2 Os scored the responses of 60 Ss on a 12-item objective test, Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Mean total scores reported by the 2 Es did not differ significantly. The correlation between the total scores of the 2 Es was .947. Nevertheless, differences in total scores assigned occurred with 40% of Ss, which is a significant departure from perfect agreement. The 2 Es disagreed about correct scoring of 54 items (7.5% of all items scored). The extent of disagreement was significantly greater than 0. Disagreement was not related to the level of susceptibility of Ss, nor to the relative experience of Es with hypnosis. More than 1/2 of the disagreements involved systematic differences in the interpretation and application of the scoring criteria for 2 items; item 6: Dream, and item 9: Anosmia to Ammonia. These systematic differences affecting scoring reliability happened to counterbalance to produce similar total scores in this study. Several sources of potential scoring unreliability of SHSS:C are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)


Bjick, Suzanne (2001). Accessing the power in the patient with hypnosis and EMDR. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43 (3/4), 203-216.

Notes that both E. Rossi”s ideodynamic accessing model of hypnosis and EMDR are intended to access information stored in the mind-body system. Some possibilities for effectively using hypnosis and EMDR in combination are discussed. The similarities and the uniqueness of each method, both theoretically and in terms of the different protocols, are compared to provide a rationale for combining them. Verbatim examples from a clinical case (a woman with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are presented to demonstrate exactly how these models can be usefully combined in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Eimer, Bruce; Freeman, Arthur (1998). Pain management psychotherapy: A practical guide. New York NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Pain Management Psychotherapy” (PMP) provides a clear and methodical look at pain management psychotherapy beginning with the initial consultation and work-up of the patient and continuing through termination of treatment. It is a thoughtful and thorough presentation that covers methods for psychologically assessing the chronic pain patient (structured interviews, pain assessment tests and rating scales, instruments for evaluating beliefs, attitudes, pain behavior, disability, depression, anxiety, anger and alienation), treatment planning, cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, and a range of hypnotic approaches to pain management. The book covers both traditional (cognitive and behavior therapy, biofeedback, assessing hypnotizability, choice of inductions, designing an individualized self-hypnosis exercise) as well as newer innovative techniques (e.g., EMDR, pain-relief imagery, hypno-projective methods, hypno-analytic reprocessing of pain-related negative experiences). An extensive appendix reproduces in their entirety numerous forms, rating scale, inventories, assessment instruments, and scripts.
The senior author, Bruce Eimer, states in his online comments on Amazon.com that “most therapists hold the belief that ‘real’ chronic pain patients are quite impossible to help. This book attempts to dispel these misguided beliefs by providing a body of knowledge, theory, and techniques that have proven value in understanding and relieving chronic physical pain.” He also states that “the challenge for the therapist is to persuade the would-ne patient/client that he or she has something to offer that can help take way pain and bring back more pleasure. This challenge is negotiated through the therapeutic relationship. However, the therapist just can’t be ‘warm, accepting, non-judgmental and empathic’. The therapist must also have knowledge and skills relevant to relieving pain. Only then can the therapist impart such knowledge, and in teaching these skills to the pain patient, help the patient become something of a ‘self-therapist’. . . I dedicate this book to everyone who wants to find ways to make living with pain more comfortable, and to the ongoing search for better ways to relieve pain.”

Herbert, James D.; Mueser, Kim T. (1992). Eye movement desensitization: A critique of the evidence. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.

The scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of eye movement desensitization (EMD), a novel intervention for traumatic memories and related conditions, is reviewed. The sparse research conducted in this area has serious methodological flaws, precluding definite conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the procedure. Clinicians are cautioned against uncritically accepting the clinical efficacy of EMD.

Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Kleinknecht, Ronald A.; Conley, Althea T.; Dal Cerro, Steven; Schmidt, Joel; Sonntag, Michael E. (1992). A methodological critique of the current status of eye movement desensitization (EMD). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.

Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) has been recently advocated as a rapid treatment for the elimination of traumatic memories responsible for the maintenance of a number of anxiety disorders and their clinical correlates. Despite a limited conceptual framework, EMD has attracted considerable interest among clinicians and researchers. The popularity and interest generated by EMD will likely result in wide usage. We present a methodological critique of it with reference to assessment, treatment outcome, and treatment process. We also provide guidelines for judging the methodological adequacy of research on EMD and suggest intensive research to assess effectiveness, treatment components, and comparisons with other procedures.

Yapko, Michael D. (1992). Editor’s Viewpoint. Milton H. Erickson Foundation Newsletter, 12 (3), 2.

A controversial issue is heating up, and therapists are beginning to feel the heat. The issue involves the common practice of helping clients recover apparently repressed memories of early childhood sexual trauma. In the second edition of my hypnosis textbook, _Trancework_ (1990, Brunner/Mazel), I included a special section on the possibility of hypnotically implanting false memories—vivid memories of things that never actually happened that the client comes to believe as true recollections. I pointed out the risks of suggestive procedures and urged caution in suggesting memories of any sort, whether a formal hypnotic induction took place or not.
“Early this year a non-profit foundation was formed in Philadelphia called the _False Memory Syndrome Foundation_ which serves as a clearing house for relevant information, and even publishes a newsletter. It also provides support to families broken apart by these problems. If you are interested in the complex issues regarding suggestion and memory, you can contact the FMS Foundation at _3508 Market Street, Suite 128, Philadelphia, PA 19104,_ telephone _(215) 387-1865. David Calof’s_ group also _publishes Treating Abuse Today_. They, too, are cognizant of the relevant issues. Their address is _2722 Eastlake Avenue East, Seattle, WA 98012,_ telephone _(206) 329- 9101_” (p. 2).

Wolpe, Joseph; Abrams, Janet (1991). Post-traumatic stress disorder overcome by eye-movement desensitization: A case report. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39-43.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is an exceptionally stressful syndrome that has been extremely difficult to treat. The prognosis was recently dramatically improved by the introduction of eye-movement desensitization. This paper reports, in substantial detail, a case that was precipitated by a rape 10 years earlier, describing its manifestations and various unsuccessful attempts to treat it: followed by a detailed exposition of the eventual, completely successful treatment by eye-movement desensitization.

Gravitz, Melvin A. (1990). Adverse behavior associated with the eye-roll test of hypnotizability: Clinical and theoretical considerations. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 27, 267-270.

For 15 years, subjects’ response to the eye-roll test has been used to measure susceptibility without adverse effects. A case is described of a hospitalized young man who displayed dissociative behavior when asked to do the eye-roll as part of a diagnostic evaluation. Etiological and theoretical considerations, and implications for therapeutic strategy are discussed.

Gabel, Stewart (1988). The right hemisphere in imagery, hypnosis, rapid eye movement sleep, and dreaming: Empirical studies and tentative conclusions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 323-331.

Reviews studies that have addressed the issue of whether there is an increased activation or efficiency of right-hemispheric processes during imagery, hypnosis, REM sleep, and dreaming. Evidence strongly supports the notion of increased right- hemispheric activation in simple imaginal or visual states during usual consciousness. There are also studies supporting this view of REM sleep, dreaming, and hypnotic phenomena. It is concluded, however, that the lack of adequate studies, contradictory or negative findings, and moderating variables (e.g., task difficulty, cognitive style) make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning right-hemispheric processes.

Kluft, Richard (1987). The withheld eye-roll sign. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30, 9-19.

Within the context and the assumptions of the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP), the eye-roll sign is understood to indicate a stable biologically based measure of potential hypnotic capacity. Serendipitous observations seemed to suggest that the eye-roll sign underwent significant changes in 14 particular patients. On exploration of these patients’ subjective experiences, it was discovered that certain patients associated the eye- roll with incipient dyscontrol and consciously withhold a full and accurate response. In others, such withholding occurred as a conversion symptom. Furthermore, some patients were aware of the implications of the eye-roll and made efforts to represent themselves as unhypnotizable by withholding a full eye-roll. No genuine changes in eye-roll signs were noted. Clinical illustrations are offered and discussed.

Magnavito, F.; Gaupp, L. (1984, October). Absorption, hypnotic susceptibility, and automatization of visual attention. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX.

Absorption (Tellegen Scale) correlated .62 with SHCS and -.45 with a measure of visual automatization. They conclude that highly absorption-prone individuals attend more to sensory information, processing their environment in a childlike, less automatized manner. The measure of visual automatization, H, was obtained by camera recorded eye movements and fixations as Ss viewed slides in any way they desired.

Spiegel, David; Tryon, Warren W.; Frischholz, Edward J.; Spiegel, Herbert (1982). Hilgard’s illusion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39 (8), 972-4.

Examines E. R. Hilgard’s (see PA, Vol 68:11932) critique of the hypothesis that eye roll (ER) is related to hypnotizability, clarifying the nature of the data relevant to the ER hypothesis. The authors contend that there are a number of factual errors in Hilgard’s article: his (1) explanation of the procedure used in determining the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) grades, (2) characterization of the HIP as a single-item test, and (3) his contention that the levitation score is the sole determinant of manifest hypnotic response. (9 ref.)

Spanos, Nicholas P.; Pawlak, Anne E.; Mah, Christopher D.; D’Eon, Joyce L. (1980). Lateral eye movements, hypnotic susceptibility and imaginal ability in right-handers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 50, 287-294.

A total of 46 male and 36 female right-handers were assessed on three measures of left-moving, as well as on hypnotic susceptibility, and several measures of imaginal ability. The three left-moving indices intercorrelated significantly. However, none of these indices correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility or imaginal ability variables in either sex.

Sheehan, D. V.; Latta, W. D.; Regina, E. G.; Smith, G. M. (1979). Empirical assessment of Spiegel’s hypnotic induction profile and eye-roll hypothesis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27 (2), 103-110.

39 healthy male volunteers were hypnotized twice using Spiegel’s (1974) Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP). Their responses were scored independently by 2 raters who alternated roles as hypnotist and observer. Results indicated: (a) high inter-rater reliability for HIP components and for the Hypnotic Induction Score (HIS); (b) satisfactory test-retest correlations for the eye-roll, up gaze, squint, posthypnotic arm levitation, and control differential; (c) component scores and HIS increased from Session 1 to Session 2; (d) the role of the rater was not influential; (e) inter-item correlations on HIP were similar to those erported by Spiegel; and (f) the analysis does not support the hypothesis that the eye-roll is dependably predictive of hypnotic signs measured by HIP subsequent to measurement of the eye-roll.

Spanos, Nicholas P.; Rivers, Stephen M.; Gottlieb, Jack (1978). Hypnotic responsivity, meditation, and laterality of eye movements. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87 (5), 566-569.

Right-handed male subjects were pretested on a number of person variables; they then meditated for eight sessions. Measures of hypnotic responsivity, meditating skill, imaginal abilities, and attitudes toward hypnosis loaded on a common factor that was labeled sustained nonanalytic attending. However, laterality of eye movement (left moving) failed to load on this factor. The implications of these findings for current theorizing concerning hypnosis and meditation are discussed.

Weerts, Theodore C.; Lang, Peter J. (1978). Psychophysiology of fear imagery: Differences between focal phobia and social performance anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 1157-1159.

Spider phobics and speech anxious subjects imaged fear scenes with spider and public-speaking content and a series of standard scenes that were constructed to vary in degree of emotional arousal and movement. Heart rate, skin conductance, and ocular activity were recorded. Spider phobics rated all imagery contents as more vivid and reported more scene movement than speech anxious subjects. Both groups responded to their own fear scenes with higher ratings of emotion and a greater physiological response than to the other group’s fear scenes. The arousal response of spider phobics to relevant fear scenes was greater than that of speech anxious subjects. The data suggest that the outcome of imagery-based therapies may be partly determined by type of fear.

Spiegel, Herbert; Aronson, Marc; Fleiss, Joseph L.; Haber, Jerome (1976). Psychometric analysis of the Hypnotic Induction Profile. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 300-315.

Psychometric analyses of the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) of Spiegel (1974a), a sixteen point test designed to measure hypnotic capacity, are presented herein. Briefly summarized are the sequential phases of trance experience as monitored by the HIP. On the basis of a factor analysis of individual items entering into the HIP’s of 1674 patients, two distinct factors emerged. One is defined largely by up-gaze and eye-roll, the other by some of the subsequent items. Two methods for scoring the HIP, a configurational method involving both factors (profile scoring) and an actuarial method using only items from the second factor (induction scoring), are defined. As expected from the factor analysis, eye-roll is little related to the HIP graded by either scoring method. The correlation of induction scoring with the eye-roll is .22 in a sample of 1023 patients. Such a correlation is significant, although it accounts for only 5% of the variance that eye- roll and induction scoring have in common. That the low correlation may be a function of the relationship of hypnotizability to psychopathology is shown by a highly significant correlation (r = .52) between eye-roll and induction scores in a population selected as non- psychotic. The usefulness of the HIP in relation to psychodiagnosis has been demonstrated elsewhere and is not the subject of this paper. Evidence is presented bearing on the reliability of the profile and induction scores, both yielding satisfactory reliabilities. Some validity information is given through satisfactory correlations with existing standardized scales. The HIP and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1959) correlate .55.

Spiegel, Herbert; Aronson, M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Haber, J. (1976). Psychometric analysis of the hypnotic induction profile. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 300-315.

Psychometric analyses of the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) of Spiegel (1974a), a sixteen point test designed to measure hypnotic capacity, are presented herein. Briefly summarized are the sequential phases of trance experience as monitored by the HIP. On the basis of a factor analysis of individual items entering into the HIPs of 1674 patients, two distinct factors emerged. One is defined largely by up-gaze and eye-roll, the other by some of the subsequent items. Two methods for scoring the HIP, a configurational method involving both factors (profile scoring) and an actuarial method using only items from the second factor (induction scoring), are defined. As expected from the factor analysis, eye-roll is little related to the HIP graded by either scoring method. The correlation of induction scoring with the eye-roll is .22 in a sample of 1023 patients. Such a correlation is significant, although it accounts for only 5% of the variance that eye-roll and induction scoring have in common. That the low correlation may be a function of the relationship of hypnotizability to psychopathology is shown by a highly significant correlation (r = .52) between eye-roll and induction scores in a population selected as non-psychotic. The usefulness of the HIP in relation to psychodiagnosis has been demonstrated elsewhere and is not the subject of this paper. Evidence is presented bearing on the reliability of the profile and induction scores, both yielding satisfactory correlations with existing standardized scales. The HIP and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1959) correlate .55.

Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald (1975). Dream deprivation and facilitation with hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84 (3), 267-271.

We attempted to modify sleep and dreaming through the administration of various posthypnotic suggestions. Subjects were 17 male undergraduates who were selected for high susceptibility to hypnosis. After two adaptation nights, 5 subjects were given a dream-deprivation suggestion, 8 were given a suggestion of dream-facilitation, and the remaining 4 subjects were administered a neutral posthypnotic suggestion. Subjective dream reports were dramatically affected in the predicted directions. Electrophysiological changes were also noted in certain subjects, although these results were not nearly as consistent as the subjective data. The dream-deprivation group had significantly more Stage 1 sleep than the other two groups; and certain of these subjects had much less REM sleep.

Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1971). A case of pursuit-like eye movements directly reflecting dream content during hypnotic dreaming. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 32, 701-702. (Abstracted in Current Contents, 3, 34, 16)

Describes a sample of eye movements from a hypnotized S spontaneously dreaming of watching a watch swing on a chain. These were repeated on another dream occasion and in imagination. The study (a) supports the notion that the content of some imagined and dreamed visual experiences is reflected in specific ways in eye movements; and (b) suggests a close relationship between nondream and dream visual and/or motor imagery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Brady, J. P.; Levitt, E. E. (1964). Nystagmus as a criterion of hypnotically induced visual hallucinations. Science, 146, 85-86.

Hypnotized Ss who report hallucinating a visual situation which would ordinarily elicit optokinetic nystagmus demonstrate nystagmus under these conditions. They and control Ss are unable to feign nystagmus in the waking state, either by imagining the situation or by direct efforts to simulate the eye movements. Thus an objective criterion is provided for the presence of visual hallucinations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)


Lindsay, Suzanne; Kurtz, Richard M.; Stern, John A. (1993). Hypnotic susceptibility and the endogenous eyeblink: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 41, 92-96.

This study investigated the relationship between hypnotic susceptibility, hypnotic state, and the endogenous eyeblink with 36 undergraduates, who were assigned to four independent groups (waking-low, hypnotized-low, waking-high, and hypnotized- high susceptibles) on the basis of combined cutoff scores on both the Creative Imagination Scale and the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults. The auditory vigilance task required subjects to discriminate between 200 ms and 300 ms tones over a 35-minute period. Hypnotic depth was controlled across trials using the Long Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Depth. As predicted, high-susceptible subjects had a significantly lower blink rate than low-susceptible subjects. The predicted interaction between susceptibility and hypnotic state was also confirmed. High-susceptible subjects showed a significant decrease in blinking for the hypnotized condition, whereas low-susceptible subjects did not. The need for replication with more adequate measures of susceptibility is discussed.

In a preliminary study, Weitzenhoffer (1979) found significant differences between high- and low-susceptible subjects following a hypnotic induction. The highs showed a 66% decrease in blink rate from a baseline reading. More recently, Tada, Yamada, and Hariu (1990) reported a series of studies suggesting that blink rate was dramatically reduced during the hypnotic state, as well as finding a relationship between high susceptibility and decreased blink rate. Although these studies tend to support Weitzenhoffer’s (1979) research, they are poorly controlled and report no quantitative data” (p. 93).
In the present study, “to assure that subjects kept their eyes open, they were required to maintain their gaze on a dimly lighted box (12″ x 12″) placed one meter in front of them. Subjects in both conditions were asked to rate their hypnotic depth by using the Long Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Depth (Tart, 1970) before being given a practice trial of 20 tones. Following the practice trial, participants were again asked to rate their hypnotic depth, and the trial period began. Subjects gave subsequent depth ratings every 10 minutes for the remainder of the 35-minute trial. The hypnotic state was maintained across time periods by using deepening instructions when necessary” (p. 94).
In their Discussion, the authors noted that “High-susceptible subjects in the hypnotized state have a significantly lower blink rate and presumably greater attentional focus than lows. Although the interaction was significant and in the predicted direction, it accounted for only a small portion of the overall variance, suggesting that trait differences are more robust than those for state” (p. 95).

Holroyd, Jean; Maguen, Ezra (1989). And so to sleep: Hypnotherapy for lagophthalmos. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis.

We used hypnosis to facilitate eye closure during sleep for a 44-year-old woman whose nocturnal lagophthalmos prevented use of a contact lens following cataract surgery and could have resulted in severe corneal damage. On three separate occasions the symptoms remitted following a very brief course of treatment. We discuss the results in terms of alternate theories of hypnotic performance.
The Discussion section notes, “There was an excellent correlation between the onset of hypnotherapy and the cessation of the recurrent corneal erosion secondary to nocturnal lagophthalmos. Healing of corneal erosion, disappearance of the superficial punctate keratopathy, and alleviation of ocular foreign body sensation occurred promptly following hypnotherapy (with two separate therapists)” (pp. 267-268).
The authors present the view that “heightened suggestibility, more vivid imagery, and more specific influence of thoughts upon organ
systems probably came into play (Brown & Fromm, 1986; Holroyd, 1987). Social influence explanations (role taking, expectancy, compliance) seem less relevant as explanations. This highly motivated patient had not been able to keep her eyes closed during sleep despite her conscious efforts, her ”good-patient” role, her positive expectations about the benefits of standard treatments, and respectful incorporation of the assistance provided by her ophthalmologist” (p. 268).

Miller, Scott D. (1989). Optical differences in cases of multiple personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177 (8), 480-486.

Nine patients (aged 24-43 years) diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD) and 9 control Ss role-playing MPD were given complete ophthalmological examinations to test whether the MPD Ss would show greater variability in visual functioning across alter personalities than would control Ss role-playing MPD. An analysis of variability of 8 optical measures in 4 prominent areas of vision was performed by comparing 2 covariance matrices for equality. Analyses showed that MPD Ss had significantly more variability across alter personalities than did their control counterparts on measures of visual acuity with correction, visual acuity without correction, visual fields, manifest refraction and eye-muscle balance. Ratings for clinical significance showed that the MPD Ss had 4.5 times the average number of changes in optical functioning between alter personalities of the control Ss.

Murphy, Joseph K.; Fuller, A. Kenneth (1984). Hypnosis and biofeedback as adjunctive therapy in blepharospasm: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 31-37.

The efficacy of ophthalmologic, hypnotic, and biofeedback treatment procedures in a case of blepharospasm was evaluated. Manual eye rubbing and eye opening served as dependent measures which were assessed by the patient during treatment and a three month follow-up. Results indicated that ophthalmologic treatment had a limited effect. In contrast, brief hypnosis had a dramatic but short-lived effect and biofeedback had a moderate but sustained effect. Results are discussed in terms of the efficacy of psychological intervention, the limitations of the report, and the need for future research.

Cunningham, Paul V.; Blum, Gerald S. (1982). Further evidence that hypnotically induced color blindness does not mimic congenital defects. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 139-143.

Six undergraduate women, highly skilled in hypnotic techniques, were trained under hypnosis with a color mixer to experience red, green, blue, and total color blindness and were then programmed for the same responses in the posthypnotic state under conditions of amnesia. After awakening they were shown pseudoisochromatic plates as a preliminary check on the efficacy of the prior hypnotic instructions. The experiment consisted of successive administrations of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test, initially under normal baseline viewing conditions followed by each of the color-blind conditions in turn. Results indicate that although the observers subjectively experienced the varieties of color blindness as instructed, their responses differed from specimen responses of individuals with congenital defects in color discrimination. Implications for interpreting hypnotic alterations of perception are discussed.

Sheehan, Eugene P.; Smith, Howard V.; Forrest, Derek W. (1982). A signal detection study of the effects of suggested improvement on the monocular visual acuity of myopes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 138-146.

2 groups of 8 Ss each, matched for suggestibility and degree of myopia, were assessed by a signal detection method in their ability to make a monocular spatial discrimination, both before and after 15 minutes of listening either to music or to taped suggestions that vision would improve. There was a significantly greater improvement in sensitivity on the part of the group of Ss listening to suggestions, and within this group, but not within the group of Ss listening to music, there was a significant negative correlation (r = -.67) between S’s initial sensitivity and the amount by which it increased. There was no significant difference between the amounts by which the criterion changed in the 2 groups. In contrast with the results reported by Graham and Leibowitz (1972), there was no evidence in the present study to indicate that the amount of improvement shown by Ss depended upon either their suggestibility as measured by BSS or their refractive error.

“In contrast with the results reported by Graham and Leibowitz (1972), there was no evidence in the present study to indicate that the amount of improvement shown by Ss depended upon either their suggestibility as measured by BSS or their refractive error” (p. 144).

Graham, Charles; Leibowitz, Herschel W. (1972). The effect of suggestion on visual acuity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 20, 3.

In experiment one, all subjects participating attained the maximum score on the BSS. The subjects were hypnotized and post-hypnotic suggestions were given to the effect that the subject really knew how well they could see, and this was contingent upon relaxation. The patient was now given an opportunity to re-read the eye charts. It was found that in this experiment, myopic visual acuity was significantly improved through the use of hypnosis and positive suggestion.
In experiment two, subjects who scored the maximum and the minimum on the BBS were used. The same procedure was used as in number one except that the highly susceptible subjects were told that “various studies had demonstrated that being hypnotized was not a pre-requisite for obtaining improvement.” The insusceptibles were told that “acuity improved under hypnosis, but like many other phenomena associated with hypnosis, improvement in vision was also well within the reach of the non-hypnotizable subjects, if they simply learned to relax their eyes.” it was found that myopic visual acuity was significantly improved in the absence of a formal hypnotic induction. This improvement was for the highly hypnotizable subjects only, and did not transfer to outside the experimental situation.
In experiment three, subjects were used who scored the maximum on the BSS and the Harvard Group Scale. Testing was done in both the hypnotized and waking state. it was found that the rank order correlation between initial and final acuity levels was .98 (p<.001), indicating the effect of suggestion was selective. 1969 Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1969). Eye-blink rate and hypnosis: Preliminary findings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28, 671-676. Tests the validity and reliability of certain features of the outer appearance of hypnotized individuals which have long been popularly and clinically considered good indices of "hypnosis." The present report focuses on eye-blink rate. 19 Ss were administered a slight modification of the Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. Samples of their blink rates were obtained prior to the induction of hypnosis and some time after the induction of hypnosis procedure had been terminated, but before the dehypnotization procedures began. The results support the popular and clinical belief that hypnotic-like behavior is accompanied by a decrement in blink rate to the extent that Ss scoring 6 or more points on the Stanford Scale showed a marked and statistically significant mean reduction in blink rate of over 60% following the induction procedure and some testing of their suggestibility. In contrast, Ss scoring 5 or less and presumably not hypnotized but merely suggestible to non-suggestible, did not show a statistically significant decrement. As a possible index of "hypnosis," such a decrease in rate was found to have a test-retest reliability of .86. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1967 Bartlett, Edmund E.; Faw, Terry T.; Liebert, Robert M. (1967). The effects of suggestions of alertness in hypnosis on pupillary response: Report on a single subject. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15 (4), 189-192. THE PUPIL SIZE OF A SINGLE S WAS RECORDED UNDER 2 TYPES OF HYPNOTIC SUGGESTION: ALERTNESS INSTRUCTIONS AND TRADITIONAL RELAXATION INSTRUCTIONS. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE SIZE OF THE PUPIL INCREASED SIGNIFICANTLY UNDER ALERTNESS INSTRUCTIONS. THIS RESULT WAS TAKEN AS FURTHER CORROBORATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT CHANGES IN VARIOUS PARAMETERS OF AROUSAL APPARENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH HYPNOSIS MAY BE ATTRIBUTED TO SPECIFIABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INSTRUCTIONS USED RATHER THAN TO STABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE "STATE" OF HYPNOSIS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Davison, Gerald C.; Singleton, Lawrence (1967). A preliminary report of improved vision under hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15 (2), 57-62. REPORTS AN ACCIDENTAL FINDING WHICH WAS FELT TO BE PROVOCATIVE AND WORTHY OF FURTHER, MORE CONTROLLED, INVESTIGATION. THE EMPHASIS IS ON DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENON, WITH A MINIMUM OF THEORIZING. WHILE IN A VERY DEEP HYPNOTIC TRANCE, S WAS INDUCED TO HAVE BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE HALLUCINATIONS. ON THE FOLLOWING DAY, HE REPORTED SPONTANEOUSLY THAT HE HAD BEEN STRUCK BY THE CLARITY OF BOTH THE VISIONS AND THE PERCEPTIONS OF ACTUAL OBJECTS WHILE HYPNOTIZED; HE HAD NOT, HOWEVER, BEEN WEARING HIS GLASSES AT THE TIME, THOUGH, UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES HE WORE HIS GLASSES AT ALL TIMES. NO SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVED VISION OR EXTRA EFFORT HAD BEEN GIVEN. 2 CAREFUL OPHTHALMOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS WERE MADE DURING THE FOLLOWING 2 WK., CONFIRMING THE FACT THAT S''S EYESIGHT SHOWED A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT DURING HYPNOSIS AS OPPOSED TO THE WAKING STATE. (SPANISH + GERMAN SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Schneck, Jerome M. (1967). Hypnotherapy for symptoms associated with cataract. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 54-56. HYPNOTHERAPY WAS USED TO ALLEVIATE SYMPTOMS IN A PATIENT WITH CATARACT. THEY INCLUDED FEELINGS OF ANXIETY, EYE TENSION, BLURRING OF VISION, AND SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS. HYPNOTHERAPY CAN ASSIST THE DIFFERENTIATION OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL BASIS OF A VARIETY OF SYMPTOMS BUT CARE IS REQUIRED TO AVOID MASKING UNDERLYING STRUCTURAL PATHOLOGY. (GERMAN + SPANISH SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1965 Jackson, Bill (1965). The autoblink: A technique to explore nonveridical visual perception. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (4), 250-260. The Autoblink technique was developed to allow objective, quantitative investigation of perceptual abnormalities found in psychiatric and normal populations under various experimental conditions. A pilot study demonstrated that spontaneous visual percepts could be elicited by this technique in a group of psychiatric patients and that wide individual differences were present. A 2nd study found significant differences in Autoblink rate between normal and hallucinating psychotic male Ss and also suggested that sensory deprivation and prestige suggestion are variables related to Autoblink rate. A 3rd study further explored differences between psychiatric patients and normal Ss as well as examining sex differences. The latter 2 studies are reported in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) FACTOR ANALYS 1993 Woody, Erik Z. (1993, October). Factors, facets, and fiddle-faddle. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington Heights, IL. NOTES The classic suggestion effect implies involuntary behavior. A theory by Norman & Tim Shallice (published in a book on cognitive neuropsychology by Shallice) explains the classic suggestion effect in terms of underlying control processes. There are 2 complementary systems: 1. contention scheduling (routine acts that don't require conscious control, activating schemas through environmental events and other schemas) for well learned habitual tasks. 2. supervisory attentional system - nonroutine actions in centralized processes, accessing unique information, operating only indirectly by modulating lower level control system, biasing their selection of schemas by system #1. These two systems permit the sense of behavior being automatic or willed. The theory can be used to explain hypnotic nonvolition. For highs, hypnosis may partly disable System #2, dissociating lower levels of control and resulting in genuine changes in behavior because System #1 would be more enabled, triggered directly by co-active schemas and environmental stimuli. This increased dependence on a lower level of control would not rule out a wide range of behavior. It's mainly novel or very complex behaviors that would diminish, plus exercise of will. The model also illuminates our understanding of behavioral rigidity and the tendency for thought/action to be triggered by [suggestions?]. Spontaneous voluntary behavior would be diminished. (See for example Orne's studies of the effect of apparent power outage during an experiment, in which high hypnotizable Ss did not move or leave the room but sat passively, whereas low hypnotizable simulating Ss simply got up and left.) Also a weaker "supervisor" would lead to disinhibition of inappropriate or peculiar associations or behavior. In labs one sees few such triggers, although Hilgard observed drug flashbacks. The phenomena of hypnosis sequelae appear like a disinhibition of experiences. Hypnotic analgesia follows this model too, an automatic and controlled processing of perceptual input. Amnesia that follows hypnosis can be explained by this theory. Shallice has a model of how memory is affected: memory is a higher control system, enabling the handling of non-routine situations. Confronted by a nonroutine memory problem, the supervisory system formulates a model of what [the information] should look like, pulls out memories, and compares the model. If hypnosis interferes with the supervisor function it should interfere with memory (the description and verification phases) leading to [hypnotic amnesia?]. [With hypnosis one would predict]: 1. Poor access to memories requiring description (not overlearned material). Recall should demonstrate good cued memory but poor free recall. [It has been observed that] hypnotic amnesia selectively impairs free recall rather than recognition recall. 2. Hypnotized Ss should show poorer verification (the ability to discriminate irrelevant from correct associations). Many studies have shown this, with impoverished verification (e.g. the "discovery" of elaborate previous lives). A dissociated control theory of hypnosis is thus possible, emphasizing a loss of control of supervisory system processes. It would implicate changes in frontal lobe processing. The essence of hypnosis, according to this approach, is the bypassing of executive control, and the frontal lobe is viewed as a center of executive control. There are several ways that hypnosis suggests inhibition of frontal lobe functioning: 1. impoverishment of self initiated behavior 2. other-directedness 3. frontal amnesia (unable to distinguish true memories from irrelevant memories; prone to confabulation, especially when probed with false information) 4. poorer in temporal or sequential organization in memory. How do we proceed to make this theoretical approach useful? We should do more neuropsychological studies, as Helen Crawford does. They emphasize the inhibition of frontal lobe functions. Testable hypotheses arise: 1. Hypnotizable Ss should show the same kind of problem solving problems as frontal lobe patients. 2. Memory of hypnotized Ss should be like patients with frontal amnesia. 1992 Balthazard, Claude G.; Woody, Erik Z. (1992). The spectral analysis of hypnotic performance with respect to 'Absorption'. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40, 21-43.