Conducted 2 studies to test the theory that emotive-abstract, sensory modality, and control imagery are functionally distinct abilities and that emotive-abstract imagery and image control are directly related to the quality of in-therapy imagery. In Study 1, 199 undergraduates completed self-report measures of sensory modality, molar imagery, and image control and completed an analog clinical visualization task. In Study 2, 53 undergraduate test-anxious covert behavior therapy participants completed the self- report battery and provided ratings of in-therapy image clarity. Results suggest that emotive/abstract imagery, sensory modality imagery, and image control are factorially distinguishable abilities. A cross-sample factor analysis revealed some instability; however, a theoretically consistent pattern of results emerged. Regression analyses demonstrated that emotive-abstract imagery abilities were the best predictors of performance on the analog task, whereas both image control and emotive imagery were related to the clarity of in-therapy imagery. Results illustrate the qualitative difference between low- and high-order image processes and the possible interaction between emotive imagery and image control.

Brown, Daniel P. (1985). Hypnosis as an adjunct to the psychotherapy of the severely disturbed patient: An affective development approach. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33 (4), 281-301.

An affective development approach to the psychotherapy of severely disturbed patients is presented. A review of nonhypnotic psychotherapies of such patients is given, and contemporary trends in psychoanalytic-developmental approaches to the treatment of severe disturbances are described. These approaches are designed to foster structuralization of the ego. A primary deficit in severe disturbance, however, lies in the awareness of the visceral changes accompanying genuine affective experience and the related subjective sense of aliveness. Related deficits occur in affective expression and tolerance. Target symptoms (e.g., hallucinations and disordered thinking) are secondary phenomena. Hypnosis can be used as an adjunct to psychotherapy for severely disturbed patients who are in a stable therapeutic relationship and who are also hypnotizable. During trance such patients are able to focus on internal events without distraction so as to enhance their awareness of visceral changes normally out of their awareness and to link these with images and memories. They are taught to develop a sense of aliveness and genuine affective experience. Target symptoms may diminish. Several case illustrations are given along with a theoretical discussion of the stages of affective development.

Gottschalk, Louis A. (1985). Hope and other deterrents to illness. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 39, 515-524.

Reviews animal and human research demonstrating that events during early development influence vulnerability to physical and mental illness. In addition, effectiveness of coping methods used to deal with problems of living can affect susceptibility to illness. The intervening mechanisms between stressful life experiences and illness appear to involve physiological homeostasis and immune competence

Nash, Michael R.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Stanley, Scott; Frauman, David; Rhue, Judith (1985). Hypnotic age regression and the importance of assessing interpersonally relevant affect. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 224-235.

The present study was undertaken to replicate an earlier experiment and to clarify which factors in this previous experiment (Nash, Johnson, & Tipton, 1979) were responsible for the obtained child-like behaviors of hypnotically regressed Ss. As in the previous study, 3 characteristics of the transitional object relationship (spontaneity, specificity, and intensity) were used as the primary criteria to investigate the effects of hypnotic age regression when Ss were regressed to age 3 and placed in 3 home situations. While in the previous study E suggested separation anxiety and isolation during the 3 home situations (mother-absent condition), the present study deleted all references to anxiety and isolation, and replaced them with suggestions of security and maternal proximity (mother-present condition). As expected, the mother-present versus mother-absent conditions led to similar hypnotized- simulating differences. In further accord with predictions, hypnotized Ss and simulating Ss requested a transitional object infrequently in the presence of mother. The importance of using dependent measures which index affective processes germane to interpersonal affect-laden experience is discussed.

Nichols, Michael P.; Efran, Jay S. (1985). Catharsis in psychotherapy: A new perspective. Psychotherapy, 22 (1), 46-58.

Contemporary thinking about catharsis in psychotherapy is still dominated by Breuer and Freud’s work with the cathartic method. Psychoanalysts take the fact that Freud abandoned catharsis as evidence of its ineffectiveness, while the emotive therapies developed in the 1960s returned to Freud’s earliest view that neurosis results from repressed affect and can be cured by cathartic uncovering. Emotional memories continue to be thought of as foreign bodies lodged in the human psyche and requiring purgation. Unfortunately, this view divorces people from responsibility for their conduct and encourages a fractionation of human experience into feeling, thought, and action. In the current presentation, emotion is construed instead as a class of blocked or partially blocked actions, and in terms of a two-stage adaptational process. Implications of this view for psychotherapeutic practice are proposed, emphasizing richer self-expression and fuller appreciation of the consequences of responsible vs. disclaimed actions.

Carlson, Eric T. (1984, October/1986). The history of dissociation until 1880. In Quen, Jacques M. (Ed.), Split minds/split brains (pp. 7-30). New York: New York University Press. (Based on symposium in Bear Mt., N.Y., by Section on the History of Psychiatry of Cornell University Medical Center)

Provides summary of the history of associationism. Refers to Beddoes’ essays (1802-03) which state that (1) emotions play a significant role in strengthening associations, and a study of emotions would be the ‘chief secret for unriddling the inconsistencies of dreams,’ and (2) variations could occur in associations (from very strong to very weak).
In the 19th century there was an ongoing debate about the role of the reflex in the nervous system, about how high up it could function, and whether it could still take place if it reached areas that subserved consciousness. Dr. William Carpenter postulated three levels: (1) excitomotor reflex (spinal, and maybe lower brain), (2) sensorimotor or consensual (midbrain) which was unconscious, (3) ideomotor (cerebral) – based on evidence from hypnosis in which volition appeared suspended and the subject became ‘a mere thinking automaton’ whose flow of ideas resulted from external suggestions only. The ideomotor response could be unconscious.
In the 1830’s and 40’s Thomas Laycock brought Associationism together with the concept of reflex. “By bringing the reflex into ‘cerebral processes,’ he proposed a model that made fast and automatic responses possible in the realm of ideas. Automatic thinking, speaking, writing, and more complex actions became topics of increasing interest to psychologists later in the century. As early as 1868, Prosper Despine had been speaking of ‘psychological automatisms.’ Laycock proclaimed most of these responses as being unconscious, that ideas could be charged with varying amounts of energy, and that ideas could act as causes of human disturbances, both psychological and physiological” (pp. 25- 26).
1860’s – 90’s saw the rise of hypnotism, with Eugene Azam using it in surgery and psychiatry; Durand de Gros’s book on Braid; Liebeault publishing a book; Bernheim launching his career; Charcot shifting interest from organic neurological conditions to functional conditions; and Charcot teaching both Janet and Freud.
The author notes that “in July 1880, a bright and educated young woman of 20 started to nurse her dying father. Like the shamans before her, she had to grapple with the spectre of death and in her own fashion, she developed a creative illness. Her symptoms were myriad, but many had to do with changes in her consciousness (including ‘absences,’ clear-cut trances) and splits in her memory, including the loss of an entire language. At one point her current personality disappeared and another took its place: in this case it was herself but existing a year before in a state in which she lived without any apparent awareness of what had happened to her in the interim. It is this case of Anna O. and her doctor, Josef Breuer, which became important to the next epoch in our review and who had so much to do in inspiring the studies that followed” pp. 27-28.

Handelsman, Mitchell M. (1984). Self-hypnosis as a facilitator of self-efficacy: A case example. Psychotherapy, 21 (4), 550-553.

This article presents the four-session treatment of Elaine, using self- hypnosis to facilitate the mourning process. It is argued that self-hypnosis– rather than enhancing imagery– increases self-efficacy, a person’s feeling that he/she can perform behaviors that lead to desired outcomes. Elaine’s sense of self-efficacy was increased by allowing her to choose scenes from her life to be explored in the context of the use of imagery. Elaine imagined events surrounding her father’s death, and “rewrote history” in an attempt to permit herself the direct expression of emotions.

Nash, Michael R.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Stanley, Scott (1984). The direct hypnotic suggestion of altered mind/body perception. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 95-102.

Attentional and emotional shifts are examined following a hypnotically suggested out-of-body experience (OBE). Two hypotheses were testes: 1) that the OBE is maintained by blocking the perception of body-relevant stimulation at a sensory level; 2) that a hypnotically produced OBE is an emotionally neutral or even pleasant experience. Fourteen hypnotic subjects and 15 simulating Ss were administered a standardized induction followed by suggestions for an OBE. Geometric figures were then presented to the body but not to the “awareness.” Although hypnotic Ss reported that they could not see the information, they still correctly “guess” the identity of the figures beyond chance levels. Thus, body-relevant information was obviously not blocked at a sensory level, but was kept out of awareness by some other mechanism. In addition, a significantly greater number of hypnotized than simulating Ss reported the OBE to be troubling and unpleasant, despite explicit suggestions for a positive experience. The potentially disturbing nature of OBEs and ways to minimize risk of negative affect are discussed.

Pekala, Ronald J.; Kumar, V. K. (1984). Predicting hypnotic susceptibility by a self-report phenomenological state instrument. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 114-121.

In an attempt to predict hypnotic susceptibility (as measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, HGSHS) the phenomenological experiences of an hypnotic induction (HI) procedure and a baseline comparison condition (eyes closed, EC, sitting quietly) were assessed. After each experience the subjects (n=217) completed the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), a self-report phenomenological state instrument, dealing with that condition. Step-wise multiple regression and discriminant analyses were then performed on data using the subject’s HGSHS score as the dependent variable and the PCI (sub)dimensions as the independent variables. Regression analyses that held up under cross-validation during HI suggest that the PCI may be an appropriate instrument for predicting susceptibility. The possible clinical usefulness of this approach is discussed.

Putnam, Frank W. (1984, October/1986). The scientific investigation of multiple personality. In Quen, Jacques M. (Ed.), Split minds/split brains (pp. 109-126). New York: New York University Press. (Based on symposium in Bear Mt., N.Y., by Section on the History of Psychiatry of Cornell University Medical Center)

Scientific study of multiple personality disorder (MPD) began with single cases. As of yet, there is no study of incidence in the general population ( though Bliss, in 1983 American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, has begun study of incidence in defined psychiatric populations). Some find symptoms overlap with borderline personality (Clary et al., 1984; Kluft, 1984; Horevitz & Braun, 1984). Others with temporal lobe epilepsy (Mesulam, 1981; Schenck & Bear, 1981). Until Kluft (1984) defined criteria for “fusion,” no standard existed for successful treatment. Virtually all researchers agree that childhood trauma is antecedent. “The research questions that investigators find the most intriguing, however, are the mind/body issues raised by the alternate personalities.” p. 114 “The relatively large number of reports of physiologic changes across alternate personalities compared to the total number of reported cases in the literature suggests that indeed something unusual is happening with these patients” pp. 114-115.
Models of Multiple Personality Disorder: 1. trance state 2. temporal lobe dysfunction 3. state dependent learning

Schare, Mitchell L.; Lisman, Stephen A.; Spear, Norman E. (1984). The effects of mood variation on state-dependent retention. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8 (4), 387-407.

Examined the notion that when the affective states accompanying learning and remembering are the same, information will be retained better than when they differ. In 3 experiments, with 198 undergraduates, self-statements developed by E. Velten (1968) were used to influence Ss to feel somewhat depressed or elated or to experience no mood change. A 2 x 2 experimental design, incorporating a single word list and varying the mood conditions present during learning and later testing, was used in each of the 1st 2 experiments, neither of which revealed state dependence. However, a significant effect was found in Exp II, which employed an interference paradigm. In terms of free recall, items learned and tested under the same mood were recalled with 30% greater accuracy than items learned and tested under different moods. Methodological issues and clinical implications of these findings are discussed, and it is suggested that behavior change in therapy is most likely to be implemented during heightened affective arousal that simulates characteristics of the actual problem behavior. (48 ref)

Bower, Gordon H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 129-148.

This article describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in subjects by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. One result was that subjects exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; people recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall. Second, emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others’ personalities (e.g., angry subjects generated angry associates, told hostile stories, and were prone to find fault with others). Third, when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader’s emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. Thus, sad readers attended more to sad material, identified with a sad character from a story, and recalled more about that character. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these several results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization.

Howarth, Edgar; Schokman-Gates, Kar-La (1981). Self-report multiple mood instruments. British Journal of Psychology, 72, 421-441.

Mood and hypnotizability
Zuckerman, Persky, & Lind (1967; Journal of Consulting Psychology) used the Zuckerman-Lubin MAACL to test the hypothesis that affect states just prior to hypnosis induction are related to subsequent hypnotizability, while affect traits are not so related (P. 464). The mood states of subjects in two treatment conditions (either small and highly motivated groups or large and less motivated groups) were measured just before trance induction, while the MMPI affect-trait measures were administered afterwards. The MAACL hostility scale was found to have a significant negative correlation with hypnotizability, but the affect-trait measures were unrelated.
In an attempt to determine the ‘real relationships between personality traits and hypnotizability, Silver (1973) tested 40 male students on the Byrne (1964) Repression- Sensitization Scale, and in a following session the Wessman-Ricks PFS and a short form of the Nowlis MACL. Hypnotizability was also assessed using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). While repression was not found to be related to hypnotizability, mood was, both on the PFS and the MACL, with bright affective states being positively related and dark states showing the opposite relationship. (Factor analysis revealed that the Nowlis measured emotional energy or buoyancy overall, whereas the Wessman-Ricks measured life satisfaction). Silver (1974) found that the surgency scale of the Nowlis MACL predicted hypnotizability as well or better than the MACL’s overall mood index. This suggest (sic) that, although the overall mood may determine one’s susceptibility to hypnotic induction, those who are in a surgent mood will be the ones most readily hypnotized.

Case, David B.; Fogel, David H.; Pollack, Albert A. (1980). Intrahypnotic and long-term effects of self-hypnosis on blood pressure in mild hypertension. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 27-38.

Self-hypnosis using the method of Spiegel (1974) was evaluated in 15 patients with labile or mild essential hypertension who were equally hypnotizable and adhered to a regimen of 6-10 daily exercises for a 4-month period. During the hypnotic state, there were consistent rises in both systolic and diastolic pressures in hypnotizable patients, but not in non-hypnotizable controls. Similar but smaller changes were also observed in normotensive subjects. Pressure rose immediately with hypnosis and subsided gradually over 15 minutes. However, the long-term effects of the daily practice of self- hypnosis were variable: ambulatory diastolic pressure fell in 5 patients, was unchanged in 7 patients, and rose in 3 patients. The changes in blood pressure could not be specifically attributed to the daily practice of self-hypnosis; however, all patients experienced improvement in well-being, mood, and behavior patterns during the 4-month period. The study indicates that self-hypnosis can produce changes in behavior and mood which may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, although paradoxically, the act of hypnosis by this technique is pressor. Aside from its therapeutic potential, self- hypnosis may provide useful information about central mechanisms of blood pressure regulation.

Rizzo, Paolo Andrea; Amabile, Giuseppe; Fiumara, Romano; Caporali, Manlio; Pierelli, Francesco; Spadaro, Maria; Zanasi, Marco; Morocutti, Cristoforo (1980). Brain slow potentials and hypnosis. Biological Psychiatry, 499-506.

Contingent negative variation behavior was studied in 12 voluntary normal subjects in basal conditions and in the hypnotic trance state under different emotional suggestions. A CNV voltage decrease and the appearance of a PINV were observed in the hypnotic state. Furthermore 12 nonhypnotizable control subjects were tested under the same experimental conditions and no CNV modification was found” (p. 505).

Stam, Henderikus J.; Radtke-Bodorik, Lorraine; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1980). Repression and hypnotic amnesia: A failure to replicate and an alternative formulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89 (4), 551-559.

In an attempt to replicate and extend a study by S. R. Clemes, 2 groups of 10 undergraduate hypnotic Ss learned a list of 18 words and were given an amnesia suggestion telling them they would be able to remember only 10 of these words. Half of the list words were critical (i.e., considered to be related to repressed conflictual material) and half were neutral (unrelated to conflictual material) as determined by Ss’ responses to a word association test. Experimental Ss received their own critical and neutral words and yoked control Ss received the critical and neutral words of experimental Ss. Neither the experimental nor the yoked control group exhibited selective amnesia in favor of critical words, thus constituting a failure to replicate Clemes’s result. However, variables affecting the degree to which words were initially learned (e.g., imagery value, serial position) predicted their resistance to amnesia. These findings are inconsistent with a repression hypothesis but congruent with an inattention hypothesis of suggested amnesia. (41 ref).

Chertok, Leon; Michaux, D.; Droin, M. C. (1977). Dynamics of hypnotic analgesia: Some new data. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 164, 88-96.

Following two surgical operations under hypnotic anesthesia, it was possible, during subsequent recall under hypnosis, to elicit a representation of the past operative experience. It would seem that under hypnosis there is a persistence of the perception of nociceptive information and of its recognition as such by the subject. From an analysis of these two experiments in recall, it is possible to formulate several hypotheses concerning the psychological processes involved in hypnotic analgesia. In consequence of an affective relationship, in which the hypnotist’s word assumes a special importance for the subject, the latter has recourse to two kinds of mechanism: a) internal (assimilation to an analogous sensation, not, however, registered as dangerous– rationalization); and b) external (total compliance with the interpretations proposed by the hypnotist), which lead to a qualitative transformation of nociceptive information, as also the inhibition of the behavioral manifestations normally associated with a painful stimulus.

Novaco, Raymond W. (1977). Stress inoculation: A cognitive therapy for anger and its application to a case of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45 (4), 600-8.

Clinical interventions for anger disorders have been scarcely addressed in both theory and research in psychotherapy. The continued development of a cognitive behavior therapy approach to anger management is presented along with the results of its application to a hospitalized depressive with severe anger problems. The treatment approach follows a procedure called “stress inoculation,” which consists of three basic stages: cognitive preparation, skill acquisition and rehearsal, and application practice. The relationship between anger and depression is discussed.

Coe, William C.; Baugher, R. J.; Krimm, W. R.; Smith, J. A. (1976). A further examination of selective recall following hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 13-21.

29 Ss were tested for posthypnotic amnesia on SHSS:C. They rated each item for emotional tone (pleasant-unpleasant) and judged whether or not they had passed or failed it. There was some support for the notion that failed items are judged more unpleasant than passed items, but the emotional tone of an item was not related to its being recalled posthypnotically. There were minimal findings to suggest that Ss recall items which stand out in their experience. Discrepancies with earlier findings and the possible role of processes associated with normal memory are discussed.

Galin, David (1974). Implications for psychiatry of left and right cerebral specialization: A neurophysiological context for unconscious processes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31 (4), 572-583.

A brief review is presented of hemispheric specialization for different cognitive modes, and of the symptoms that follow disconnection of the two hemispheres by commissurotomy. Our present knowledge of the hemispheres’ cognitive specialization and potential for independent functioning provides a framework for thinking about the interaction of cognitive structures, defensive maneuvers, and variations in awareness. Parallels are noted between some aspects of the mental processes of the disconnected right hemisphere and some aspects of primary process thinking and repression. The hypothesis is proposed that in normal intact people mental events in the right hemisphere can become disconnected functionally from the left hemisphere (by inhibition of neuronal transmission across the cerebral commissures), and can continue a life of their own. This hypothesis suggests a neurophysiological mechanisms for at least some instances of repression and an anatomical locus for the unconscious mental contents.

Podolnick, Edward E.; Field, Peter B. (1970). Emotional involvement, oral anxiety, and hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18 (3), 194-210.

48 undergraduates were randomly assigned to either a high or low emotional arousal manipulation and then underwent a tape-recorded hypnotic induction and test of depth. The high-arousal group was exposed to infantile oral objects and were led to believe that they would have to suck on them as part of a physiological psychology experiment in which the cutaneous sensitivity of the human mouth was being mapped. The low-arousal group believed they only had to blow on whistles or pipes. While both groups were anticipating these experiences, hypnosis was induced. Ss in the high-arousal group were significantly more hypnotizable (p < .001) than their counterparts in the low-arousal group. Ss in the high-arousal group were significantly less anxious after hypnosis than they were before hypnosis, while the low-arousal Ss did not show a reduction in anxiety. The groups did not differ on several background personality tests given as checks on the randomization. (Spanish & German summaries) (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 1969 Paul, Gordon L. (1969). Extraversion, emotionality, and physiological response to relaxation training and hypnotic suggestion. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 89-98. Examined the possible predictive relationship of extraversion and emotionality, singly and combined into H. J. Eysenck''s (see 35:5) 4-fold classification, for differential cognitive and physiological responsiveness to relaxation training, hypnotic suggestion, and a self-relaxation control procedure, and to the degree of inhibition of the physiological response to stressful imagery resulting from the treatment procedures. 60 unselected female Ss, covering the full range on both personality scales, participated in 2 experimental sessions, 1 wk. apart. Nonsignificant relationships were found between the personality characteristics and the previously reported individual or combined response to treatment procedures. (Spanish & German summaries) (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Reyher, Joseph; Smeltzer, William (1968). Uncovering properties of visual imagery and verbal association. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 21 young males were asked to 'image' or to 'associate' to 10 words from each of 3 categories representing sex, hostility, and family relationships. Imagery was found to produce heightened GSR activity, more primary process, more direct representation of drives, and less effective defense. The superiority of visual imagery over verbal association as an uncovering technique was attributed to the relative ease with which unconscious processes can influence imagery 1965 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1965). Physiological effects of 'hypnotic suggestions': A critical review of recent research (1960-64). Psychological Bulletin, 201-222. Recent studies are reviewed which were concerned with the effectiveness of suggestions given under "hypnosis" and "waking" experimental treatments in alleviating allergies, ichthyosis, myopia, and other conditions and in eliciting deafness, blindness, hallucinations, analgesia, cardiac acceleration and deceleration, emotional responses, urine secretion to sham water ingestion, narcotic-like drug effects, and other phenomena. The review indicates that a wide variety of physiological functions can be influenced by suggestions administered under either hypnosis or waking experimental treatments, and direct and indirect suggestions to show the particular physiological manifestations are crucial variables in producing the effects. Bernstein, Norman R. (1965). Observations on the use of hypnosis with burned children on a pediatric ward. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (1), 1-10. Several cases are described and observations made about the interplay of forces between staff, patient, and therapist, as well as the expectations of the patients to assess how these factors influenced the use of hypnosis. Hypnosis appears to be a particularly useful means for reaching isolated and depressed children with burns and for improving the morale of the staff team working with these children. The results may be along specific lines in terms of pain tolerance and improved eating, or in general improvement of cooperativeness and mood on the part of the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Davison, Gerald C. (1965, June). Anxiety under total curarization: Implications for the role of muscular relaxation in the desensitization of neurotic fears. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Honolulu. NOTES I began by describing the Jacobson-Wolpe position on the use of deep muscular relaxation as an anxiety-inhibitor: these writers assume that the considerable reduction in proprioceptive feedback from muscles which are in a relaxed state is incompatible with a state of anxiety. Then I mentioned the evidence that at least modern neuromuscular blocking-agents operate solely at the myoneural junction, with no direct central effects. I went on to discuss the various studies which have used paralytic drugs, primarily d- tubocurarine chloride, to show the learning of fear-responses under complete striate muscle paralysis: the fact that these animals are able to acquire classically-conditioned fear-responses under curare was taken as evidence inconsistent with the views of Jacobson and Wolpe. Several studies were then reviewed which purport to furnish confirmatory evidence for the Jacobson position: these studies showed considerable central depression during curare paralysis. I re-interpreted these studies in the light of the over-riding importance of exteroceptive stimulation, stressing that the animals in the curare learning experiments were likewise deprived of proprioceptive feedback and yet were hardly non- anxious: the important difference was that the animals in the conditioning experiments were stimulated frequently from the environment while curarized, this stimulation maintaining an alert, often anxious state. Finally, two hypotheses were put forward as to why training in muscular relaxation does, in fact, inhibit anxiety: the one suggested that relaxing one's muscles generates strong positive affect states, which in turn inhibit anxiety; the other hypothesis called attention to the fact that the states of muscular relaxation under curare versus under self-induced relaxation differ in the important respect that only with self-induced relaxation is there a reduction in efferent activity--perhaps this elimination of efferents, rather than afferents, inhibits anxiety. 1962 English, O. Spurgeon (1962). Some dynamic concepts of human emotions in relation to hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 4, 135-140. NOTES 1: He describes characteristics of the human personality as having a need for being dependent, tendency to obey or cooperate, need to avoid pain, tendency toward retreating into solitude and silence away from the stimuli of every day living, wish to avoid tension or anxiety; and therefore having a need to regress, in hypnosis. 1960 Rosenberg, Milton J.; Hovland, Carl I.; McGuire, William J.; Abelson, Robert P.; Brehm, Jack W. (1960). An analysis of affective-cognitive consistency. In Hovland, Carl I.; Rosenberg, Milton J. (Ed.), Attitude organization and change (pp. 15-64). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. NOTES 1: It was ... predicted that a strong and irreversible alteration of an attitudinal affect would eventuate in reorganization of the person's associated cognitions." In two experiments, deeply hypnotized subjects were commanded to feel differently toward an attitude object than they normally did. Examination of the subjects' attitudes indicated extensive changes in cognitive structure, making it consistent with the newly held affects. The changes in cognitive structure were shown to persist as long as the reversed affect persisted. Evidence bearing on the preferred modes of cognitive reorganization was discussed. Schneck, Jerome M. (1960). Special aspects of hypnotic regression and revivification. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8, 37-42. NOTES 1: Author''s Summary: "This report delineates a type of hypnotic revivification without the usually expected dramatic behavioral attributes and use of the present tense in verbalization. On the contrary, motor involvement is at a minimum, manifestations of acting out are devoid of dramatic channels, yet emotion is intense and verbalization is absent. Awareness of the existence of such revivification in the hypnotic setting is important for adequate understanding by the therapist and incorporation into hypnotherapeutic or hypnoanalytic procedure. Considerable alteration of temporal and spatial orientations take place and should be appreciated fully. The revivication under discussion was observed in hypnotic settings involving regressions to preverbal age levels. These observations permitted better recognition of similar occurrences for later age periods. Revivification without verbalization may be disclosed subsequently by the patient in spontaneous comments or explored by the therapist when it has been suspected. The discussion of this phenomenon has centered on the hypnoanalysis of a fifty-four year old woman. The ingredients have been encountered often with others. Additional details pertaining to the revivifications have been described. The psychodynamic implications of the above-mentioned patient''s reference to her hypnotic involvements as ''vivification'' events owing to intensity of the emotional components, have been outlined and linked to previously presented views on emotional insight preceding intellectual insight. The transference elements in revivifications have been given attention and shown to be consistent with a proposed concept of dynamic hypnotic age regression in contrast to chronological hypnotic age regression. The data presented have been correlated with views of a hypnotic-waking state continuum" (p. 41). 1958 Duncan, Irma W.; Dressler, Robert L.; Lyon-James, Sara; Sears, Alden B. (1958). The search for an index of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 6 (2), 95-108. Summary "Blood and urine samples were obtained from 18 university students at the beginning and end of two experimental sessions, one with and one without hypnosis. Some of the subjects relaxed during the sessions; others imagined or hallucinated a traumatic experience. "Of a variety of measurements made, urinary volumes and 17-ketosteroids, the eosinophil count and psychogalvanometer recordings appear to give useful information about any changes due to the hypnosis. The biochemical changes caused by the experimentally produced emotions seem to depend on the individual and his past experience rather than the hypnosis. The data suggest that if the experience hallucinated is known to the subject, the biochemical changes indicate a relaxed state during the hypnosis. The psycho-galvanometer recordings may indicate an agitated state while the biochemical indices suggest a relaxed state" (pp. 106-107). 1956 Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1956). Concerning a theory of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4, 37-45. NOTES "The essential attributes of the hypnotic condition may be understood to derive from three sources: 1) The hypnotic emotional state per se 2) The resultant motivation of the 'subject' to comply with the desires of the 'operator' (reinstating a child-like responsiveness). 3) The RETROGRESSION to an earlier form of psychological functioning that takes place under a hypnotic state of growing intensity" (p. 43). "Although the retrogressive process is a general response to emotions and probably exists in some toxic states as well, it has a remarkable feature in the hypnotic state: THE COALESCENCE OF MOTIVATION AND RETROGRESSION, which exists in hypnotized people, permits a peculiar manipulation of the retrogressed condition. The peculiar responsiveness of the subject may be tested and molded by means of propositions which act as suggestions. In this manner, the so-called HYPNOTIC PHENOMENA are elicited" (p. 44). 1955 Hart, Hornell (1955). Measuring some results of autohypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 229-242. NOTES 1: The author developed self ratings for mood (euphoria-dysphoria) and alertness-fatigue, which were administered to college students in neutral conditions and after self-hypnosis conditions. The self hypnosis, or "auto-conditioning" usually involved deep relaxation self suggestions followed by other suggestions. The suggestions involved using the word 'you' to be able to re-instate the autoconditioning more and more effectively; suggestions for attitude change (e.g. that 'No matter what comes, we will grapple with it courageously'); and euphoria auto-suggestions (e.g. that 'you will come out of this deep relaxation, feeling rested, alert, cheerful and courageous'). In both single session experiments, as with a class of nurses who experienced an 8 minute auto-conditioning procedure, and in experiments extending over time, depression decreased. He noted that "for various reasons, the students who participated in autoconditioning experiments between February and May, 1955, were in many respects less successful than some of the previous experimental groups had been" (p. 235). Increased alertness and diminished fatigue was also observed. Many students chose to give themselves suggestions to correct the habit of procrastination. Two-thirds of the participants reported complete success, up to the level specified, and only one of 43 experiments on correcting procrastination was a "flat failure." Stokvis, Berthold (1955). Hypnosis and psychoanalytic method. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3, 253-255. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 57: 1157) NOTES 1: The author distinguishes between hypnosis/psychoanalysis and 'hypno-analysis' which Hadfield previously described as a combination of hypnotic catharsis and re-educative suggestions. At the Leyden Clinic the author uses one of several methods to "apply hypnosis together with the utilization of psychoanalytic principles. ... [It] consists in a cathartic-analytic treatment of the patient in the waking state, while endeavouring to re-enact repressed psycho-traumatic events of the past, in the hypnotic state. The experiences in question are subsequently discussed with the patient and elucidated" (p. 253). 1953 Beigel, Hugo B. (1953). Hypnosis as an instrument in psychological experimentation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1, 13-17. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 53: 6385) Author's Summary - In this paper various areas of psychological research were pointed out in which expermentation with hypnotized subjects has been or could be employed to advantage. It is held that there are several problems which offer no point of attack unless hypnosis is used and several others which, in view of their complexity, cannot be effectually approached by the classic method of experimentation. Specifically mentioned were the areas of thinking, learning, perception, apperception, imagination, and emotion, in which the hypnotic experiment proves valuable when either amnesia for preceding experiences, isolation from concomitant influences, or the introduction of an as-if situation is necessary. While it is undeniable that some of the experiments cited need improvement if their results are to be considered reliable -- a remediable shortcoming they share with most first experiments -- it is also evident that the use of hypnosis in experiments offers an approach to some areas that have thus far been inaccessible. Needless to say, hypnosis should not be used when similar results can be as readily obtained by the customary experimental method, but as Gidro-Frank and Bull (10) state, our scant knowledge of the nature of the hypnotic state should not bar it from use as a scientific tool. Still the only one available technique to solve a problem. It must be added, however, that the experimenter must be thoroughly familiar with the technique but also to their physical and mental health. Guze, Henry (1953). Posture, postural redintegration and hypnotherapy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1, 76-82. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 53: 6559) SUMMARYThe use of postural analysis, and directives regarding posture and their importance in hypnotherapy are discussed. Theoretically, it is indicated that a chronic postural condition may act to elicit an emotional state with which it was originally associated. Such an emotional condition may have caused the posture in the first place, and then established a feed-back relationship with it. The breaking of feed-back mechanisms of this kind depends largely upon postural change when a chronic situation is established in the absence of realistic cause for the emotion. Posture may also act redintegratively, when directly suggested, in rearousing traumatic memories. Several clinical cases are reported. ENURESUS 1993 Banerjee, Sanjay; Srivastav, Anita; Palan, Bhupendra M. (1993). Hypnosis and self-hypnosis in the management of nocturnal enuresis: A comparative study with imipramine therapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36, 113-119. Various therapeutic modalities have been used for treating enuresis due to the lack of a single identifiable cause. We carried out a comparative study of imipramine and direct hypnotic suggestions with imagery used for the management of functional nocturnal enuresis. Enuretic children, ranging in age from 5 to 16 years, underwent 3 months of therapy with imipramine (N = 25) or hypnosis (N = 25). After termination of the active treatment, the hypnosis group continued practicing self-hypnosis daily during the follow-up period of another 6 months. Of the patients treated with imipramine, 76% had a positive response (all dry beds); for patients treated with hypnotic strategies, 72% responded positively. At the 9-month follow-up, 68% of patients in the hypnosis group maintained a positive response, whereas only 24% of the imipramine group did. Hypnosis and self-hypnosis strategies were found to be less effective in younger children (5-7 years old) compared to imipramine treatment. The treatment response was not related to the hypnotic responsivity of the patient in either group. 1987 Olness, Karen N.; Libbey, Patricia (1987). Unrecognized biologic bases of behavioral symptoms in patients referred for hypnotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30, 1-8. Twenty patients referred for hypnotherapy had organic conditions which explained their symptoms. Each had been evaluated previously by physicians. Eleven had also been in psychotherapy; two of these had been hospitalized on child psychiatry inpatient units. Presenting symptoms included five with nocturnal enuresis, four each with headaches and recurrent abdominal pain, three with recurrent headaches, two with anxiety, and one each with sleep problems and tics. Diagnoses included hyperthyroidism, diabetes, diastometamyelia, partial oxalotranscarbamylase deficiency, sinusitis, carbon monoxide poisoning, vitamin overdose, food allergy, amebiasis, constipation, urinary tract infection, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, and seizures. Each child had complete remission of symptoms with treatment of his/her underlying disease. Morbidity related to delayed diagnoses included parental anxiety and guilt, child anxiety, growth delays, family financial difficulties, loss of parental work time, loss of school days, and loss of confidence in child health professionals by families. ERICKKSON