Authors discuss three fantasy styles: 1. Positive constructive daydreaming 2. Guilt / fear of failure 3. Poor attentional control. Fantasy style has been related to many personality variables, usually based on questionnaires.
They examined subjects in hypnosis and waking states using hypnotic dreams, Short Imaginal Processes Inventory, Tellegen Absorption, Betts QMI Imagery Vividness, Hypnosis (HGSHS and suggested dream) involvement, Wilson and Barber ICI, Nonvoluntary experience, Fantasy Proneness, Content of fantasies.
137 student volunteers participated in the study. 82 had HGSHS-A and hypnotic dream, and gave involuntariness ratings. Ss self-rated pleasant and unpleasant for hypnotic dreams. Experimenter rated dream for 1) positive emotion, 2) negative emotion, and 3) anxiety. Correlations were significant for female Ss, but not for male Ss.
RESULTS. Fantasy-style, at least of negative affect, was consistent for waking and hypnotic states. Positive constructive fantasy correlated to HGSHS but the other two fantasy styles did not. [Other results reported are not included in this brief summary.]

Crawford, Helen J. (1982). Hypnotizability, daydreaming styles, imagery vividness, and absorption: A multidimensional study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42 (5), 915-926.

In 25 male and 31 female university student and staff volunteers, the interrelationships between the following measures were studied: hypnotic susceptibility (SHSS:A and C), imagery vividness (VVIQ), involvement in everyday activities (TAS), and daydreaming styles (28 scales of Singer & Antrobus’s Imaginal Processes Inventory). Factor analysis produced a factor characterized as a positively vivid and absorptive imagination style. Hypnotic susceptibility, VVIQ, TAS, and positive-affect daydreaming styles all loaded on this factor. Two other factors were a dysphoric daydreaming style and a lack-of-attentional-control style. Stepwise multiple regressions suggested that males and females, at least within this sample, exhibit different relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and predictor variables. Similar differences were found for the VVIQ and the TAS and their daydreaming-scale predictor variables.

Singer, Jerome L.; Pope, Kenneth S. (1981). Daydreaming and imagery skills as predisposing capacities for self-hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (3), 271-281.

A growing body of empirical literature suggests that daydreaming and related forms of waking reverie are natural-occurring, common experiences in normal individuals. Specific experiments relating daydreaming and the stream of ongoing thought as an alternative source of stimulation to external cues are described. It is proposed that everyday waking consciousness has many features of internal absorption in imagery and adaptive but non-sequential processes that resemble fantasy, hypnosis, and night dreaming. Experiments linking daydreaming, imagery vividness, and hypnosis are cited as suggesting that individuals may develop capacities for control over the stream of thought and that such capacities are closely similar to the skills needed for self-hypnosis.

Barrett, Deirdre (1979). The hypnotic dream: Its relation to nocturnal dreams and waking fantasies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (5), 584-591.

A review of the literature in the area of hypnotic dreams suggests that physiological correlates of hypnotic dreams are better established than content characteristics. A study is also reported that examined the content of hypnotic dreams in relation to that of nocturnal dreams and daydreams from the same subjects. Subjects were 16 undergraduates divided into deep-trance and medium-trance groups. Deep trance subjects hypnotic dreams were similar to their nocturnal dreams and different from daydreams on a wide variety of characteristics including length, emotional themes, characters, setting, and amount of distortion. Medium trance subjects’ hypnotic dreams were found to fall between their nocturnal dreams and daydreams on most of these measures.

Sutcliffe, J. P.; Perry, Campbell; Sheehan, Peter W. (1970). The relation of some aspects of imagery and fantasy to hypnotizability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, 279-287.

Studied relations between hypnotic susceptibility and some aspects of imagery and fantasy in a normal population of 95 undergraduates. Vividness of imagery was assessed by a reliable questionnaire adapted from procedures 1st devised by G. H. Betts; dreams were collected by a diary method which studied the incidence of distortion in dream content; and hypnotizability was assessed by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility scale (Form C), a standardized scale devised by the authors, and a rating procedure based on both scales. Results show a positive, curvilinear relationship between vividness of imagery and hypnotic susceptibility, but no significant relationship for fantasy. Evidence suggests that both imagery and fantasy, considered conjointly, lead to a more accurate prediction of deep susceptibility than the imagery variable alone. (34 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Nowlis, D. P. (1969). The child-rearing antecedents of hypnotic susceptibility and of naturally occurring hypnotic-like experience. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 109-120.

Data pertaining to early and mid-childhood socialization experiences available from a sample of children and their mothers as studied earlier by R. R. Sears, E. E. Maccoby, H. Levin, and others were related to hypnotizability scores and scores of susceptibility to naturally occurring hypnotic-like experiences for a part of the same sample when the children reached late adolescence. As hypothesized by J. R. Hilgard and E. R. Hilgard (see 37:3) after retrospective interviewing with college-age hypnotic Ss, the present study, using a longitudinal method of investigation, indicated some relationship between firm parental discipline in childhood and subsequent susceptibility to hypnosis and hypnotic-like experiences in adolescence. Correlations, however, were low and the overall yield of significant data was judged to be meager. This was particularly true of hypnotizability scores in relation to the other variables available for analysis. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Neveu gives the name ‘Induction’to his own development of the techniques of Bernheim, which he regards as a more comprehensive system than classic hypnosis and as primarily an interpersonal communication with ensuing mobilization of the patient’s abilities to modify affective and other psychosomatic aspects of his condition. Neveu uses the method on hospitalized patients as treatment and research, citing its advantages over psychoanalysis, narcoanalysis, and other therapies which have many limitations. (E.M.E.)

Rosen, Harold (1953). Hypnodiagnostic and hypnotherapeutic fantasy—evocation and acting-out techniques. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (1), 54-66.

Developed techniques to reach patients who have little motivation for psychotherapy, sometimes hypnotizing them without their knowledge or conscious consent. “By still other techniques, symptom-formation was then blocked and the inevitable, resultant anxiety reaction repressed, so that underlying fantasies could erupt into conscious awareness even to the point of being acted out” (p. 65). By these means he determined the neurotic of psychotic functions being served by the patient’s physical symptoms. The hypnotic interpersonal relationship is “a fantasy-evoking one in which the patient, on the basis of his own experiential background and with more ready access to his pre-conscious, thinks, feels, experiences, reacts and even acts-out exactly as he believes the hypnotist wishes him to, projecting his own impulses, desires and fantasies to the therapist” (p. 66).


GOW, MICHAEL (2002). Treating dental needle phobia using hypnosis. [Paper] Presented at IFDAS/SAAD 10th International Dental Congress on Modern Pain Control, Edinburgh, June 2003, also at BSMDH (Scot) meeting December 2003.

This case illustrates the effectiveness of short-term hypnosis treatment for a dental needle phobia. What is significant is the dental history of the patient and the longstanding effect of her dental phobias and how quickly hypnosis was able to remove this problem.
Aim: To manage dental needle phobia using hypnosis integrated into an anxiety management treatment plan.”
Case History: Female, 48, had traumatic and painful experience at the dentist when 5, developed phobia of dental injections and treatment. Has had a dozen General Anaesthetics for dental treatment. Experiences psychosomatic pain prior to treatment.
Methods: Medical, dental and phobia history explored. Pre-treatment questionnaire assessed dental anxiety, reasons for anxiety, and ascertained management options. Post-treatment questionnaire assessed changes in dental anxiety and attitudes.
Anxiety management techniques: Needle Desensitisation, Relaxation, and Hypnosis (Regression, Progressive Muscular Relaxation, Glove Anaesthesia, Future Rehearsal etc.).
Results: Pre-treatment questionnaire revealed high level anxiety (26 out of high of 30 modified Corah score; and high anticipation of future pain during dental treatment (10 out of high of 10 on a Visual Analogue Scale. Post-treatment questionnaire revealed low level anxiety (12/30) and low anticipation of future pain (4/10).
Conclusion: Hypnosis was an effective adjunct to anxiety management in this case, demonstrating how a non pharmacological approach can find long term solutions by addressing the causes of the anxiety. Previous pharmacological approach had only addressed the symptoms of the immediate anxiety. Successful completion of prescribed dental treatment plan and changes in patient?s attitudes highlight positive outcome.

Capafons, A. (1999). Applications of emotional self-regulation therapy. In Kirsch, I.; Capafons, A.; Cardeqa, E.; Amigs, S. (Ed.), Clinical hypnosis and self-regulation: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 331-349). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
This chapter reviews the main applications of emotional self-regulation therapy, which have received empirical support: smoking reduction, obesity, fear of flying, drug addictions, and premenstrual distress and dysmenorrhea. The logic of each treatment and main empirical results are summarized.

Brown, Gail W.; Riddell, Rodney; Summers, David; Coffman, Brent (1994, August). Use of hypnosis by practitioners in the school setting. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

Hypnosis is a therapeutic procedure that is appropriate for some school-age clients. Through the use of hypnosis that utilizes metaphors and imagery, children can be empowered to find unique solutions to their problems. Children enjoy the feeling of power and mastery that they have when able to perform hypnotic phenomena. They like to play magic and can be told that a finger or other body part will become numb. Because a major goal of hypnotherapy is to teach a child to be an active participant in his or her own behalf, the focus is on creating solutions and mastering the situation rather than enduring the problems. Four case studies demonstrate the utility of hypnosis in the treatment of phantom pain and nausea, sleep terror disorder, school phobia, and spider phobia. In each case, treatment goals were realized. Because the solutions were self- generated, the behavioral changes maintained over time and situation.
Case #1: Hypnosis was used to help alleviate phantom limb pain and nausea during chemotherapy following amputation of the right leg at the knee due to cancer in a thirteen- year-old male. The client had indicated that he loved nature and enjoyed the mountains. The metaphor described a young tree that has just begun to grow small silvery leaves. The spring floods tear the limbs and branches from the stump. The deep roots and stump of the tree are all that remain. The tree is not the same as before the flood. Its roots are stronger, its base more sturdy compared to the branches and limbs. The young tree has withstood the catastrophe of the torrent of waters and is even stronger than before. To counter the nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy a switch mechanism metaphor was used. The client was adroit with computers and had no difficulty picturing a switch located in his brain which could “turn off” the nausea from chemotherapy. A room contained all the unpleasant feelings that were being experienced. In this room is a light of a particular color that represents all the unpleasant sensations. Press the key on the computer that controls the switch to turn off the colored light in that room. Suggestions for healing were also given. Your body has known for years how to heal. Visualize the battle between good and bad cells and the victory of the good cells.
Case #2: Hypnosis was used to alleviate sleep terror disorder in a ten-year-old female. The onset of the subject’s parasomnic symptomatology appeared to coincide with her starting kindergarten and her family’s relocation shortly before. The initial treatment consisted of progressive relaxation, deep breathing, and the visual image of her “secret safe place.” An induction utilizing a variety of images was presented. Hiking barefoot on a cool moss covered mountain trial, sitting in a an alpine meadow on a warm summer afternoon, and flying proved most effective in facilitating trance. The participant was told to “Visualize all your anxiety and tension as hard grey rocks. Pick up these rocks and place them in your pockets. Go to the front porch of your “secret safe place and on the porch is a “magic hefty bag.” Place your hard grey rocks that contain all your anxiety and tension in the magic bag. Once in the bag, the rocks will no longer weight you down, you will be free of any feelings of stress or tension. Your bed is magic; it is covered with a special glue which will keep you in a reclining position until you are fully rested and ready to awaken.”
Case #3: Hypnosis was used in the treatment of school phobia in a nine-year-old male. The student experienced intense anxiety whenever separation from the primary caretaker occurred. The teacher stated that this boy experienced frequent absences and crying spells that were only relieved by phone calls to his mother or the presence of his mother next to him in class. In preparation for the intervention, the student was asked to draw a picture of how he felt inside during a panic attack. He drew a fire. He also said that only his mother could put that fire out. This information was utilized in creating a metaphor that described a house in a small town. “The mother had left, and a young boy was left alone. While at home, the boy looked out the window and saw several boys trying to burn a neighbor’s yard! Acting quickly, he called the fire department, grabbed the fire extinguisher and unraveled the garden hose. He was able to extinguish the fire. The neighbors and friends were very happy and praised the boy’s performance. When his mother heard the good news, she quickly returned home and held a celebration in his honor.” Following the metaphor, hypnotherapy continued with suggestions about fire extinguishers that the subject could use to put out emotional fires.
Case #4: Hypnosis was used in the treatment of spider phobia. Diagnosis of phobia was made in this eleven-year-old female when the fear or avoidance behavior was distressing. The child’s strained facial expressions occurred even at the thought of seeing what she described as “a creepy, crawly creature with 8 legs.” Preparatory to her first induction the participant was read the story of Charlotte’s Web (White, 1980) to facilitate the imagery for future hypnotic work. In the following session systematic desensitization was accomplished using characters from the story of Charlotte’s Web. During the third session the subject was age regressed to the first time she remembered seeing a spider. She recalled playing in the woods outside her family home on an island and seeing a large web stretched between two trees with a very large spider in the center of its web. She was then asked to remain at that place to look closely at that spider as it was most likely Charlotte or one of Charlotte’s family. Upon closer investigation she saw not only Charlotte but “teeny-tiny babies.” The event was reconstructed as a happy experience. The imagery provided by Charlotte’s Web permitted the subject to fantasize her previous frightful experience and reframe spiders as cute little “teeny-tiny” babies with admirable human qualities.

Wormnes, Bjorn (1994, October). Hypnosis in integrated treatment of dental fear. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Francisco.

Research reports from different countries estimate the proportion of adult dental phobic patients to be between 5% to 10%. It represents a large health problem. Helping patients to continue regular treatment by their local dentist and experience it as tolerable is the main treatment goal in our program. The main treatment method is a flexible and integrated exposure training. The psychotherapist works in cotherapy with the dentist. Using hypnosis in the dental chair is of great help, and patients are normally found to be very susceptible and easily hypnotized. Hypnosis helps the patient to experience increased tolerance of treatment and also to perform better than expected in the treatment situation.

Kohen, Daniel P.; Mahowald, Mark W.; Rosen, Gerald M. (1992). Sleep terror disorder in children: The role of self hypnosis in management. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 34, 233-244.

This paper describes four children, ages 8 to 12 years, with frequent, prolonged, or dangerous disorders of arousal. None had any significant psychological or behavioral problems. Each had a polysomnogram that showed sudden arousals out of slow-wave sleep associated with complex behavior. All responded to a short course of imipramine, 20 to 60 mg at bedtime, followed by and in conjunction with training in relaxation and mental imagery (self-hypnosis). Once the correct diagnosis was made, the treatment strategy was to (1) demystify the symptom complex through education, (2) establish prompt control of the symptoms with the use of imipramine, (3) train the children in self-regulation with self-hypnosis, and (4) discontinue the medication while maintaining control of the arousals. Over a 2-3 year follow-up all children remain asymptomatic. This is the first report of successful use of self-hypnosis for the treatment of polysomnogram- proven disorders of arousal in the pediatric population. Also reported are seven additional children who were treated equally successfully with hypnosis without the use of medication.

Kleinhauz, Moris; Eli, I. (1991). Hypnotic induction in dentistry: Coping with the fear of losing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39 (3), 125-128.

A common cause of stress among dental patients is the patient’s fear of losing control in face of the “helplessness provoking” dental situation. Although hypno-relaxation and hypnosis serve as efficient tools to aid in the administration of dental treatment to such patients, some of them may view hypnosis as a further relinquishing of control to the hypnotist and thus resist hypnotic induction, despite their willingness to try to use hypnosis for therapeutic reasons. To avoid this resistance, a “self-control” induction method is suggested that enables the patient to remain in control throughout the process. This technique minimizes the threat of losing one’s autonomy and thus enables treatment of these patients.
Reiss, Steven (1991). Expectancy model of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153.
The purposes of this article are to summarize the author’s expectancy model of fear, review the recent studies evaluating this model, and suggest directions for future research. Reiss’ expectancy model holds that there are three fundamental fears (called sensitivities): the fear of injury, the fear of anxiety, and the fear of negative evaluation. Thus far, research on this model has focused on the fear of anxiety (anxiety sensitivity). The major research findings are as follows: simple phobias sometimes are motivated by expectations of panic attacks; the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) is a valid and unique measure of individual differences in the fear of anxiety sensations; the ASI is superior to measures of trait anxiety in the assessment of panic disorder; anxiety sensitivity is associated with agoraphobia, simple phobia, panic disorder, and substance abuse; and anxiety sensitivity is strongly associated with fearfulness. There is some preliminary support for the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for panic disorder. It is suggested that future researchers evaluate the hypotheses that anxiety and fear are distinct phenomena; that panic attacks are intense states of fear (not intense states of anxiety); and that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for both fearfulness and panic disorder.

Russell, Christine; Davey, Graham C. (1991). The effects of false response feedback on human ‘fear’ conditioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29 (2), 191-196.

Describes a human electrodermal conditioning experiment in which 28 students (aged 19-30 yrs) were given false skin conductance feedback during conditioned stimulus/stimuli (CS) presentation. In comparison with attentional control groups, Ss who believed they were exhibiting a strong conditioned response (CR) did actually emit a greater magnitude CR, while Ss who believed they were exhibiting a weak CR emitted a lower magnitude CR. When both self-report and behavioral measures of unconditioned stimulus/stimuli (UCS) evaluation were taken after conditioning, response feedback (RFB) had not differentially affected Ss’ evaluation of the aversiveness of the UCS. The response modulating effects of RFB may not be caused by RFB influencing evaluation of the UCS, but they are consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs about the nature of RFB influence the strength of the UCS representation itself.

Terr, Lenore C. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 10-20.

Suggests 4 characteristics common to most cases of childhood trauma: visualized or otherwise repeatedly perceived memories of the traumatic event; repetitive behaviors; trauma-specific fears; and changed attitudes about people, life, and the future. Childhood trauma is divided into 2 basic types. Type I trauma includes full, detailed memories, “omens,” and misperceptions while Type II trauma includes denial and numbing, self-hypnosis and dissociation, and rage. Characteristics of both types of childhood trauma can exist side by side. Such crossover Type I – Type II traumatic conditions of childhood are characterized by perceptual mourning and depression and childhood disfigurement, disability, and pain. Case examples are provided.

Zachariae, Robert; Bjerring, P.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, T.; Gotliebsen, K. (1991). The effect of hypnotically induced emotional states on brain potentials by painful argon laser stimulation. Clinical Journal of Pain, 7, 130-138.

The relationship between pain perception and emotional states is well known. However, the nature of this relationship and how different emotional states affect sensory and cognitive dimensions of pain remains uncertain. Results from experimental investigations are often contradictory, which may be due to methodological difficulties in inducing pain and monitoring physiological responses. In addition, most studies have focused on a single emotion, and data on the relative effects of different emotional states are lacking. In the present study we attempted to eliminate some of these methodological problems. Laser evoked potentials were used as a quantitative correlate to pain perception and were measured in 12 highly hypnotically susceptible subjects during seven conditions: (a) a prehypnotic baseline condition; (b) a neutral hypnotic control condition; (c-e) hypnotically recalled anger, fear, and depression in randomized order; (f) a hypnotically recalled happy condition, and (g) a posthypnotic awake control condition. The pain evoked potentials were significantly decreased in the angry condition and significantly increased in the depressed condition compared with baseline. No differences could be detected for either the happy or the fear-related condition compared with the baseline or neutral hypnotic condition. A significant positive correlation between the subjective intensity of depression and the increase in evoked potentials was found, but none for the other three emotions. The results support earlier findings that clinical depression is related to increased pain perception, and findings that the expression of anger can inhibit the experience of pain. The lack of changes in pain-related potentials during the neutral and happy condition may indicate that effects of psychological interventions such as hypnotic analgesia may be due to specific cognitive processes rather than a relaxed or pleasant state in itself.

Hypnosis was used as an experimental condition because the recall of emotion may be more intense and vivid than in nonhypnotized conditions. Pulse was measured as an indicator of arousal. Subjects (9 women, 3 men) scored at least 10 or 11 on the Danish version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Each S was interviewed to determine early life experiences associated with the emotions under study, and the Experimenter noted key words regarding the emotion-arousing situation (time, place, persons involved) to assist in evoking the emotional state.
Pain was evoked with laser stimulus (100 ms) in a 1 x 3 cm. target area, avoiding repeated stimulation at identical points within the area. Pain threshold (prehypnotic) was defined as ‘a distinct sharp pin prick without any burning aftersensation.’ During the baseline and experimental conditions, evoked potentials were elicited using a stimulus 1.5 times threshold.
Following a standardized 15 minute hypnotic induction, the four emotional states were induced (randomized across Subjects). Each emotion was the focus for 10 minutes, and evoked potentials were recorded during the last five minutes of each. Subjects were instructed to relax and clear their minds of images or emotions in between each emotion condition. No suggestions were given regarding pain or pain perception.
After the hypnosis conditions, Subjects were asked to rate the intensity of each emotion on an analogue scale, and to rate their experience of pain on an analogue scale. (As it turned out, most of the Subjects were not able to recall the intensity of pain during all four emotional states.)
The size of the evoked potentials to painful stimuli increased during depression 35.8% over prehypnosis baseline, but decreased during anger 46.8% below prehypnosis baseline. The difference between prehypnosis baseline and neutral hypnosis was not significant statistically. Also, the differences between the happy condition, the fearful condition, or the posthypnotic condition, and prehypnosis were not significantly different. Pulse increased 6.5% over baseline during anger, decreased 4.1% under baseline in depression, and evidenced no difference from baseline for the other two emotions.
“A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation (r = +.60) was found between the subjective intensity of the depressed emotional state as measured on the visual analogue scale and the increase in power of the evoked potentials in the depressed condition compared to the prehypnotic baseline condition. There was a small (r = +0.35) nonsignificant positive correlation between the subjective intensity of fear and the increase in power of the evoked potentials in this emotional state compared with baseline. No correlations between the increase in evoked potentials and the condition of happiness (r = +0.05) and the condition of anger (r = -0.07) could be detected. ... There was a positive correlation between the subjective intensity of happiness and anger (r = +0.70, p <0.02). A positive correlation (r = +0.56, p <0.05) between the intensity of happiness and the intensity of depression was found. No other correlations between intensity ratings reached significance level" (p. 134). In their Discussion, the authors present the possibility that the differences in evoked potentials observed between different emotional states might be due to differences in attention/distraction, or differences in arousal/inhibition. They reject the attention/distraction hypothesis because evoked potentials increase more in the depression state than in the anger state, though anger was more intense than depression. "There are, however, several findings that point toward support for a hypothesis that specific affects, and not attention in itself, may account for the opposite changes in evoked potentials. ... Subjects rated fear as even more intense (87.5%) than anger, but with no similar effects on evoked potentials. ... We also found a significant positive correlation between increase in evoked potentials and intensity of experienced depression; a finding opposite of what could be expected from an attention/distraction hypothesis. "A simple attention/distraction hypothesis, therefore, cannot explain the opposite directions of evoked potentials in the two emotional states. ... "The differences in pain evoked potentials therefore could be hypothesized to be more related to mechanisms of arousal and inhibition than attention in itself. ... "Modulation of pain evoked potentials is most likely not due to the state of hypnosis in itself, but to the specific suggestions given under hypnosis, which may be the reason that previous studies of hypnotic modulation of event-related potentials have been inconsistent.... One must be careful not to assume a direct relationship between pain and evoked potentials. ... "Based on earlier findings (6-10) one could have hypothesized that an increase in pain perception would be found during the condition of hypnotically induced fear. However our results did not show any significant difference in pain evoked potentials when the emotion of fear was induced. This may be due to the fact that the fear or anxiety did not relate to the painful stimulus in itself, but involved an earlier experienced anxiety or a phobic fear (i.e., of snakes or flying). ... "Although the state of hypnosis itself does not seem to affect sensory pain perception, the hypnotic state might facilitate the effect of specific suggestions given under hypnosis by affecting cognitive processing. Chapman (44) has suggested that hypnotic analgesia is due to the control of the figure-ground transitions associated with the experience of pain. Likewise, different emotional states may affect figure-ground transitions differently. Whereas outwardly directed anger might prevent inner sensations of pain from emerging as figure, the emotion of depression and helplessness might force the surroundings in the background, letting inner sensations emerge as figure" (pp. 136- 137). 1989 Samsom, Deborah; Rachman, S. (1989). The effect of induced mood on fear reduction. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28 (3), 227-238. I ivestigated the effect on fear reduction in a laboratory study of fearful people. A musical mood-induction technique was utilized to induce either a happy mood or a sad mood in 84 female undergraduates who were fearful of spiders or snakes. Following the mood induction, Ss' fears were reduced by participant modeling. Measures of subjective fear and self-efficacy were taken before and after mood induction, after modeling, and 4 weeks later. Compared to the induced sad-mood condition, induced happiness was followed by a decrease in subjective fear and greater self-efficacy. No difference was found in the length of time taken to reduce fear for happy and sad Ss. Fear reduction during a sad mood was associated with greater return of fear than fear reduction during a happy mood. Van den Bergh, Omer; Eelen, Paul; Baeyens, Frank (1989). Brief exposure to fear stimuli: Imagery ability as a condition of fear enhancement and fear decrease. Behavior Therapy, 20, 563-572. Examined fear enhancement and fear decrease during brief exposure to fear stimuli. 140 good and poor imagery Subjects (aged 14-18 years) with medium fear levels toward spiders were exposed to a live spider, either by looking at it or by thinking of an invisible, but present spider during either 60, 180, or 360 sec. Control Subjects were given a distraction task. Subjective fear and behavioral approach were measured. Brief exposure hindered fear decrease compared to the control condition. Good imagers showed more fear decrease and were less affected by the mode of exposure. Fear enhancement occurred only in poor imagers at the longer exposure duration (360 sec) during thinking. In that condition, good imagers showed their greatest fear decrease. 1986 Belicki, Kathryn; Belicki, Denis (1986). Predisposition for nightmares: A study of hypnotic ability, vividness of imagery, and absorption. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42 (5), 714-718. The relationships of nightmare frequency to hypnotic ability, vividness of visual imagery, and the tendency to become absorbed in fantasy-like experiences were examined. Subjects were 841 undergraduate university students who participated in group tests of hypnotic ability, after which they estimated the number of nightmares that they had experienced in the prior year. In addition, 406 of the subjects completed Marks' Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Rotenberg and Bowers' Absorption scale. Of the subjects, 76% reported experiencing at least one nightmare in the prior year; 8.3% indicated one or more per month. Individuals with frequent nightmares scored higher on hypnotizability, vividness of visual imagery, and absorption. 1981 Epstein, S. J.; Deyoub, P. L. (1981). Hypnotherapy for fear of choking: Treatment implications of a case report. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (2), 117-127. An eclectic hypnotherapeutic approach consistent with Sacerdote's treatment model was utilized for overcoming the swallowing difficulty of an adult male. Traumatic onset followed an active fellatio experience. Cognitive restructuring preceded symptomatic improvement, and the client was nearly asymptomatic after 56 sessions. Further improvement was evidenced posttherapy on a 3-year follow-up study. The process of change is emphasized, highlighting the broader case management implications of this single case study. Clinical observations are supplemented with psychological test data, providing a richer framework for understanding client and therapy process. Wilson, John F. (1981). Behavioral preparation for surgery: Benefit or harm?. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 79-102. Elective surgery patients were prepared for surgery with training in muscle relaxation or with information about sensations they would experience. Relaxation reduced hospital stay, pain, and medication for pain and increased strength, energy, and postoperative epinephrine levels. Information reduced hospital stay. Personality variables (denial, fear, aggressiveness) were associated with recovery and influenced patients' responses to preparation. Less frightened patients benefitted more from relaxation than did very frightened patients. Nonaggressive patients reacted to information with decreased hospital stay along with increased pain, medication, and epinephrine. Aggressive patients responded to information with decreased hospital stay along with decreased pain, medication, and epinephrine. Patients using denial were not harmed by preparation. A catharsis/moderation model is proposed to explain how information benefits patients. An active coping model is proposed to explain the benefits of relaxation. This study suggests that behavioral preparation benefits even frightened, aggressive, or denying elective surgical patients. 1978 Weerts, Theodore C.; Lang, Peter J. (1978). Psychophysiology of fear imagery: Differences between focal phobia and social performance anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 1157-1159. Spider phobics and speech anxious subjects imaged fear scenes with spider and public-speaking content and a series of standard scenes that were constructed to vary in degree of emotional arousal and movement. Heart rate, skin conductance, and ocular activity were recorded. Spider phobics rated all imagery contents as more vivid and reported more scene movement than speech anxious subjects. Both groups responded to their own fear scenes with higher ratings of emotion and a greater physiological response than to the other group's fear scenes. The arousal response of spider phobics to relevant fear scenes was greater than that of speech anxious subjects. The data suggest that the outcome of imagery-based therapies may be partly determined by type of fear. 1974 Bloom, Richard F. (1974). Validation of suggestion-induced stress. NOTES Technical Memorandum 23-74 (October 1974), US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005, AMCMS Code 5910.21.68629, Contract No. DAAD05-73-C-0243, Dunlap and Associates, Inc. (now Stamford, CT), AD002557. Sixty college men, divided into three equal groups, each attended two induced stress sessions in which their physiological, psychological and performance reactions were measured. Their responses were compared to determine if valid stress reactions could be induced through suggestion in an altered state (in this case, hypnosis), and also to determine the validity of such reactions if the subject had never before experienced that stress situation. It was demonstrated that valid stress reactions can be induced in an individual with the aid of suggestions, especially if the real stress situation has been experienced before. If no previous experience with that real situation exists, the subject still exhibits stressful reactions; however, the closest resemblance to real stress is found in the subjective or psychological measures, less similarity is found in the physiological measures, and the least similarity is found in the performance measures. 1973 Crystal, Thomas H.; Gish, Herbert; Bloom, Richard F. (1973, June). Psychophysiological factors affecting speaker authentication and identification. (See Notes field for additional reference information and information about ordering.) NOTES Research and Development Technical Report ECOM-0161-F; AD-913 696L; Contract DAAB07-71-C-0161 with Signatron, Inc. (Lexington, MA). Distribution limited to U.S. Government agencies only; Other requests for this document must be referred to Commanding General, U.S. Army Electronics Command, ATTN: AMSEL-PP-CM-CR4, Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703. NOTES 2: This document reports on a U.S. Army research project using hypnosis to collect high fidelity samples of the voice under "combat stress" conditions in the laboratory. Using hypnotic regression, combat veterans "re-experienced" their own, actual high stress combat situations. Besides subjective reports of stress levels by subjects, physiological stress measures were obtained from polygraph recordings of heart, respiration and GSR activity. The voice samples were later analyzed by spectrographic techniques to determine which factors remain invariant to identify and authenticate the speaker in a military communications situation. Hypnotic techniques were shown to be useful in establishing controlled emotional states for laboratory research purposes. (Richard Bloom) McReynolds, William T.; Barnes, AllanR.; Brooks, Samuel; Rehagen, Nicholas (1973). The role of attention-placebo influences in the efficacy of systematic desensitization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41 (1), 86-92. Systematic desensitization was compared with two attention- placebo control treatments - one taken from Paul and one currently devised as an elaborate, highly impressive "therapeutic" experience - and no treatment. It was hypothesized that (a) fear reductions following desensitization would be no greater than those associated with an equally compelling placebo treatment and (b) fear and control measure changes following the previously used attention-placebo treatment would be less than those following desensitization and the present placebo control manipulations. Both hypotheses were supported, although support for the first was more consistent than for the second. Davis, Daniel; McLemore, Clinton W.; London, Perry (1970). The role of visual imagery in desensitization. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8 (1), 11-13. NOTES Summary: a measure of visual imagery ability was obtained for 33 females who and participated in desensitization therapy for snake phobia. Visual imagery was positively related to pretherapy performance (closeness of approach to a live snake), but not to improvement. On the basis of these results and the results of two other studies, it was hypothesized that the fear of good imagers tends to be based on imagination while that of poor imagers tends to be based on sensory experience. Most psychologists now recognize behavior therapy as effective in alleviating a wide variety of fears, but the nature of the processes underlying the various methods remains an open issue. Imagery has been of particular interest as a possible common denominator among various desensitization techniques. Lazarus (1961), for example, asserts that a "prerequisite for effective application of desensitization is the ability to conjure up reasonably vivid images," and Wolpe (1961) claims, "it is essential for visualizing to be at least moderately clear." London suggests that theoretically opposed treatments such as reciprocal inhibition (Wolpe, 1958) and implosion (Stampfl and Levis, 1967) may both be facilitated by repeated imagery which "produces a discrimination set such that the patient learns to distinguish between the imaginative, cognitive, affective aspects of experience, and the sensory and overt muscular aspects" (1964, p. 130). However, no systematic studies linking visual imagery to desensitization have been reported. This study examined the relationship between visual imagery and success in desensitization therapy. 1961 Cheek, David B. (1961). Value of ideomotor sex-determination technique of LeCron for uncovering subconscious fear in obstetric patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 249-259. (Author''s Summary) "Unrecognized subconscious fears can be uncovered while using ideomotor questioning with a Chevreul pendulum or with finger signals. The technique described by LeCron for evaluating knowledge regarding the sex of an unborn child is a most helpful way of approaching subconscious fears. The frightened patient refuses to indicate knowledge of the sex of her unborn child. Uncovered fears can be resolved by appealing to conscious-level understanding with adroit questioning" (p. 258). FLYING 1999 Capafons, A. (1999). Applications of emotional self-regulation therapy. In Kirsch, I.; Capafons, A.; Cardeqa, E.; Amigs, S. (Ed.), Clinical hypnosis and self-regulation: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 331-349). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. This chapter reviews the main applications of emotional self-regulation therapy, which have received empirical support: smoking reduction, obesity, fear of flying, drug addictions, and premenstrual distress and dysmenorrhea. The logic of each treatment and main empirical results are summarized. 1981 Spiegel, David; Frischholz, Edward J.; Maruffi, Brian; Spiegel, Herbert (1981). Hypnotic responsivity and the treatment of flying phobia. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 239-247. Systematic follow-up data are reported for 178 consecutive flying phobia patients treated with a single 45-minute session involving hypnosis and a problem restructuring strategy. One hundred fifty-eight (89%) of the patients completed follow-up questionnaires between six months and ten and one half years after treatment. Results showed that hypnotizable patients were over two and one half times more likely to report some positive treatment impact than those who were found to be nonhypnotizable on the Hypnotic Induction Profile. In addition, the patients' previous experiences with psychotherapy were found to be significantly associated with treatment outcome. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. FORENSIC 1996 Maestri, D.; Perry, C.; Laurence, J.-R. (1996, August). Children's memory for a special event: Exploring the effects of repeated questioning on recall, suggestibility, and photo lineup identification. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada. Recollections of a visit at the Montreal Olympic Stadium from two groups of children (4.5- and 5.5-year-old) were elicited on four occasions with free recall, direct questions, and misleading questions. Recall was evaluated in terms of correct, incorrect, neutral, repeated, omitted, and attributional responses. To study the possibility of children choosing one type of suggestion more readily than the other, the misleading questions were further evaluated in terms of the type of suggestion implied. A photo lineup recognition task of familiar and unfamiliar faces present during the visit was also included. Children displayed high degrees of acquiescence to the misleading questions and a clear preference for the suggestion that did not involve their own person. In the photo lineup identification task, 21-37 percent (across trials) of the children mistakenly judged familiar and unfamiliar faces as having been present at the event. Results were discussed in a legal context. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall, 1996, Vol. 5, No. 3.) NOTES 1: 8025, Ruehle & Zamansky, 1995 ABSTRACT: Neodissociation theory proposes that hypnotic suggestions are performed relatively automatically, whereas sociocognitive theories suggest that effortful cognitive strategies are necessary. To distinguish between the predictions derived from the two theories, we gave hypnotized subjects the suggestion to forget the number eight, and asked them to solve a series of addition problems using that number. It is a well- established finding in cognitive psychology research that subjective estimations of time depend on the amount of cognitive effort expended during that time. Increases in cognitive effort are associated with decreases in subjective time. Accordingly, if hypnotic subjects carry out a suggestion relatively automatically, they should perceive the time taken as longer than if they carry it out using effortful cognitive strategies. Highly hypnotizable subjects under hypnosis and low hypnotizable subjects instructed to simulate hypnosis were given the suggestion to forget the number eight and to replace it with nine. They were then given a page of addition problems, many of which included eights in the solutions, and were instructed to do the problems as quickly and accurately as possible. They were also informed that they would be asked to estimate the time spent completing the problems. Subjects completed the addition problems and then gave their time estimates. As a control for changes in time estimation brought about simply by being hypnotized, all subjects also completed a series of addition problems without the amnesia suggestion, and again estimated the time. The order of the two conditions (i.e., with and without the amnesia suggestion) was counterbalanced across subjects. Results showed that the simulators, who intentionally avoided the number eight in their solutions to the problems, perceived the time spent doing these problems as shorter than the time spent doing problems normally, without the suggestion to forget the number eight. The increase in cognitive effort therefore resulted in decreased subjective time, as expected. The hypnotized subjects, on the other hand, showed no difference in their time estimations under the two conditions. The two groups did not differ in their time estimates without the amnesia suggestion, but with the suggestion, the hypnotized group perceived the time as longer than did the simulators. The results, then, are consistent with neodissociation theory, since the hypnotized subjects appeared to expend relatively less cognitive effort in carrying out the amnesia suggestion.. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall, 1995, Vol. 4, No. 3.) 1995 Eisen, Mitchell L.; Henn-Haase, Clare (1995, November). Memory and suggestibility for events occurring in and out of hypnosis. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX. NOTES 1: Resistance to misinformation uses two paradigms: 1. Elizabeth Loftus - expose Subject to slides or videotape, give misinformation with leading or misleading questions 2. Martin Orne - pseudomemory, i.e. age regress people in hypnosis and suggest events occurred. Each approach yields mixed results. Misinformation is accepted more readily in context of hypnosis; but there is no relationship to hypnotizability. Spanos found that highs were more responsive to social pressure. In general, in the absence of social pressure, when presented subtly and outside the context of hypnosis, the relationship diminishes. Other factors play a more prominent role: source of information, type of information, salience of information, etc. They examined whether events occurring in context of hypnosis were more prone to distortion when assessed in biased fashion with use of misleading information, than outside hypnosis. Also, form of questions (dichotomous or with 'I don't remember' option). They gave the Harvard and asked afterwards 3 misleading items (e.g. did you clench your fist, when they didn't do it). Also asked them to circle items if they had no memory of it. Tellegen Absorption Scale and Dissociation scale (DES) were administered a week later. Also a week later asked about events that occurred, including confederate items. Half of Ss had 2 choices, half had also 'I don't remember' as a third option. In a previous study, resistance to misleading information was related to the strength of the initial memory and not to hypnotizability (article published in AJCH).