well they did on the amnesia task (Spanos, Stam, D’Eon, Pawlak, and Radtke-Bodorik, 1980). “M. T. Orne (1966, 1980) has emphasized that although it is necessary to operationalize S’s responses to hypnotic suggestions, behavioral concomitants are only valid if they accurately reflect subjective alterations in an individual’s experience” (p. 221).
“The social-psychological approach (see Barber, 1969; Radtke & Spanos, 1981, 1982; Spanos, 1982; Wagstaff, 1981) rejects the notion of hypnotic depth as an indicator of a unique state. These authors argue that the reports of having been hypnotized reflect attributions made by Ss when confronted with a hypnotic context. … Bem (1972) and Kelley (1972) have emphasized the idea that the more ambiguous an experience is, the more a person is likely to base his or her judgment primarily on available external information” (p. 222). In this case, defining the situation as involving “hypnosis” is one of the most potent predictors of Ss’ reports of subjective experience (Spanos, Radtke- Bodorik, and Stam, 1980). Other variables that influence subjective depth estimates are the wording of the hypnotizability scale, expectancy, and information provided directly or indirectly. Oh the other hand, McCord (1961) found that his patients had widely disparate expectations for how they thought they would feel when hypnotized, so expectancy as a predictor would not necessarily determine specific experience.
Direct experimental work on predicting response to hypnosis test items from expectancies (Council, Kirsch, Vickery, & Carlson, 1983; Kirsch, Council, & Vickery, 1984) suggests that expectations may predict test response when people are given a cognitive skill type of induction, but not when given a ‘typical trance’ type of induction. Also, another study from that laboratory (Council & Kirsch, 1983) established that only when expectancies are assessed after an induction (but before the test items) do they effectively predict hypnotic behaviors. The present authors express the view that these results are difficult to account for on the basis of social psychology theories that weight heavily the role of expectancy in generating hypnotic response.
When Ss are permitted to use several different descriptors for their experience (being hypnotized, experiencing the effects, being absorbed, and responding to the suggestions), most Ss rated their own experiences as nonhypnotic (Radtke & Spanos, 1982). This was particularly true for medium hypnotizable Ss. Thus, unidimensional scales purporting to measure “depth” actually force Ss to interpret their multi-aspect experience in terms of the investigator’s frame of reference, in this case “hypnotic depth.” Nevertheless, the highly hypnotizable Ss were the least likely to be swayed from their self description of being “deep” when offered alternative ways of describing their experience. This is concordant with results reported earlier by Barber et al. (1968).
“The attribution literature may provide clues as to why most highly hypnotizability Ss retain their high ratings of experienced depth when confronted with situational manipulations. Self-perception theory strictly applies when Ss’ experiences are ambiguous, forcing them to fall back on contextual factors to make self-appraisals. The relationship between expectancies, absorption, effect of scale wording, and hypnotizability scores suggest, however, that high hypnotizable Ss do not rely heavily on contextual factors when assessing their levels of hypnotic depth. Most of these Ss maintain their reports of altered experiences, even when situational determinants are changed (Harackiewicz, 1979; Kihlstrom, 1984; Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973). Thus, the hypnotizability by depth scale interaction found by Radtke and Spanos (1981) may suggest that experiences reported by high hypnotizable S are _not_ inherently ambiguous. Accordingly, self-perception theory may not apply to them” (pp.226-227).
In their Discussion, the authors state, “Several studies have attempted to relate personal, real-life events to the experience of hypnosis. A number of studies (e.g., As, 1963; Field, 1965; Shor et al., 1962; Wilson & Barber, 1982) have shown that absorption, tolerance of unusual experiences, automaticity, compulsion, and trust are related to the capacity to be hypnotized. Other studies (Bowers & Brenneman, 1981; Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974; Van Nuys, 1973) have shown that certain variants of attention are also related to hypnotizability. Extensive work by J. R. Hilgard (1970, 1979) has shown that patterns of personal development relate to hypnotizability in adult life. If appears then that hypnotizable individuals bring a host of experiences and abilities with them to the hypnotic context. It makes intuitive sense which is supported by the available empirical data, that a complex interaction among these experiences and abilities, the hypnotic context, and hypnotic responsiveness is implicated in Ss’ assessments of their hypnotic depth. Studies are needed in which all of these potential determinants of hypnotic depth reports are taken into account. Only then will a clearer picture of their respective importance emerge” (p. 228).

Mitchell, George P.; Lundy, Richard M. (1986). The effects of relaxation and imagery inductions on responses to suggestions. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 98-109.

Theoretical attempts to understand the meaning and importance of induction procedures in producing hypnotic phenomena suggest that 2 critical components, relaxation and imagery, should be isolated and their relative effect on hypnotic responding studied. Objectively and subjectively scored responses to 12 hypnotic suggestions, which had followed relaxation, imaginal, or combined inductions, were obtained from 59 Ss, divided into 3 levels of hypnotizability. Regardless of hypnotizability level, the combined induction led to a greater subjective report of hypnotic response than did either the relaxation or the imagery inductions; and the relaxation led to a greater subjective report than the imagery induction. It may follow that the subjective experience of hypnosis is facilitated by inductions which include relaxation. The inductions were equally effective in producing objectively measured behavioral responses. There were no significant interactions found between induction type and hypnotizability level.

As suggested by Sacerdote (1970), the combination procedure was the most generally effective in producing hypnotic responses. The difference between combined and imagery inductions reached statistical significance on four dependent variables, and the difference between combined and relaxation reached significance on three. It may also be of interest that Ss receiving the combined procedure scored consistently higher on all nine dependent variables.
A somewhat unexpected finding was that the relaxation induction produced scores on four of the dependent variables that were statistically higher than the imagery induction scores. Considering the difficulty of isolating relaxation and imagery components, it is quite noteworthy that these differences between inductions were found.
The four variables in which the combination and relaxation conditions produced significantly higher scores than the imagery condition were subjective reports–subjective score, degree hypnotized, response volition, and Field Inventory. In contrast to Ss in the imagery induction, Ss in the other two induction conditions believed that they were responding more, felt that their responses were more nonvolitional, and felt that they were more deeply hypnotized.
The fact that relaxation instructions were present in both conditions that were superior to the imagery condition would appear to support Edmonston’s (1981) position which posits relaxation as essential for the production of the state of neutral hypnosis. For Edmonston the condition of neutral hypnosis is defined as the relaxed state and precedes other phenomena, such as dissociation and increased suggestibility, which other theoreticians may include in the definition of hypnosis.
However, the statistically significant superior effect of the combined over the relaxation induction on three measures casts doubt on Edmonston’s position. The S believes that he or she is more deeply hypnotized and is responding less volitionally when an imagery component is combined with relaxation. The Ss also responded more to the Field Inventory when the combined induction was used.
Another explanation for imagery’s relatively poor showing may lie in Ss’ differential expectations. The Ss, especially those with previous experience with a traditional hypnotic induction, as was the case in the present study, may not expect to be hypnotized when presented with an imagery alone induction. Such expectations, of course, might reduce responses. On the other hand, there is no reason to believe that the reduced expectation in the imagery condition would not affect the behavioral responses as well, and such was not the case.
Thus, we may be left with the explanation that relaxation adds to the subjective experience of hypnosis. This is in keeping with Edmonston’s (1981) position as well as with previous research, such as that by Hilgard and Tart (1966), which finds traditional inductions, with their relaxation components, superior to nontraditional inductions, such as fantasy or task-motivational. If future research should find that bodily involvements such as the physical exertion or repetitive motor behavior (Banyai and Hilgard, 1976) lead to the same level of subjective experience as relaxation did, then we may need to broaden the concept of the somatic component beyond relaxation alone.
In terms of the behavioral compliance of Ss, the results of the present study are in accord with some previous studies in finding all procedures equally effective. Neither imagery, relaxation, nor the combined procedure was superior for the behavioral measure.
Personality factors (social desirability, internality/externality, and absorption) did not affect the basic findings. To the degree that the Tellegen scales measure the ability to engage in imagery there seems to be little basis for believing that imagery ability is related to the general findings.
Sarbin (1983) would call the inductions studied here ‘entrance rituals,’ and he has recently asked in his review of Edmonston’s book, “Which ritual is more suitable… [p. 58]’ for preparing S to respond in various hypnotic ways? One answer from the present results is that an entrance ritual should include muscular relaxation if one wants a better subjective response from S. From Sarbin’s point of view, the relaxation component may be more ego-involving, producing more subjective experience and meaning for S.
If one wants to produce only a behavioral response, either a relaxation or imagery ritual will serve.

Register, Patricia A.; Kihlstrom, John F. (1986). Finding the hypnotic virtuoso. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 84-97

Measures of hypnotizability based on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) correlate only moderately with those based on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). Ss (N = 148) scoring in the high range (10-12) on HGSHS:A were classified according to whether they scored in the “virtuoso” range (11-12) or not on a subsequent administration of SHSS:C. Significant group differences were found on items comprising the cognitive distortion subscale of HGSHS:A, whether assessed in terms of overt behavior or subjective impressions of success. The 2 groups also differed on global self-ratings of hypnotic depth and on those subscales of Field’s Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth concerned with subjective feelings of loss of control, automaticity, transcendence of normal functioning, and fluctuating depth. Assessments of hypnotizability are enhanced when investigators consider subjective involvement as well as behavioral measures of hypnotic response. This is particularly important when the more dissociative aspects of hypnosis are under scrutiny.

The correlation between Harvard Group and Stanford Scale scores is usually about r = .60 (Bentler & Roberts, 1963; Coe, 1964; Evans & Schmeidler, 1966). This is much lower than one would expect (r = .82), based on the tests’ individual reliabilities (Evans & Schmeidler, 1966).
The authors developed a Table to show the cross-classification of Ss in terms of Harvard and SHSS:C. Only a minority (33%) of Ss scoring in the highest range of HGSHS:A also scored in the highest range on the SHSS:C (or 50% if cutting points are different).
The Absorption scale correlated r = .38 (p<.001) with the Harvard Scale, which fell to r = .31 (p<.01) when corrected for expansion of range. The correlation between Absorption and SHSS:C was .35 (p<.001). The issue of predicting Stanford 'virtuosos' from Harvard 'virtuosos' was addressed. HGSHS:A predictor variables were used to determine which items determined whether or not one of the HGSHS:A 'virtuosos' (the 20% who scored 11-12) would also be a SHSS:C 'virtuoso.' It was found that 70% of the SHSS:C virtuosos, but only 53% of the nonvirtuosos, had reversible posthypnotic amnesia on the HGSHS:A. None of the ideomotor or challenge subscale items demonstrated this ability to predict group association. Although the 'virtuosos' differed from the 'nonvirtuosos' in self reported depth, none of the coding categories associated with the depth variable differentiated the groups; also, judges could not predict who would be a Stanford 'virtuoso' based on subjects' descriptions of depth following the Harvard scale administration. The Experimenters also could not predict who among the Harvard 'virtuosos' would be classified as a Stanford 'virtuoso' based on either their Absorption Scale score or previous experience with hypnosis. It was found that subjects' subjective experience of the suggestions for hallucinations, amnesia, and posthypnotic behavior (all considered to be cognitive alterations) were the most highly correlated with the subsequent total SHSS:C score. On the Field scale, which measures subjective experience, the most predictive items had to do with feelings of automaticity and loss of control (referred to as nonvoluntary behavior in other literature). Predicting SHSS:C score by 5 items (Harvard behavioral score, Harvard subjective score, Field total score, Tellegen Absorption total score, and self reported depth rating), r = .44. "The 5-element regression, employing only total scores, explained 17% ... of the variance of SHSS:C; thus, the feelings of subjective success accounted for the vast proportion (79%) of the explainable variance. For the 16 element regression, employing subscales derived from factor analysis of HGSHS:A and Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth, the cognitive subscale was dominant, accounting for 65.5% of explainable variance" (p. 92). A discriminant function analysis employing the same five total score variables correctly classified 63.3% of the virtuosos. In their Discussion, the authors suggest that investigators use subjective response as well as behavioral response when identifying hypnotic talent (virtuosos) for research. Particularly, the subjective experience of success seems to be important. Little is known, to date, about the determinants of that sense of success with hypnotic suggestions. "In part, they may relate to the 'classic suggestion effect' (K. S. Bowers, 1981; P. G. Bowers, 1982; Weitzenhoffer, 1974): the quasi-automatic, compulsory, involuntary quality which distinguishes hypnotic response from compliance with simple social requests. If so, then a direct assessment of perceived involuntariness might enhance the predictive validity of HGSHS:A even more. This is especially true for the perceptual-cognitive alterations which relate to Ss' capacity for dissociation" (p. 94). The authors further recommend, "In those situations where HGSHS:A must stand alone for economic reasons, however, and especially where HGSHS:A is employed as a convenient preliminary screening device in the search for hypnotic virtuosos, it would seem that some assessment of the subjective experience of hypnosis would provide useful supplementary information at very little cost" (p. 94). Woolson, Donald A. (1986). An experimental comparison of direct and Ericksonian hypnotic induction procedures and the relationship to secondary suggestibility. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 29 (1), 23-28. Recent studies reporting the disparate effects of direct and indirect suggestion upon hypnotized subjects have indicated that standardized, direct hypnotic susceptibility tests may not accurately predict the suggestibility of subjects exposed to an indirectly worded, albeit similar, test. Historically, primary suggestibility correlates highly with hypnotizability, while secondary suggestibility does not and has been reported to be a subject's response to indirect suggestion. In this study 56 volunteers for self-hypnosis training were first tested for secondary/indirect suggestibility, then each singly received either a direct standardardized [sic] induction or an Ericksonian (indirect) version. While susceptibility scores between groups were close, a greater number of the Ericksonian group subjects were rated as medium or highly susceptible. This occurred regardless of their type of suggestibility. Also, the Ericksonian group subjects appeared to be less aware of their depth of trance, as judged by a comparison of their susceptibility scores and their self-report depth scores. - Journal Abstract 1985 Jupp, James J.; Collins, John K. (1985). Hypnotic responsiveness and depth in a clinical population. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (1), 37-47. Two samples of clinical subjects estimated depth during procedures which allowed their estimates to be related to aspects of responsivity. In Sample 1, subjects estimated depth after they scored their responsivities and tested their post-hypnotic recall. In Sample 2 subjects estimated depth before they had completed these tasks. Results suggested that subjects use the range of available information in making depth estimates and that they may be more influenced by the more obvious ideomotor challenge performances than by the cognitive distortion reponses, aspects of amnesia, or impressions of involuntariness. Jupp, J. J.; Collins, J. K.; McCabe, M. P. (1985). Estimates of hypnotizability: Standard group scale versus subjective impression in clinical populations. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33 (2), 140-149. : The relationship between hypnotic responsiveness as measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962) and global depth estimates derived from an 11-point scale were explored in 2 clinical samples. In one case, depth estimates were made just before, and in the other, immediately following the patients' focus on aspects of hypnotic responsiveness. The responsiveness-depth relationship was moderate and consistent across both samples, a finding which in itself is consonant with previous findings employing experimental Ss. When HGSHS:A performance and depth estimates were less proximate, the relationship between them remained significant but was substantially reduced in magnitude. Data suggest that low hypnotizabile Ss increase their estimates of depth, and that higher hypnotizable Ss retain relatively stable estimates with increased exposure to hypnosis in a clinical context. 1983 Council, James R.; Kirsch, Irving; Vickery, Anne R.; Carlson, Dawn (1983). 'Trance' versus 'skill' hypnotic inductions: The effects of credibility, expectancy, and experimenter modeling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 31 (3), 432-440. A hypnotic induction procedure based on social learning principles (skill induction) was compared with a traditional eye-fixation/relaxation trance induction, a highly credible placebo induction, and a no-induction base-rate control. The trance induction surpassed the skill induction only on the Field Inventory, a measure of hypnotic depth that contains items corresponding to suggestions contained in the trance induction. Experimenter modeling was not found to enhance the effectiveness of the skill induction. Skill and trance inductions elicited slightly higher behavioral scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C than did the placebo induction. However, this difference was not obtained on other measures of hypnotic responsibility and depth. Significant correlations were found between expectancy, absorption, and responsiveness on all dependent measures. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the relationship between absorption and responsivity was mediated by expectancy. The results are interpreted as supporting the hypotheses that hypnotic responses are elicited by the expectancy for their occurrence and that induction procedures are a means of increasing subjects' expectancies for hypnotic responses. Trance induction resulted in a higher score on subjective experiences (cognitive & perceptual distortions) but not higher suggestibility scores than cognitive- behavioral skill induction. 2) Trance and cognitive-behavioral inductions got slightly higher scores in suggestibility than placebo biofeedback induction. 3) All inductions did better than a "no induction" control group on subjective and behavioral indices of hypnosis. One of the goals of this research was to examine the contribution of experimenter modeling to the behavioral skill induction that "trains the subject in hypnosis skills and requires the subject's conscious cooperation in learning cognitive strategies that will enhance hypnotic responsivity" (p. 432). Another goal was to assess the contribution of "a subject's expectancies for the occurrence of behaviors perceived as being involuntary" (p. 433). A third goal was to determine whether congruence between a subject's beliefs about hypnosis and the rationale for a particular induction would increase expectancy. Two different skill inductions were employed (one with, one without a model). Subjects were asked to predict their performance, based on a description of the induction that they would receive. The contributions of credibility and expectancy were assessed using a highly credible placebo (pseudo biofeedback of EEG theta rhythm). The investigation used only subjects who had never experienced hypnosis. Independent variables included Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Rotter's (1967) Interpersonal Trust Scale, and Tellegen's Absorption Scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974). Mediating variables included a measure of induction credibility based on Borkovec and Nau (1972), and a 20-item inventory measuring expectancies for hypnotic performance. Dependent variables included 20 standard hypnotic suggestions taken from the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C; the Creative Imagination Scale; ratings of the 'realness' or experienced intensity of each suggestion; and the Field Inventory of Hypnotic Depth (Field, 1965). The authors conclusion reads as follows: "The results of this study may be summarized as follows: (a) Traditional trance hypnotic inductions and cognitive- behavioral skill inductions were shown to be equally effective in eliciting experiential and behavioral responses to hypnotic suggestions, although trance subjects reported a somewhat greater alteration in conscious experience. (b) Experimenter modeling was not found to be an effective component of the skill induction package. (c) Subjects' expectancies for hypnotic responses, reported prior to hypnotic induction, bore a very strong relationship to hypnotic responsivity. (d) A highly credible placebo induction resulted in levels of expectancy and hypnotic responsivity generally comparable to those produced by trance and skill hypnotic inductions. (e) Absorption was significantly correlated with expectancy, but was not found to be significantly related to responsiveness once variance due to expectancy was taken into account. Thus the relationship between absorption and hypnotic responsiveness appears to be mediated by expectancies. "In sum, these results suggest that various hypnotic inductions elicit expectancies for responding to hypnotic suggestions and that these expectancies are sufficient to elicit hypnotic responses. Further studies are needed to determine the nature of the relationship between absorption and hypnotic response expectancies" (p. 439). Fourie, David P. (1983). Width of the hypnotic relationship: An interactional view of hypnotic susceptibility and hypnotic depth. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11 (1), 1-14. Efforts have been reported in the hypnosis literature to correlate measurements of hypnotic susceptibility with measurements of hypnotic depth. Not only have the findings not been consistent, but recently the whole issue of hypnotic susceptibility and depth and their measurement has become controversial, as evidenced by Weitzenhoffer's (1980) and Hilgard's (1981) statements. This paper offers a different perspective on the issue and introduces the concept of the width of the hypnotic relationship as a useful indication of the degree of hypnotic involvement. The width of the hypnotic (paradoxical) relationship refers to the scope of the relationship within which certain involuntary behaviors can occur. The larger the number of such behaviors that are possible within the bounds of the paradoxical relationship, the wider that relationship shall be considered to be. This is an investigation of the relationship between the width of the relationship and the depth of hypnosis experienced. The SHSS: A, as a measurement of the width of the relationship, was applied to 18 volunteer female subjects. A 10-point self-report scale was applied before and after a procedure to widen the relationship. The correlations between the SHSS: A scores and both sets of self-report scores were positive and significant, as expected. The widening procedure had a definite deepening effect, but it seemed possible that this effect was not uniform. Sacerdote, Paul (1982). A non-statistical dissertation about hypnotizability scales and clinical goals: Comparison with individualized induction and deepening procedures. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30 (4), 354-376. Researchers and theoreticians in the field of hypnosis have insisted for some time that reports of clinical applications of hypnosis should include the patients' classification based on their responses to standardized hypnotizability scales. Accordingly, clinical scales (Barber & Wilson, 1978/79; Cooper & London, 1979; J.R. Hilgard & E.R. Hilgard, 1979; Morgan & J.R. Hilgard, 1979; Wilson & Barber, 1978) have been developed or adapted from pre-existing standardized scales. For the same purpose, the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) of Spiegel (1978), which claims reliability in classifying patients according to hypnotizability and psychopathology, has been developed and utilized. Additionally, tailored scales which include specific qualitative items have been proposed (E.R. Hilgard, Crawford, P. Bowers, & Kihlstrom, 1979). According to a few clinical investigators (Frankel, Apfel, Kelly, Benson, Quinn, Newmark, & Malmaud, 1979) no disadvantage does ensue from routinely subjecting patients to hypnotizability scales. The positive results are: accumulation of reliable information about the validity of hypnotic intervention in various clinical conditions; differentiation between results of hypnosis and results of psychotherapy; and also a determination of whether hypnotizability is a fixed talent or whether it can be improved with training. With the individual patient the use of hypnotizability scales would rapidly indicate if his score will be high enough for certain specific applications and in general to determine whether therapy with hypnosis should even be attempted. The present author recognizes the rationale for the use of scales in the therapeutic realm, especially if the results are to be reported. The present author notes, however, that the generally accepted hypnotizability scales give disproportionate weight to some categories of hypnotic responses, but they are not comprehensive enough to tap all the possible capabilities of individual patients. Standardized scales of hypnotizability rely almost entirely upon written or spoken instructions and therefore miss the opportunities of nonverbal communication. Also, most hypnotizability scales implicitly seem only to recognize hypnosis obtained by progressive relaxation as "the typical hypnosis." Some examples are presented to clarify how the use of standardized scales or of HIP (Spiegel, 1978) would wrongly classify a considerable minority of patients as nonhypnotizable or poorly hypnotizable, thus depriving them of potential therapeutic benefits. 1981 Sacerdote, Paul (1981). Teaching self-hypnosis to adults. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 282-299. The author presents operational definitions of self-hypnosis and examines the differences and similarities between hetero- and self-hypnosis in relation to the methods used and the hypnotizer's attitudes. It is argued that, with the exception of spontaneously occurring trances, there is no "pure" self-hypnosis. Most clinicians teach self-hypnosis through hetero-hypnosis, in part by direct or indirect posthypnotic suggestion. Some subjects never completely reach and maintain the same depth in self-hypnosis achieved in hetero-hypnosis, contrary to Ruch's (1975) conclusions. According to the present author, self-hypnosis taught through hetero-hypnotic experiences is effective as a method for physical and emotional tranquilization in nearly all subjects. Dynamically meaningful and physically effective self-hypnosis, however, is only learned by subjects who have been successful with deep hetero-hypnotic trances which included somnambulistic experiences. Effective deepening methods likely to stimulate psychodynamic creativity during hetero-hypnosis and subsequently during self-hypnotic trances are described. Some of the difficulties encountered by subjects during self-hypnosis are discussed: incomplete dissociative experiences; anxieties about self-control; doubts about the reality of the self-hypnotic state; and the possibility that negative attitudes, habits, and expectations may act countertherapeutically as posthypnotic suggestions. When successful, self-hypnosis permits prolongation and extension of effective therapy. Self-hypnotic teaching can be administered with different modalities in individual and in group settings. Clinicians can make useful contributions both to the therapeutic use of self-hypnosis and to a clearer theoretical understanding of self-hypnotic phenomena. 1980 Perry, Campbell; Laurence, Jean-Roch (1980). Hypnotic depth and hypnotic susceptibility: A replicated finding. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (3), 272-280. A sample of 398 Ss was tested in groups of from 8 to 20 people on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962). Retrospective depth reports for each of the 12 HGSHS:A items were taken in order to extend Tart's findings (1970, 1972) on susceptibility and depth. The Ss were tested over 2 successive years in samples of N = 220 and N = 178. Since results were almost identical for each year (thus constituting a replication), the data were pooled for this report. A remarkable consistency in patterns of subjective depth across the 12 items of HGSHS:A was fuond, particularly noticeable in Items 7, 8, 9, and 10 for 4 susceptibility groups (high, high-medium, low-medium and low-susceptible Ss) which appeared to reflect differential item difficulties. In addition, all correlations between reported depth and HGSHS:A total scores were high and statistically significant. While the findings are in general accord with those of Tart (1970, 1972), further research is required in order to determine the underlying basis of depth reports, and the degree to which experimental reports of susceptibility and clinical reports of depth reflect similar experiential aspects of hypnosis. 1979 Spanos, Nicholas P.; Steggles, Shawn; Radtke-Bodorik, H. Lorraine; Rivers, Stephen M. (1979). Nonanalytic attending, hypnotic susceptibility, and psychological well-being in trained meditators and nonmeditators. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (1), 85-87. Four groups of trained meditators differing in amount of meditation practice and a group of nonmeditators attended nonanalytically to a mantra in two meditation sessions. Subjects signaled intrusions into their attending, and were also assessed on several person variables. The four trained meditator groups differed from one another only in terms of self-esteem. When combined into a single group, meditators signaled fewer intrusions and reported "deeper" levels of meditating than nonmeditators. However, meditators and nonmeditators did not differ on hypnotic susceptibility, absorption, or indices of psychopathology. Tart, Charles T. (1979). Measuring the depth of an altered state of consciousness, with particular reference to self-report scales of hypnotic depth. In Fromm, Erika; Shor, 1978 Schwartz, W. (1978). Time and context during hypnotic involvement. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26 (4), 307-316. A recent conceptualization of hypnosis suggests that hypnotized Ss should show a disruption in episodic memory which would reflect a diminished awareness of duration and sequence. Specifically, the predictions were that hypnotized Ss would exhibit less accurate estimates of duration, and less sequence in their recall of activities, than would nonhypnotized Ss. The empirical task consisted of giving Ss the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scaloe, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962), either with the induction (hypnosis condition), or without the induction (control condition). Prior to the termination of the scale, Ss were asked to recall the activities they had performed and the time that had elapsed since they began the scale. Hypnotized Ss (N = 10) were significantly less sequential in their recall of activities, and less accurate in their estimations of the passage of time, than were nonhypnotized Ss (N = 10). These results suggest that persons who respond to hypnosis are less concerned with the context which the world provides for their actions than are nonhypnotized controls. 1970 Shor, Ronald E. (1970). The three-factor theory of hypnosis as applied to the book-reading fantasy and to the concept of suggestion. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 89-98. Maintained that many of the conflicting viewpoints in theories of hypnosis parallel the descriptive complexity of the phenomena. A 3-factor theory of hypnosis is surveyed in which hypnotic depth is conceived as a complex of 3 separate but complementary processes or dimensions. The theory is used to illuminate the book-reading fantasy and the concept of suggestion. (Spanish & German summaries) (16 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) Silin, L.F. (1970). [Objective evaluation of the depth of hypnotic sleep]. Kazanskii Meditsinskii Zhurnal, 6, 39. Tart, Charles T. (1970). Self-report scales of hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 105-235. 35 male undergraduates scaled their depth of hypnosis on a 10-point scale after each suggestibility test item on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C. These self-reports were highly correlated with measures of hypnotic behavior and experience. Instructions to report depth immediately and without thinking produced reports which correlated somewhat better with the other measures than instructions to consciously make a best estimate. This self-report scale promises to be highly useful in studies of hypnosis. (Spanish & German summaries) (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) Brown, H. Alan; Krasner, Leonard (1969). The role of subject expectancies in hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17 (3), 180-188. Investigated the influence of S''s expectancies and "early data returns" on the depth of hypnosis with 40 female undergraduates shown 1 of 2 videotapes of "a hypnotic session conducted with a previous S." 1 tape created the set that becoming deeply hypnotized was very probable while the other created the set that it was very improbable. Ss were then hypnotized and administered a series of "depth tests" in such a way that the probability of passing the inital items was very high for 1/2 of the Ss and very low for the other 1/2. It was hypothesized that (a) "early data" congruent with S''s expectancies should yield subsequent behavior in keeping with the expectancies, and (b) "early data" incongruent with S expectancies should lead to behavior consistent with the early data. Results support the 1st part of the hypothesis only. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1969 Field, Peter B.; Palmer, R. (1969). Factor analysis: Hypnosis inventory. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 50-61 An inventory scale of hypnotic depth and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A were factor analyzed, based on a sample of 223 college students. Both measures yielded a general factor of hypnotic depth. Rotation yielded inventory factors of unawareness, drowsiness, enthusiasm, subjective conviction, and Stanford factors of challenge and ideomotor-posthypnotic suggestibility. Results of an earlier study describing development of the hypnosis inventory were successfully cross-validated. (Spanish & German summaries) (19 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1969). Eye-blink rate and hypnosis: Preliminary findings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28, 671-676. Tests the validity and reliability of certain features of the outer appearance of hypnotized individuals which have long been popularly and clinically considered good indices of "hypnosis." The present report focuses on eye-blink rate. 19 Ss were administered a slight modification of the Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. Samples of their blink rates were obtained prior to the induction of hypnosis and some time after the induction of hypnosis procedure had been terminated, but before the dehypnotization procedures began. The results support the popular and clinical belief that hypnotic-like behavior is accompanied by a decrement in blink rate to the extent that Ss scoring 6 or more points on the Stanford Scale showed a marked and statistically significant mean reduction in blink rate of over 60% following the induction procedure and some testing of their suggestibility. In contrast, Ss scoring 5 or less and presumably not hypnotized but merely suggestible to non-suggestible, did not show a statistically significant decrement. As a possible index of "hypnosis," such a decrease in rate was found to have a test-retest reliability of .86. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1967 Blum, Gerald S. (1967). Experimental observations of the contextual nature of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15 (4), 160-171. EXPLORED THE DISTINCTIVE MENTAL CONTEXT OF HYPNOSIS WITH A WELL TRAINED MALE UNDERGRADUATE. 1ST, A CONTEXT EFFECT WAS DEMONSTRATED BY PRESENTING 2 SETS OF STIMULI ON A TRIAL, 1 UNDER THE HYPNOTIC CONDITION AND 1 UNDER THE WAKING, AND TESTING THEIR SUBSEQUENT SALIENCE IN HYPNOTIC OR WAKING REPORT STATES. ATTEMPTS WERE THEN MADE TO ISOLATE ELEMENTS OF THE HYPNOTIC CONTEXT-CLOSED EYES, LOWERED MENTAL AROUSAL, AND "BLANK MIND"-NONE OF WHICH PROVED TO BE SUFFICIENT IN ITSELF TO ACCOUNT FOR THE OBSERVED PHENOMENON. A GREATER DIFFICULTY OF SPONTANEOUS INFORMATION TRANSMISSION FROM HYPNOTIC TO WAKING CONDITION THAN VICE VERSA LED TO ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS IN WHICH PRIOR HYPNOTIC "PRIMING," IN THE ABSENCE OF SPECIFIC POSTHYPNOTIC SUGGESTION, HAD NO EFFECT ON RELATED WAKING TASKS. FINALLY, A THEORETICAL INTERPRETATION WAS PROPOSED TO EXPLAIN HOW INITIALLY WEAK HYPNOTIC INPUTS, REGISTERED WITHIN A HIGHLY DISTINCTIVE MENTAL CONTEXT, CAN ACQUIRE VIRTUALLY COMPLETE COGNITIVE DOMINANCE. (SPANISH + GERMAN SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1966 Roper, P. (1966). The use of hypnosis in the treatment of exhibitionism. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 94, 72-77. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1966, 9, p. 83) The use of hypnosis in the treatment of exhibitionism is described in three patients in whom the condition has been present for more than five years. In each patient there was no subsequent recurrence of the exhibitionism once therapeutic suggestions had been made in a deep hypnotic trance, the follow-up period being respectively five years, four and a half years, and one year. The method of treatment and the results are discussed in terms of the concepts of behaviour therapy. It is concluded that with certain patients suffering from exhibitionism the use of hypnosis may well be one of the best methods of treatment, but considerable care should be exercised to exclude those patients with an underlying psychosis, mental defect or psychopathic condition. It is also noted that the efficacy of the treatment would appear to depend on achieving a satisfactory depth of hypnotic trance. If this is not reached, the results are less likely to be successful. (Author's abstract, from AJCH pp. 83-84). 1965 Field, Peter B. (1965). An inventory scale of hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13, 238-249. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1966, 1, 86) An inventory of 300 items describing subjective experiences during hypnosis was administered to 102 students after they had wakened from hypnosis. The 38 items that correlated best with a standard measure of hypnotic susceptibility are proposed as an inventory measure of hypnotic depth. Items dealing with absorption and unawareness, automaticity and compulsion, and discontinuity from normal experience correlated best with the criterion, while items dealing with conscious motivation to enter hypnosis, feelings of surface compliance with suggestions, and unusual bodily sensations showed generally weaker relationships to the hypnotizability criterion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)