Hammer, A. G.; Arkins, W. J. (1964). The role of photic stimulation in the induction of hypnotic trance. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 81-87.

The relative effectiveness of the ordinary verbal method of trance induction is compared with 2 forms of induction utilizing mechanical photic stimulation, and with methods combining the personal and mechanical features. The criterion of trance adopted was the compulsive carrying out of a difficult suggestion. Results show that mechanical procedures alone are ineffective. On the other hand, the addition of a particular sort of photic driving probably improves trance induction, which suggests that induction is a complex matter involving both social interactions and relatively nonmeaningful impacts on the brain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

O’Connell, D. N. (1964). An experimental comparison of hypnotic depth measured by self-ratings and by an objective scale. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 34-46.

The behavioral items of an individually-administered test of hypnotic susceptibility were scored by the Ss themselves (N = 88) and by E. Susceptibility scores derived from these self-ratings and observer-ratings were in excellent agreement (r = .90) and did not differ significantly in distribution. Marked item scoring biases were found as a function of hypnotizability: poor hypnotic Ss tending to underevaluate their performance and good ones to overevaluate it. Moderate correlations were found between magnitude estimates made by Ss of their subjective hypnotic depth and both observer-rating (r = .55) and self-rating (r = .54) susceptibility scores. The interrelation and potential usefulness of these types of scoring procedures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Tart, Charles T. (1963). Hypnotic depth and basal skin resistance. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 81-92.

This investigation studied the relationship between a self-report scale for measuring the depth of the hypnotic state and basal skin resistance (BSR). The self-report scale accurately predicted the occurrence of hypnotic dreaming and amnesia, traditional criteria for medium and deep hypnotic states. BSR showed a high, positive correlation with the self-report depth scale. The data suggest that both the self-report scale and BSR may be useful measures for detecting changes in hypnotic depth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Shor, Ronald E. (1962). Three dimensions of hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10, 23-28.
The writer extends his earlier presentation of a dual-factor theory of hypnosis to include archaic involvement. Although interactions occur among these factors, the depth of each may vary independently. The theory is properly seen as a synthesis and elaboration of many prior theories of hypnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1962). The significance of hypnotic depth in therapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10 (2), 75-78.

It is a common assumption that hypnosis has a quality of degree. While clinicians often state that success is unrelated to depth, the author maintains that depth determines the techniques one can successfully use in hypnotherapy. At the same time he believes that hypnotic behavior is multidimensional and that the major determinant of hypnotherapeutic success is the therapist”s ability to establish a meaningful interpersonal relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Hatfield, Elaine C. (1961). The validity of the LeCron method of evaluating hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 215-221.

The purpose of this study was to check the relationship between estimations made by the LeCron measure of hypnotic depth and scores secured by the same S on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. The correlations between the two measures were low, though significant. The mean of estimates requested from the Ss” “unconscious” correlated .84 with those made by the “conscious,” suggesting that the 2 judgments may not be independent. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II15H. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Bowers, Margaretta K. (1959). Friend or traitor? Hypnosis in the service of religion. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (4), 205-215.

Hypnosis may potentiate religious experiences like prayer and worship, where hypnosis meets the world of inner reality. In the first to fourth centuries, Jewish mystics alluded to depth of mind in religious experience, but the idea of oneness with God “cannot be accepted as a healthy psychological concept” (p. 207).
“We have the possibility of understanding prayer and worship as an intrapsychic phenomenon, as a communication with one’s total being. Once the premise of the indwellingness of God can be accepted as a psycholigical [sic] entity, then we can understand prayer as being a total response of the psychic life of the individual in order that he can understand the feelings of wholeness, self-confidence, and self-esteem in himself, and further, how this can be aided by hypnotic techniques” (p. 207).
The author interprets the 13th Century mystic’s words, ‘the divine will, dresses or cloaks itself in the will of the devout,’ as similar to hypnosis, in which a state “may occur where the patient loses his awareness of the separateness of himself and the hypnotist so that the hypnotist’s voice may be felt as his own voice” (p. 208). This is all right as long as awareness of separateness is re-established when the person comes out of the hypnotic or religious experience.
The religious mystic also may use autohypnosis “to achieve a greater experiencing of God and a heightened religious experience. Such a state likewise produces an ecstasy. Such ecstasy is sometimes present in religious conversion experiences as well. This ecstasy is healthy if the separateness and integrity of God and Man are kept separate” (p. 209). The author describes a phenomenon in which a priest who leads a deeply devotional religious service may feel a loss of a sense of self afterward, complaining of great fatigue and inability or unwillingness to relate to people. The same post-devotional emptiness and depression sometimes occurs among parishioners.
A psychoanalytically oriented case study of misdirected religious belief, amplified by religious service induced trance, is presented.

Cheek, David B. (1959). Use of rebellion against coercion as mechanism for hypnotic trance deepening. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (4), 223-227

Observation that student subjects often go into a deeper level of hypnosis after suggestions have been given for ending the session has led the writer to explore the reactions of subjects to this phenomenon and to set up a simple experiment using ideomotor responses in ten gynecological patients who needed hypnosis for therapy. In each of the ten patients there was a deepening of the trance after the suggestion to awaken had been given. It was the opinion of the subjects that they deepened the trance in rebellion against the direction for terminating a pleasant experience” (p. 227).

Sears, Alden B.; Talcott, Martha M. (1958). Hypnotic induction by use of non-meaningful languages: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 6 (3), 136-138.

In order to explore the question of whether hypnosis is due to suggestion, rhythm, monotony, etc. a spiral disk focus induction was delivered to 46 college students in 3 different languages (Bohemian, Japanese, and Spanish) by female native speakers. The students were asked to rate which part was “most relaxing.” Language sequence was counterbalanced.
Fourteen students went into light trance; in a later induction they were found to be hypnotizable — 13 to a medium trance level (higher number than would be expected based on results with students who had not listened to the tapes). However the authors did not know which aspect of the preparatory 3-language period to which to attribute the better response.

Marenina, A. I. (1957). [Effect of inhibition of stimuli on changes of cerebral potentials in various stages of hypnosis]. [Translation] Institut Fiziologii Imeni I. P. Pavlova, 6, 330-334

“Summary. In an experiment situation, subjects who previously resisted all attempts at hypnosis with other operators, went into hypnosis on the first attempt with the experimenter. There was, without doubt, present the motive to overcome previous failures. However at this time the subjects went into hypnosis when they were told that they would be accomplishing the state through their own efforts. Furthermore we must not overlook the following as written by Kline (5). ‘Individuals not successfully hypnotized by a particular person on the first attempt may be successfully hypnotized by the same person later on. Alternatively, individuals not hypnotized by one person may, even immediately afterwards, be successfully hypnotized by a second hypnotist'” (pp. 80-81).

Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1957). Concerning the induction of the hypnotic state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 82-98.

The hypnotic state has four attributes: “an effect of emotional stabilitization, a retrogression to an infantile psychological functioning, suggestibility, and transmissibility of the hypnotic relationship” (p. 82). “SUGGESTIBILITY is a special motivation to accept, incorporate within one’s self, and execute direct or implicit propositions, which is equivalent to the motvation of a child to accept, assimilate and carry out the propositions of its parents” (p. 84). The authors propose that verbal and non-verbal suggestions are incorporated during the course of education, lasting years and thus becoming in effect post-hypnotic suggestions. “The person will have in the future a _special responsiveness,_ that may be more or less pronounced according to the circumstances, _for those data_ (coming from books, movies, conversations, etc.) _which agree with his emotionally-incorporated post-hypnotic suggestions_” (p. 85). If while in an auto-hypnotic condition he comes in contact with someone “who appears to be the embodiment of the convictions or prejudices that on being stimulated started the process of emotional activation that led to the development of the hypnotic state, _there may be a transformation of the auto-hypnotic condition into an interpersonal hypnotic relationship_ (p. 86).
According to the authors, this theory can explain post-hypnotic (negative) sequellae. It also accomodates explantions of both Natural or Direct Orientation inductions and Indirect Orientation inductons, and explains phenomena such as patients entering hypnosis rather automatically while awaiting the appearance of Mesmer in his waiting room.
“To conclude, we will stress that the psychological mechanism of hypnotic induction is exactly _the same_ in everyday life and in the experimental environment. The apparent differences like [sic] in the _behavior_ of the subject in the hypnotic state, and are due to the motivation that arises from the circumstances and to the convictions, capacities, psychologicl maturity, and degree of retrogression of the individual” (p. 96).
Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1957). Concerning the nature of hypnotic phenomena. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 67-76.
The authors write about the place of the hypnotic state in general psychology: “the study of the _psychological mechanisms_ that make the appearance of the phenomenon _possible, which need not be different from the normal and current psychological mechanisms in everyday life_” (p. 67). They classify hypnotic phenomena into three groups:
“I. Phenomena _which are a function of the state of psychological_ retrogression (hypnotic depth), appearing in spontaneously [sic] or when proposed by the operator.
II. Phenomena which appear without any specific suggestion, as _a side issue of other suggestions,_ capable of originating emotional states in the subject.
III. Phenomena _which are independent of all suggestion,_ being a constituent part of the hypnotic state itself, in its ‘positive’ or ‘negative’ forms” (p. 68).
Using this framework, the authors describe several aspects of hypnosis: catalepsy, anesthesia, retrogression, the taking of a role, negativism and resistance, visceral changes, emotional stabilization, psychotherapeutic benefits (indirect). They observe that direct suggestions are often not necessary for therapeutic benefit, and give as an example the tendency for less bleeding when dentists suggest that patients will not feel less pain.
“For the elucidation of this point, the authors carried out an experiment in a dental clinic, taking six easily hypnotizable subjects in whom dental extractions were to be performed. They were given only the suggestions that they would feel the doctor working, but not experience pain … that they would pay no attention to it … or even if they felt a little pain, this would not trouble them and they would bear it perfrectly … Nothing was said about the loss of blood. As a result, in all the cases the loss of blood was slight, practically insignificant, though technically difficult extractions of roots were included” (p. 74).
“The explanation of hypnotic phenomena as natural and normal consequences of the hypnotic emotional state, and of the state of psychological retrogression, eliminates the supposed mysterious powers of suggestion. _Suggestion is thus relegated to the modest role of a litmus paper which reveals the psychological functioning of the individual_ in an experimental environment. On the other hand, in everyday-life hypnosis, in the principal hypnotic relationships of parents with their children, of teachers with their pupils, etc. (11), suggestibility plays an important role in education or re-education” (p. 75).

Bigelow, Newton; Cameron, G. H.; Koroljow, S. A. (1956). Two cases of deep hypnotic sleep investigated by the strain gauge plethysmograph. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (4), 160-164.

Two subjects, studied by means of a strain gauge plethysmograph, have shown greater changes in the peripheral pulse and the finger volume during deep hypnosis than they did immediately before or after. In the absence of external stimuli, the presence and the degree of such changes reflect the activity of the autonomic nervous system. This result suggests that in hypnosis the inhibiting tendency of the cortex on the autonomic nervous system is reduced or nullified” (p. 164).

Dittborn, Julio M. (1956). Toward a semeiology of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (1), 30-36.

19 subjects were chosen among two hundred that in the year the experiment took place (1954) were to be 20 years old. 11 of these subjects qualified themselves as good swayers, whereas the 8 others were considered somehow refractory to the postural swaying test.
“All 19 went under a standard hypnotic induction: the operator employed the same words in all cases, and requested from all the execution of the same acts.
“Several involuntary signs of standard induction are described, which reveal that the subject has attained a convenient degree of muscular relaxation after appropriate suggestions.
“Fatigue is apparently an important source of spontaneous amnesia in good swayers.
“In the analyzed cases no involuntary sign has been detected, that could reveal us whether the inducted subject will or not present spontaneous post-hypnotic amnesia” (p. 36).

Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1956). Concerning a theory of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4, 37-45.

“The essential attributes of the hypnotic condition may be understood to derive from three sources:
1) The hypnotic emotional state per se
2) The resultant motivation of the ‘subject’ to comply with the desires of the ‘operator’ (reinstating a child-like responsiveness).
3) The RETROGRESSION to an earlier form of psychological functioning that takes place under a hypnotic state of growing intensity” (p. 43).
“Although the retrogressive process is a general response to emotions and probably exists in some toxic states as well, it has a remarkable feature in the hypnotic state: THE COALESCENCE OF MOTIVATION AND RETROGRESSION, which exists in hypnotized people, permits a peculiar manipulation of the retrogressed condition. The peculiar responsiveness of the subject may be tested and molded by means of propositions which act as suggestions. In this manner, the so-called HYPNOTIC PHENOMENA are elicited” (p. 44).

LeCron, Leslie M. (1953). A method of measuring the depth of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (2), 4-7.

Author’s Summary – No satisfactory method of ascertaining quickly and accurately the depth of hypnotic trance has heretofore been available. By providing the hypnotized subject with a yardstick of measurement, a reply to the question”how deep are you?” may be obtained from the subconscious mind of the subject himself. This is expressed verbally in percentages of from 1 to 100, with percentage values arbitrarily assigned by the operator to different stages of trance. Indications from testing 30 subjects are that their replies are valid, possibly to an astounding degree of accuracy. (p. 6)


Eimer, Bruce; Freeman, Arthur (1998). Pain management psychotherapy: A practical guide. New York NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

“Pain Management Psychotherapy” (PMP) provides a clear and methodical look at pain management psychotherapy beginning with the initial consultation and work-up of the patient and continuing through termination of treatment. It is a thoughtful and thorough presentation that covers methods for psychologically assessing the chronic pain patient (structured interviews, pain assessment tests and rating scales, instruments for evaluating beliefs, attitudes, pain behavior, disability, depression, anxiety, anger and alienation), treatment planning, cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, and a range of hypnotic approaches to pain management. The book covers both traditional (cognitive and behavior therapy, biofeedback, assessing hypnotizability, choice of inductions, designing an individualized self-hypnosis exercise) as well as newer innovative techniques (e.g., EMDR, pain-relief imagery, hypno-projective methods, hypno-analytic reprocessing of pain-related negative experiences). An extensive appendix reproduces in their entirety numerous forms, rating scale, inventories, assessment instruments, and scripts.

The senior author, Bruce Eimer, states in his online comments on Amazon.com that “most therapists hold the belief that ‘real’ chronic pain patients are quite impossible to help. This book attempts to dispel these misguided beliefs by providing a body of knowledge, theory, and techniques that have proven value in understanding and relieving chronic physical pain.” He also states that “the challenge for the therapist is to persuade the would-ne patient/client that he or she has something to offer that can help take way pain and bring back more pleasure. This challenge is negotiated through the therapeutic relationship. However, the therapist just can’t be ‘warm, accepting, non-judgmental and empathic’. The therapist must also have knowledge and skills relevant to relieving pain. Only then can the therapist impart such knowledge, and in teaching these skills to the pain patient, help the patient become something of a ‘self-therapist’. . . I dedicate this book to everyone who wants to find ways to make living with pain more comfortable, and to the ongoing search for better ways to relieve pain.”

DeBenedittis, Giuseppe De (1996). Hypnosis and spasmodic torticollis — report of four cases: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44 (4), 292-306.

Dystonia and particularly spasmodic torticollis are neuromuscular disorders that are extremely resistant to most therapies (physical, medical, or surgical). Torticollis is a unilateral spasm of the neck muscles, particularly of the sternocleidomastoid, that produces violent, tonic turning of the head to one side. The etiology remains uncertain, although the role of psychogenic factors has been emphasized. This article reviews the literature and reports four cases of spasmodic torticollis treated successfully with hypnosis. In all four cases, psychogenic causes were involved. Postural hypnosis (i.e., hypnosis in the standing position) was employed to counteract and minimize muscle spasms due to postural reflexes. A hypnobehavioral approach was adopted along with hypnotic strategies that included hierarchical desensitization, sensory-imaging conditioning, ego-boosting suggestions, and hypnosis-facilitated differential muscle retraining. In two cases, a combined hypnosis and electromyographic-biofeedback approach was used to equilibrate and retrain affected neck muscles. Although the hypnotherapeutic process took several months to induce and stabilize significant changes, outcome results were good to excellent in all cases, with marked reduction of the torticollis and the hypertrophy of the neck muscles as well as a reduced interference of symptoms in daily living. — Journal Abstract

Stanton, Harry E. (1994). Self-hypnosis: One path to reduced test anxiety. Contemporary Hypnosis, 11, 14-18.

Describes a self-hypnosis technique and its efficacy in reducing test anxiety. Forty high school students were matched on sex and anxiety scores and randomly allocated to an experimental group (receiving two 50-minute sessions, a week apart, to learn the self-hypnosis technique), and a control group (receiving two 50-minute sessions focused on ways of reducing test anxiety). Students were retested after the two sessions, and 6 months later. Results showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores only for the hypnosis group, which was maintained at 6-month follow-up.

Herbert, James D.; Mueser, Kim T. (1992). Eye movement desensitization: A critique of the evidence. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.

The scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of eye movement desensitization (EMD), a novel intervention for traumatic memories and related conditions, is reviewed. The sparse research conducted in this area has serious methodological flaws, precluding definite conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the procedure. Clinicians are cautioned against uncritically accepting the clinical efficacy of EMD.

Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Kleinknecht, Ronald A.; Conley, Althea T.; Dal Cerro, Steven; Schmidt, Joel; Sonntag, Michael E. (1992). A methodological critique of the current status of eye movement desensitization (EMD). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.

Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) has been recently advocated as a rapid treatment for the elimination of traumatic memories responsible for the maintenance of a number of anxiety disorders and their clinical correlates. Despite a limited conceptual framework, EMD has attracted considerable interest among clinicians and researchers. The popularity and interest generated by EMD will likely result in wide usage. We present a methodological critique of it with reference to assessment, treatment outcome, and treatment process. We also provide guidelines for judging the methodological adequacy of research on EMD and suggest intensive research to assess effectiveness, treatment components, and comparisons with other procedures.

Yapko, Michael D. (1992). Editor’s Viewpoint. Milton H. Erickson Foundation Newsletter, 12 (3), 2.

A controversial issue is heating up, and therapists are beginning to feel the heat. The issue involves the common practice of helping clients recover apparently repressed memories of early childhood sexual trauma.
“In the second edition of my hypnosis textbook, _Trancework_ (1990, Brunner/Mazel), I included a special section on the possibility of hypnotically implanting false memories—vivid memories of things that never actually happened that the client comes to believe as true recollections. I pointed out the risks of suggestive procedures and urged caution in suggesting memories of any sort, whether a formal hypnotic induction took place or not.
“Early this year a non-profit foundation was formed in Philadelphia called the _False Memory Syndrome Foundation_ which serves as a clearing house for relevant information, and even publishes a newsletter. It also provides support to families broken apart by these problems. If you are interested in the complex issues regarding suggestion and memory, you can contact the FMS Foundation at _3508 Market Street, Suite 128, Philadelphia, PA 19104,_ telephone _(215) 387-1865. David Calof’s_ group also _publishes Treating Abuse Today_. They, too, are cognizant of the relevant issues. Their address is _2722 Eastlake Avenue East, Seattle, WA 98012,_ telephone _(206) 329- 9101_” (p. 2).

Wolpe, Joseph; Abrams, Janet (1991). Post-traumatic stress disorder overcome by eye-movement desensitization: A case report. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39-43.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is an exceptionally stressful syndrome that has been extremely difficult to treat. The prognosis was recently dramatically improved by the introduction of eye-movement desensitization. This paper reports, in substantial detail, a case that was precipitated by a rape 10 years earlier, describing its manifestations and various unsuccessful attempts to treat it: followed by a detailed exposition of the eventual, completely successful treatment by eye-movement desensitization.

Abelson, James L.; Curtis, George C. (1989). Cardiac and neuroendocrine responses to exposure therapy in height phobics: Desynchrony within the ‘physiological response system’. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27 (5), 561-567.

Monitored subjective, behavioral, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in 2 men (aged 19 and 34 yrs) with height phobias over a full course of exposure therapy and at 6 and 8 month follow-up. Both Ss showed rising cortisol responses and stable, nonextinguishing norepinephrine responses to height exposure over the course of treatment, while improvement occurred in subjective and behavioral response systems. They had differing heart rate responses. Despite desynchrony among anxiety response systems and within the physiological system at treatment conclusion, Ss had successful outcomes with general measures of change (phobia rating scales, the Fear Survey Schedule, and the SCL-90) showing substantial improvement for both Ss. These outcomes were preserved at follow-up.

Van den Bergh, Omer; Eelen, Paul; Baeyens, Frank (1989). Brief exposure to fear stimuli: Imagery ability as a condition of fear enhancement and fear decrease. Behavior Therapy, 20, 563-572.

Examined fear enhancement and fear decrease during brief exposure to fear stimuli. 140 good and poor imagery Subjects (aged 14-18 years) with medium fear levels toward spiders were exposed to a live spider, either by looking at it or by thinking of an invisible, but present spider during either 60, 180, or 360 sec. Control Subjects were given a distraction task. Subjective fear and behavioral approach were measured. Brief exposure hindered fear decrease compared to the control condition. Good imagers showed more fear decrease and were less affected by the mode of exposure. Fear enhancement occurred only in poor imagers at the longer exposure duration (360 sec) during thinking. In that condition, good imagers showed their greatest fear decrease.

Wakeman, R. J. (1988). Hypnotic desensitization of job-related heat intolerance in recovered burn victims. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 28-32.

The thermally injured patient who suffers extensive third-degree burns usually finds the adaptation to high temperature environments quite difficult. A 7-year study of 50 thermally injured patients with greater than 45% total body surface second- and third-degree burns was conducted to assess the usefulness of hypnosis for improved heat adaptation at the work site. There were 25 subjects in the experimental group who received hypnotic training and 25 in a matched control group. The experimental group achieved a mean of 6.25 hours worked over 16 weeks and 63.5 days worked out of 80. They worked 4.5 to 6.5 hours per day for an average of 221 days per year for up to 3 years from baseline. The control group achieved a mean of 4.5 hours worked over 16 weeks and 54.33 days worked out of 80. The efficacy of hypnosis in heat desensitization is discussed.

Mean age was 38 for the hypnosis group, 33 for the control group; both groups had mean educational level of 8 grades. Mean percentage of total body surface burn was 50% for hypnosis and 54% for control groups.
Each patient was seen for 16 weeks, for 2 hours/week. The hypnosis group received hypnosis, were taught self hypnosis, and were given cassette tapes for use at home. The hypnosis training included a variety of techniques (e.g. progressive deep muscle relaxation, eye-fixation, eye-roll, and visual imagery techniques). They were given suggestions for lower skin temperature, lower ‘inner body’ temperature, less itching, gradual improvement of time spent on the job, as well as ego strengthening suggestions. The control patients received supportive psychotherapy, family consultation, and cognitive behavior therapy for the same amount of contact time with the same therapist.
The hypnosis group was to do self hypnosis every two hours at the worksite, in addition to home practice. Visual imagery suggestions were things like imagery of a cool waterfall flowing over the skin, having a tall cold glass of beer or soft drink, etc. They also had biofeedback of skin temperature during office visits, to reinforce decreases in skin temperature near the burned sites. They had exposure to heat (in a 95 degree sauna) for in gradually increased periods of time (15 to 120 minutes) before returning to the worksite.
Three years after treatment 20 of 25 control patients had quit their jobs or transferred to a cooler worksite, and all 25 had resigned from their original jobs or applied for further disability benefits. In contrast, only 2 of 25 experimental Ss were working in controlled-temperature settings, and none had applied for permanent disability benefits.
The authors note that family support was essential for the hypnosis patients to carry out their treatment program, and family consultations were essential for every patient. They also found the ‘fade-in’ technique using the sauna in the hospital occupational therapy area very useful for bridging the gap between practice in the office and going back to the work setting. “This procedure enabled the subject to practice self- hypnosis under controlled physical conditions while performing a work task that was more realistic than ‘imagined heat’ in the office setting” (p. 31).

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene; Friedmann, Joyce K. (1987). Hypnotherapy with Hispanic burn patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35 (2), 87-94.

This paper examines a culturally sensitive hypnotherapeutic intervention for Hispanic burn patients who suffer symptoms of the post-traumatic stress disorder and discusses the outcome of 27 patients seen by the authors (a medical anthropologist and a clinical psychologist), over a 3.5-year period. Given the difficulties of recent monolingual, Mexican migrants in responding to psychological interventions that are not culturally sensitive, the hypnotherapeutic interventions and procedurs developed by the authors provide a plan for systematic desensitization and cultural concordance to make rehabilitation of Hispanic burn patients more effective.

Morrow, Gary R. (1984). Appropriateness of taped versus live relaxation in the systematic desensitization of anticipatory nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52 (6), 1098-1099.

Investigated the suggestion that the relaxation part of systematic desensitization–an effective treatment for the nausea and vomiting experienced by approximately 25% of cancer patients in anticipation of chemotherapeutic treatments– could be learned from a prerecorded audiotape prior to meeting a psychologist for treatment. 10 cancer patients who had developed anticipatory nausea or vomiting were assigned to either a live-relaxation or a tape-relaxation group. Results show that 4 of 5 Ss assigned to the tape-relaxation group experienced nausea while listening to the prerecorded audiotape, while none of the patients in the live-relaxation group reported nausea when subsequently listening to an audiotape made during the live presentation of relaxation.

Hoffman, Mark L. (1982/83). Hypnotic desensitization for the management of anticipatory emesis in chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25 (2-3), 173-176.

A hypnotic treatment employing systematic desensitization was used to alleviate anticipatory nausea and vomiting in a middle-aged man undergoing chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s Disease. After four treatment sessions, all nausea associated with chemotherapy was eliminated. Results of this treatment are compared with those of another hypnotic treatment recently reported by Redd et al (1982), and reasons for differences are discussed. [Redd, W. H., Andersen, G. V. & Minagawa, R. Y. (1982). Hypnotic control of anticipatory emesis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 14-19.]

Stoyva, J. M.; Anderson, C. (1982). A coping-rest model of relaxation and stress management. In Goldberger, L.; Breznitz, S. (Ed.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 745-763). New York: The Free Press.

Patients with psychosomatic or stress linked disorders are likely to show signs of high physiological arousal, and they are likely, under stress, to react strongly in the symptomatic system and to show evidence of being deficient in the ability to shift from the coping to the rest mode (e.g., slowness of habituation to, and recovery from, stressful stimulation). A corollary inference is that such patients … show activity in the symptomatic system for a higher percentage of the time that [sic] do normal subjects. We suggest that this defect in the capacity to shift to a rest condition is the principal reason that various relaxation procedures have so often proved successful in the alleviation of stress related symptoms” (p. 748).
The authors refer to a number of different stress management procedures. Among those associated with primary focus on the rest phase they include: Relaxation training (progressive relaxation, autogenic training, EMG feedback, meditation [Zen, TM]), Specific biofeedback (hand temperature, electrodermal response [EDR], EMG from particular muscle group), and Systematic desensitization. Among those associated with primary focus on coping phase are: Assertiveness training, Social skills retraining and motor skills retraining, Self-statements, Imagery (Guided waking imagery, autogenic abreaction, covert reinforcement and covert sensitization, behavior rehearsal). These various procedures may reflect three dimensions or aspects of the stress response, with some addressing physiology and others addressing cognition or behavior change.
“Rachman (1978) … found it useful to divide the phenomenon of fear into physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components. Similarly, Davidson and Schwartz (1976) conceptualized relaxation as consisting of somatic, cognitive, and attentional components. Phillips (1977) argued that pain, such as headache pain, can be viewed as consisting of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological aspects (and that, consequently, we should not expect high correlations between headache pain and a particular physiological measure such as forehead EMG level). …
“… In discussing contemporary studies of dreaming, they [Stoyva and Kamiya (1968)] proposed that there is no single, totally valid indicator of dreaming as a mental experience. Instead, there are several imperfect indicators of the dream experience–verbal report, rapid eye movements, and certain electroencephalographic (EEG) stages. … Discrepancies among the indicators can serve to generate hypotheses” (p. 749).
The authors discuss different ways of retraining the capacity to rest: relaxation training (including biofeedback, etc.), systematic desensitization; and of reshaping the coping response: assertiveness training, social skills and motor skills retraining, self- statements, imagery techniques; and discuss controllability. These notes cover only a very small part of their extensive review, the material most relevant to hypnosis and suggestion.
“Although imagery techniques are often employed by stress management therapists, one approaches this area with ambivalence. In part, this uneasiness springs from the unsettling awareness that imagery techniques have been embraced by a freewheeling assortment of lay psychologists such as Emil Coue, Dale Carnegie, and Norman Vincent Peale, not to mention a diverse throng of contemporary ‘mind controllers’ and self-styled healers. A more serious source of uneasiness is ignorance of the specific processes at work. What are the mechanisms by which imagery affects the stress response?” (p. 756).
“There is intriguing recent evidence that simply the illusion of control may exert beneficial effects. Stern, Miller, Ewy, and Grant (1980) noted that subjects who were led to believe by means of bogus information feedback that they were successfully lowering their heart rates showed a reduction in stress type symptoms, especially those of a cardiovascular nature. It seems possible that the feeling of control may be an important part of what we have called ‘placebo responding.’ Stoyva (1979b) suggested that this phenomenon is probably not a unitary entity but, rather, a cluster of processes, of which the feeling of developing control over factors affecting one’s disorder is an important and potentially manipulable component of therapeutic interventions” (p. 758).

Systematic desensitization and hypnosis were used in a client with long- standing penetration phobia. Glass test tubes were used in dilation exercises and masturbation instead of more expensive metal catheters. The client was able to have intercourse and adequate sexual adjustment.

O’Brien, Richard M.; Cooley, Lewis E.; Ciotti, Joseph; Henninger, Kathleen M. (1981). Augmentation of systematic desensitization of snake phobia through posthypnotic dream suggestion. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 231-238.

Nine snake phobics who had scored above eight on the SHSS (Form A) were given four desensitization sessions and five sessions in which a pleasant posthypnotic dream of the phobic object was suggested. These subjects were significantly superior to a desensitization-only control group on a behavioral avoidance test. Seven of the nine hypnosis subjects were able to touch a real snake. The two subjects who did not touch the snake reported dreams in which the snake was either absent or threatening. Although conclusions are limited by differential attention and susceptibility, the technique seems promising.

Powell, Douglas H. (1980). Helping habitual smokers using flooding and hypnotic desensitization techniques: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (3), 192-196.

A subgroup of individuals who were helped to stop smoking by hypnosis or other means returned to consuming a few cigarettes a day. A flooding and hypnotic desensitization technique assisted 4 of 7 individuals who resumed smoking in becoming and remaining abstinent for a 6- to 9-month follow-up period.

Dyckman, John M.; Cowan, Philip A. (1978). Imaging vividness and the outcome of in vivo and imagined scene desensitization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 1155-1156.

This study reexamined the role of imaging vividness in desensitization success. Scores on the Betts Questionnaire on Mental Imagery were used to divide 48 snake-phobic subjects into high, medium, and low vivid groups, who were assigned to imagined scene or in vivo desensitization treatments. Imaging vividness was assessed at scheduled points during therapy. Significant decreases in behavioral and self-reported fear were observed after both treatments, though in vivo desensitization produced significantly greater fear reduction. In therapy imaging vividness scores were significantly correlated with therapeutic success and were superior to pretherapy ratings as predictors of outcome.

Shipley, R. H.; Butt, J. H.; Horowitz, B.; Farbry, J. E. (1978). Preparation for a stressful medical procedure: Effect of amount of stimulus preexposure and coping style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 499-507.