Smith, Julien T. (1994). Hypnosis and distraction in the relief of medical pains in an ethnically diverse population of young children (Dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman). Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, APA, 4 (3), 11.

An ethnically diverse sample of children (N = 36) and their parents volunteered for the study and were trained, with the expectation of equal effects, to use both distraction and imaginative involvement to reduce pain and anxiety. Standardized measures of pain, anxiety and hypnotizability were obtained. Skin conductance response confirmed pain stimulation. Half the subjects used imaginative involvement first and the other half used distraction first. All procedures were video taped. Blind raters judged subjects’ responses and subjects reported pain on a standardized scale. Data were collected at baseline, during two intervention sessions and at follow-up. Supporting Hilgard’s neodissociation theory, hypnotizable subjects significantly reduced both subjective and objective pain and anxiety scores in response to hypnotic imagination involvement in contrast to low hypnotizable Ss. No significant effects were found for the distraction condition. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall, 1995, Vol. 4, No. 3.)

Wickramasekera, Ian (1994, August). Chronic pain, hypnotic ability, and skin conductance levels. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

We did two studies on patients with chronic pain which was of severe or moderate intensity for 6 or more months, and was unresponsive to standard medical management.
We found that sorting patients into high, moderate, and low hypnotizable people, giving them cognitive stress (mental arithmetic), the groups differ. Highs, when not hypnotized, have a dose response relationship to the cognitive stress; they react stronger physiologically and take longer to return to baseline. We also found a relationship between hypnotizability and negative affect. Though their GSR is different, they don’t perceive it (as measured by Subjective Units of Distress, or SUDS). We don’t know what the relationship between these variables is like premorbidly however.
Predicting from High Risk Model. Predisposers [to illness], triggers (stress and hassles), and buffers interact.
There is evidence for a genetic component in hypnotizability, which is one of the predisposers. Male monozygotic twins r = .54 Female monozygotic twins r = .49 Male dizygotic twins r = .24 Female dizygotic twins r = .08 [May not have heard correct figure?]
Highs are at risk for illness because: 1. They can amplify or attenuate signals of threat. 2. They evidence surplus pattern recognition (see meaning in randomly distributed events). 3. They have surplus empathy (poor boundaries).
Lows are at risk for illness because: 1. They deny or attenuate the role of cognitive and emotional events on somatic symptoms. 2. They demonstrate rigidity in information processing.
Hypnotizability and electrodermal activity were studied in our first study. The highs are hypersensitive, like the princess and the pea. We obtained a statistically significant conditions effect (stress vs no stress) and hypnotizability x conditions effect.
We studied people high on both Hypnotizability and Negative Affectivity (a stable trait, with a genetic basis) or Neuroticism. This combination leads to problems. These people will amplify negative events. These two personality variables are orthogonal r = -.12. Tellegen et al, 1988, supports the genetic component. People high on Marlowe-Crowne have lower lifetime report of mental health symptoms. It too is orthogonally related to Hypnotizability.
We studied 138 chronic pain patients. We compared patients high on both hypnotizability and negative emotion to patients who had moderate hypnotizability and low negative affect. Electrodermal response (EDR) is 12.5 vs 3.7; SUDS is 63.5 vs 66.5 (indicating they had no perception of the electrodermal activity). The Lie score (Marlowe Crowne) is 17 vs 13. Patients high on both hypnotizability and negative emotion are more physiologically reactive than patients moderate on hypnotizability and low on neuroticism.
Out of mind (threat) is not out of body. If you give these people an MMPI or the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale you couldn’t tell the difference between them.
The mechanisms we hypothesize can be used to block consciousness [by different means]: 1. High hypnotic ability (12-9) as in hypnotic analgesia 2. Low hypnotic ability (4-0) [Speaker didn’t specify mechanism here.] 3. Repression (Negative emotion = 21 Lie = 67, a low Neuroticism score and high Marlowe Crowne suggest repression).
I focus on a group that is difficult to identify, the “somatacizer,” because there is no identifying pathophysiology or psychopathology. To identify this type of patient we look at negative affect, coping skills, hypnotizability [missed notes on 3 other variables].
See recent paper in the journal _Dissociation_.

Wickramasekera, Ian (1994). Psychophysiological and clinical implications of the coincidence of high hypnotic ability and high neuroticism during threat perception in somatization disorders. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37, 22-33.

The electrodermal response to cognitive threat of unhypnotized female patients with somatic symptoms and high on both hypnotic ability and neuroticism (H-H) was found to be significantly higher (p<.01) than that of a matched group of female patients moderate on hypnotic ability and low on neuroticism (M-L). On verbal report the H-H and the M-L groups did not differ, but they were significantly different on a measure of self-deception (L scale) or repression. The above findings are consistent with predictions from the High Risk Model of Threat Perception (HRMTP), which states that people in the H-H group are both chronically and acutely more reactive to threat than the people in the M-L group. This finding may have important theoretical, clinical, and financial implications for the diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of somatization disorders seen in primary medical care. Wickramasekera, Ian; Pope, Alan T.; Kolm, Paul (1994, August). Chronic pain, hypnotic ability and skin conductance level. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles. The High Risk Model predicts that high hypnotic ability is a risk factor for the development of stress related psychophysiological disorders. It was hypothesized that greater threat perception as measured by skin conductance level (SCL) would be associated with higher levels of hypnotic ability. In a consecutive series of 118 adult patients with chronic pain symptoms, larger increases in SCL during cognitive stress were significantly related to higher levels of hypnotic ability. In addition, high hypnotic ability individuals retained higher SCL than low hypnotic ability individuals after stress. The clinical implications of high hypnotic ability for threat perception and recovery from thereat perception are discussed in terms of cognitive mechanisms in the etiology and therapy of chronic stress related disorders. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall 1994, Vol. 3, No. 3.) 1993 Wickramasekera, Ian (1993, August). Some psychophysiological and clinical implications of the coincidence of hypnotic ability and neuroticism during threat perception. [Paper] Presented at e annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada. The electrodermal response to cognitive threat (mental arithmetic) of unhypnotized female patients with somatic symptoms, high on hypnotic ability and high on neuroticism (high-high) was found to e significantly higher (p .01) than that of a matched group of female patients moderate on hypnotic ability and low on neuroticism (moderate- low). On verbal report or a subjective units of distress scale (SUDs), the high-high and moderate-low groups did not differ, but they were significantly different on a measure of self-deception or repression. The above findings are consistent with predictions from the High Risk Model of threat perception. (ABSTRACT from the Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall, 1993, Vol. 2, No. 3.) 1992 Miller, Scott D.; Triggiano, Patrick J. (1992). The psychophysiological investigation of multiple personality disorder: Review and update. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 35, 47-61. NOTES A review and methodological critique. Updates Putnam, 1984. Currently, psychophysiologic differences reported in the literature include changes in cerebral electrical activity, cerebral blood flow, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, event- related potentials, neuroendocrine profiles, thyroid function, response to medication, perception, visual functioning, visual evoked potentials, and in voice, posture, and motor behavior. Reviews the new research on the psychophysiological investigation of MPD from published, unpublished, and ongoing studies, and attempts to place current findings into a conceptual framework. Authors note results from unpublished and ongoing studies and include a critical analysis of current research methodology as well as suggestions for future research. 1991 Kinnunen, Taru; Zamansky, Harold S.; Block, Martin L. (1991, August). Is the hypnotized subject lying?. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco. To determine whether or not hypnotized subjects misrepresent or lie about their hypnotic experiences, electrodermal skin conductance responses were measured while groups of deeply hypnotized subjects and simulators responded to questions about their experiences to a series of suggestion. 89% of the responses of the hypnotic subjects met the criteria for truthfulness, while 65% of the responses of the simulators indicated deception. Differences between "reals" and simulators were highly significant. The relevance of the results for the nature and theory of hypnosis is discussed. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Provided by former Editor, James Council.) NOTES 1: This article is based on an Award Winning Paper presented at the American Psychological Convention in San Francisco, 1991. Russell, Christine; Davey, Graham C. (1991). The effects of false response feedback on human 'fear' conditioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29 (2), 191-196. Describes a human electrodermal conditioning experiment in which 28 students (aged 19-30 yrs) were given false skin conductance feedback during conditioned stimulus/stimuli (CS) presentation. In comparison with attentional control groups, Ss who believed they were exhibiting a strong conditioned response (CR) did actually emit a greater magnitude CR, while Ss who believed they were exhibiting a weak CR emitted a lower magnitude CR. When both self-report and behavioral measures of unconditioned stimulus/stimuli (UCS) evaluation were taken after conditioning, response feedback (RFB) had not differentially affected Ss' evaluation of the aversiveness of the UCS. The response modulating effects of RFB may not be caused by RFB influencing evaluation of the UCS, but they are consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs about the nature of RFB influence the strength of the UCS representation itself. 1990 Sturgis, Laura M.; Coe, William C. (1990). Physiological responsiveness during hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38, 196-207. Four physiological measures - electromyogram, respiration rate, heart rate, and skin conductance - were recorded for 11 high and 11 low hypnotizability Ss. It was hypothesized (a) that physiological responsiveness during hypnosis would vary depending on the nature of the task instructions, and (b) that high hypnotizability Ss would show more physiological responsiveness than low hypnotizability Ss. The first hypothesis was substantiated across all 4 measures. Only heart rate levels supported the second hypothesis. The results are discussed as they relate to the 1 hypotheses and to future research. Wain, Harold J.; Amen, Daniel G.; Jabbari, Bahmann (1990). The effects of hypnosis on a Parkinsonian tremor: Case report with polygraph/EEG recordings. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 33, 94-98. Although Parkinsonian tremors typically disappear during sleep and are reduced during relaxation periods, the effects of hypnosis on this type of movement disorder have been generally ignored. We observed a patient's severe Parkinsonian tremor under hypnosis and monitored it with EEG and EMG studies. The patient was taught self- hypnosis and performed it three to four times daily in conjunction with taking medication. The results suggest that daily sessions of self-hypnosis can be a useful therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of Parkinsonian tremors. NOTES 1: NOTES The patient scored low on the Hypnotic Induction Profile scale of hypnotizability and was unable to experience any classical hypnotic phenomena, but was motivated to learn self-hypnosis. For self hypnosis he visualized a relaxing scene. Griffiths, M. D.; Gillett, C. A.; Davies, P. (1989). Hypnotic suppression of conditioned electrodermal responses. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 186. NOTES With 5 subjects who had previously been aversively conditioned to a stimulus, during hypnosis previously acquired electrodermal responses were found to be significantly lower than in 12 control Ss. Thus previously conditioned electrodermal responses were suppressed. This contradicts findings of Edmonston (1968) who found that neutral hypnosis does not influence conditioned electrodermal responses and the validity of Pavlov's (1927) conditioning (inhibition) theory of hypnosis. 1988 Davies, Peter (1988). Some considerations of the physiological effects of hypnosis. In Heap, Michael (Ed.), Hypnosis: Current clinical, experimental and forensic practices (pp. 61-67). London: Croom Helm Ltd. NOTES This chapter reviews literature on physiological correlates of hypnosis, but these notes are limited to only one fact reported in the review. The author writes, 'A recently completed, and as yet unpublished study by C. Gillett and H. D. Griffiths at Bradford University investigated the relation between hypnosis and classical conditioning of psychophysiological responses. In a complex design involving both normal conditioning and normal test trials and a repetition of both acquisition and test trials under hypnosis, they found not only suppression of the conditioned response but also suppression of skin conductance responses to the half-second bursts of a 115-dB tone used as the unconditioned stimulus. Not to produce a significant autonomic response to such an intrinsically aversive stimulus is a remarkable feat which is probably outside the repertoire of simulators. However, even such results are not conclusive as the design did not included simulator control groups nor even neutrally instructed non-hypnotized group' (pp. 64-65 ). Gruzelier, John; Allison, James; Conway, Ashley (1988). A psychophysiological differentiation between hypnotic behaviour and simulation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 6, 331-338. Psychophysiological differentiation between conditions of hypnosis and simulation were examined with markers evolved from a series of experiments charting neuropsychophysiological accompaniments of hypnotic behaviour. Eighteen subjects participated in two sessions in which bilateral electrodermal activity was monitored to moderate intensity tones. Measurement in Session I, a Baseline-Control, of individual variation in rates of habituation of orienting responses, non-specific responses and tonic levels of skin conductance, enabled allocation of matched groups to Session II in which the same auditory stimuli were mixed with a taped hypnotic induction. Half the subjects were instructed to fake hypnosis and the others to comply. In session II the groups were differentiated as follows: (1) rate of habituation to the tones was retarded in the simulation condition and facilitated in the hypnosis condition compared with baseline; (2) the incidence of non-specific electrodermal responses was elevated in simulators after instructions to 'fake hypnosis'; (3) right-hand levels of skin conductance were elevated in simulators; (4) all but one subject in the hypnosis condition admitted to hearing the tones whereas all but one in the simulation condition claimed not to have heard them. 1987 Minichiello, William E. (1987). Treatment of hyperhidrosis of amputation site with hypnosis and suggestions involving classical conditioning. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 7-8. Hyperhidrosis of an amputation site utilizing hypnosis and/or behavioral strategies has not been reported in the literature. This case report is on the successful use of hypnosis utilizing principles of classical conditioning in the treatment of a patient with hyperhidrosis of an amputated limb with two previous unsuccessful sympathectomies. The patient possessing moderate hypnotic ability as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS), reported a pre-treatment score of 10 on a 0-10 severity and intensity of sweating scale, and a post-treatment score of 0. All gains were maintained at the two-year follow-up. NOTES The patient was hypnotized while an electric fan was blowing on his stump and prosthesis. Direct suggestions were given according to procedures of thermal biofeedback. The suggestions were: 1. You will notice in days ahead that your stump feels increasingly cooler and drier. 2. You will feel throughout the day as if a cool breeze from a fan is blowing on your stump. 3. Whenever you pay attention to your leg during the day, particularly after the first few hours of the morning, you will associate that leg with a cool dry breeze from a fan blowing on it. 4. You will increasingly develop the power to cool and dry your stump. The results were that 2 1/2 weeks later patient reported reduced frequency and intensity of sweating and significant healing of the stump ulcers; rating = 2. One month later, patient reported continued progress with almost normal skin color and stump condition; the patient discontinued disability, and returned to work. Patient returned one month later reporting, "It's cured and my physician can't believe it." Rating = 0. Author concludes that hypnosis should be tried prior to more invasive traditional procedures. In this case two previous sympathectomies failed to correct the condition and a third sympathectomy was being contemplated. 1986 Pereira, Robert Peter (1986, July). The role of organismic involvement in hypnotic emotional behavior (Dissertation, Wayne State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (1), 385-B. (Order No. DA8605027) Two hundred college undergraduates were pretested via the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A. Fifty subjects scoring in the range 7-12 were designated as Reals, while 25 subjects scoring in the range 0-4 were designated as Simulators. Reals and Simulators were given differential instructions before the administration of a second hypnotic induction procedure, which was accompanied by a task in which subjects were asked to relive each of three emotional experiences, i.e., fear, anger, and happiness. Reals were given instructions encouraging cooperation, while Simulators were instructed to try to convince a group of experienced hypnotists that they were deeply hypnotized, when, in fact, they would not be. "Physiological, overt-behavioral, and cognitive measures taken either during or following the relived-emotions task served as indices of Sarbin's organismic involvement construct. A post-experimental measure of the realness of subjects' relived emotional experience was regressed on these organismic indices in order to test Sarbin's assumption of a positive linear relationship between organismic involvement and belief-in imaginings, using data from the Real group only. Results indicated that, across all three emotions, the linear composite of organismic indices shared statistically significant amounts of variance with the criterion of experiential realness. Obtained amounts of shared variance ranged from 22% (during anger) to 55% (during happiness). These findings were interpreted as offering clear and robust support for Sarbin's theory of hypnosis. Suggestions for further research were offered. "The question of Real-Simulator differences was explored through several multivariate analyses of variance and covariance, using the organismic indices as dependent variables. These analyses were performed on the original sample of Reals and Simulators, and on two subsamples of Reals/Highs and Simulators/Lows which were created through the use of pre- and/or post-experimental exclusion criteria. Reals/Highs showed statistically higher levels of effort than did Simulators/Lows during all three emotions, as well as higher levels of skin conductance and finger temperature during anger. These findings were interpreted as being of theoretical and practical significance. Multiple replications of the physiological findings were recommended in order to assess the extent to which the skin conductance and finger temperature variables might be used in practical, i.e., forensic contexts" (p. 385-B). 1984 Holmes, David S. (1984). Meditation and somatic arousal evidence. American Psychologist, 39 (1), 1-10. The conceptual and methodological issues associated with research on the effects of meditation are reviewed. A summary of the research in which the somatic arousal of meditating subjects was compared to the somatic arousal of resting subjects did not reveal any consistent differences between meditating and resting subjects on measures of heart rate, electrodermal activity, respiration rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, skin temperature, oxygen consumption, EMG activity, blood flow, or various biochemical factors. Similarly, a review of the research on the effects of meditation in controlling arousal in threatening situations did not reveal any consistent differences between meditating and nonmeditating (no-treatment, antimeditation, or relaxation) subjects. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. Venturino, Michael (1984, August). Perceptual monitoring and allocation of attention (Dissertation, University of Maine). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2), 707-B. The processing ability of perceptual monitoring was investigated using a dichotic listening and shadowing task. Individual differences in the effectiveness of perceptual monitoring were also investigated by using susceptibility to hypnosis as a grouping factor. Subjects' skin conductance response (SCR) was conditioned to specific words by an electric shock. These conditioned words, and words semantically and acoustically related to them were presented in the relevant and irrelevant messages of the dichotic listening and shadowing task. Probability and magnitude measures of SCRs and subjects' verbal shadowing accuracy were used to assess performance. SCRs to critical words were significantly greater than to control words in both the relevant and irrelevant messages. However, the SCRs to words in the irrelevant messages were not as great as those responses elicited to words in the relevant message. The pattern of responding to the semantically and acoustically related words was similar for both the relevant and irrelevant messages. Subjects low in hypnotic susceptibility responded to critical words with significantly greater probability and magnitude of response than did subjects high in hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis of the shadowing performance data showed that the perceptual monitoring process was quite effective. The occurrence of the conditioned word in the irrelevant message caused a shift in attention to the irrelevant message, manifested by a shadowing error. Subjects shadowing the message in their left ear committed significantly more shadowing errors than subjects shadowing the message in their right ear. No differences in shadowing performance were obtained for the hypnosis factor. The results were interpreted in terms of the deployment of attention to the environment, and the relationship of this deployment to the perceptual monitoring process" (p. 707). 1983 Borgeat, Francois; Goulet, Jean (1983). Psychophysiological changes following auditory subliminal suggestions for activation and deactivation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, 759-766. This study was to measure eventual psychophysiological changes resulting from auditory subliminal activation or deactivation suggestions. 18 subjects were alternately exposed to a control situation and to 25-dB activating and deactivating suggestions masked by a 40-dB white noise. Physiological measures (EMG, heart rate, skin-conductance levels and responses, and skin temperature) were recorded while subjects listened passively to the suggestions, during a stressing task that followed and after that task. Multi-variate analysis of variance showed a significant effect of the activation subliminal suggestions during and following the stressing task. This result is discussed as indicating effects of consciously unrecognized perceptions on psycho- physiological responses. 1982 Barabasz, Arreed F. (1982). Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hypnotizability: Pain, EEG alpha, skin conductance and temperature responses. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 147-166. Restricted environmental stimulation procedures were used with 10 Ss. The Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale: Adult, modified to include a posthypnotic suggestion for an analgesic reaction, and pain threshold and tolerance tests were administered prior to restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST), immediately after REST, and 10-14 days later. Occipital EEG alpha, skin conductance, and peripheral, core, and chamber temperature data were collected prior to, during, and after REST. A control group of 10 Ss was used to assess the effects of repeated hypnosis upon susceptibility scores and demand characteristics of the experiment. Multivariate analysis of variance results showed SHCS and pain tolerance scores to be significantly enhanced for Ss exposed to REST immediately after and 10-14 days later. Orne's (1959) postexperimental inquiry technique did not reveal experimental demand characteristics which might account for the results. EEG alpha density increased significantly in REST, but the increase was not progressive during the REST period. The maintenance of hypnotizability and pain tolerance at follow-up failed to support Reyher's (1965) theory of brain function and behavioral regulation. E. R. Hilgard's (1977) neodissociation interpretation combined with J. R. Hilgard's (1974, 1979) imaginative involvement findings is viewed as a possible explanation. Brende, Joel O. (1982). Electrodermal responses in post-traumatic syndromes: A pilot study of cerebral hemisphere functioning in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 352-361. This paper summarizes the findings of a pilot study which found a relationship between the post-traumatic symptoms of a) psychic numbing, b) intrusive recollections of traumatic events, and c) hypervigilance and lateralization of electrodermal response (EDR) measurements in six victims of psychological trauma. Hypnotically induced imagery of past traumatic events was often associated with left-sided EDR increases, psychic numbing with left-sided EDR decreases or bilateral EDR unresponsiveness, and revivifications of hypervigilant states with right-sided EDR lateralization. In several cases control of the experience of fear was associated with left- sided or bilaterally decreased EDR. These pilot study findings support previously stated hypotheses: a) EDR obtained from an extremity reflects contralateral cerebral hemisphere functioning; b) left hemisphere functioning is associated with hypervigilance; and c) right hemisphere functioning is associated with emotions and imagery. In addition, the pilot study findings suggest additional hypotheses: a) Post- traumatic symptoms are associated with poorly controlled or integrated cerebral hemisphere functioning; b) psychic numbing and intrusive images, flashbacks, and nightmares are associated with abnormal activation, suppression, or integration of right hemisphere functioning in relationship to the left; c) aggressive behavior, hypervigilance, and character pathology are associated with abnormal activation, suppression, or integration of functioning of the left hemisphere function in relationship to the right; and d) "splitting" as a psychological defense in Vietnam veterans with Borderline Personality Disorders is associated with physiologically impaired interhemispheric integration. NOTES The authors report that previous research suggests that electrodermal asymmetry may be related to emotional factors. They further suggest that electrodermal responsiveness reflects contralateral cerebral hemispheric functioning, with lower GSR associated with higher activation of the opposite cerebral hemisphere (see Lacroix and Comper, 1979). They indicate that the right hemisphere, which is involved in experience of emotion, also is associated with depression (when there is abnormal inhibitory function of right hemisphere) and affective disorders. The left hemisphere is involved in vigilance (Dimond & Beaumont, 1974). "Based on these findings, the post-traumatic symptoms hypervigilance, anxiety, and behavior disorders appear to be associated with atypical left hemisphere activation, intrusive recollections of traumatic memories and disturbing emotional states with atypical right hemisphere activation, and psychic numbing or emotional unresponsiveness with diminished right hemisphere activation, or overactivation of the left hemisphere" (p. 354). In this pilot study, the therapist, who used hypnosis in all but one case, interviewed the patient for 30-50 minutes, focusing on helping the S to recall experiences of a traumatic nature. The therapist was supportive when disturbing emotions were evoked, responding flexibly by monitoring S's anxiety and moving back and forth between uncovering and supportive techniques. SUMMARY There were observably variable changes and bilateral differences in EDR within each of the six subjects in relationship to varying verbal, emotional, and imagery content, postulated to reflect contralateral hemispheric functioning. These observed changes were considered conclusive evidence of such functioning in post-traumatic states" (p. 358). "1. Lateralization of EDR to the left is associated with unpleasant emotions and traumatic imagery. ... "2. Lateralization of EDR to the right is associated with hypervigilance and aggressive outbursts. ... "3. Psychic numbing is associated with inhibition of bilateral EDRs (for example, lack of bilateral EDR activation occurred in every case at times) or with suppression of the left EDR. ... "4. General physiological arousal, a normal response to fear, is associated with increased EDRs bilaterally. ... "5. Relaxation and the subjective experience of safety and well-being, which have been reported to foster interhemispheric integration in normal subjects ... were observed to be associated with bilaterally decreased EDR in case I, an example of a less severe post- traumatic condition, but not observed during attempts at relaxation in Vietnam veterans with more severe post-traumatic symptoms. "6. Voluntary efforts to cognitively control fear were related to left hemispheric functioning, as observed in case IV when the subject attempted to control intrusive thoughts with cognitive activity and in Case III following the revivification of a frightening event when he made a shift from the hypnotic trance state to waking cognitive activity. In both cases, such cognitive activity was associated with a decreased right-sided EDR" (p. 359). DISCUSSION: "The results of this pilot study, which demonstrated frequent EDR differences between hands during subjects' recollections of or attempts to suppress recollections of prior traumatic experiences, alters the traditional belief that increased skin conductance is always a predictable physiological measurement when the electrode is placed on only one hand, as Lacroix and Comper (46) have pointed out. "The finding of EDR lateralization is consistent with the findings of deBonis and Baque (10) who reported that the degree of anxiety determines the presence of lateralization of EDR responses, of Gruzelier and Venables (30, 32) and Myslobodsky and Horesh (53) who reported that the presence or absence of psychopathology determines the direction of the lateralized response, and of Lacroix and Comper (46) that activation of one hemisphere may suppress contralateral EDR" (p. 359) Holroyd, Jean; Nuechterlein, Keith; Shapiro, David; Ward, Frederick (1982). Individual differences in hypnotizability and effectiveness of hypnosis or biofeedback. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30 (4), 45-65. 8 high and 8 low hypnotizable Ss used biofeedback and hypnosis to lower blood pressure in one session and forehead EMG activity in another session. Results were analyzed by repeated measures analyses of covariance using baseline physiological level on the dependent variable as the covariate. Electromyographic level was reduced more immediately by biofeedback than by hypnosis. When the task was to lower blood pressure, blood pressure and skin conductance were more effectively reduced by hypnosis than by biofeedback, considering only the first half of each session to eliminate within- session transfer effects. Hypnotizability did not predict overall outcome. Factors which may have prevented demonstrating a clearer relationship between hypnotizability and success using biofeedback or hypnosis are discussed. State and trait anxiety, cognitive strategies used during the tasks, and self-reported hypnotic depth are examined for correlates of successful performance. On the basis of alternative hypotheses in the literature, 9 invited Ss undergoing wintering-over isolation at Scott Base, Antarctica, were tested for EEG alpha and hypnotizability. 8-channels of EEG, bipolar skin conductance (SC) and hypnotizability data were collected at Scott Base prior to and following the wintering-over isolation. Significant increases in alpha density and hypnotizability were found in Ss following isolation. The previously reported relationship between simple eyes closed alpha density and hypnotizability was not found prior to isolation; however, this correlation approached significance following isolation. The possible influence of psychophysiological arousability on baseline EEG alpha records was considered. Correction of EEG records using SC indices of arousal resulted in a significant correlation between EEG alpha and hypnotizability following isolation. A tendency toward significance was evident in the pre-isolation, SC corrected, correlation. The significant influence of environment on EEG alpha and hypnotizability is discussed as is the use of SC arousal indices to enhance EEG alpha/hypnotizability correlations. 1978 Parker, Jerry C.; Gilbert, Gary S.; Thoreson, Richard W. (1978). Reduction of autonomic arousal in alcoholics: A comparison of relaxation and meditation techniques. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 879-886. To investigate and compare the effects of progressive relaxation training and meditation training on autonomic arousal in alcoholics, 30 subjects were selected from a population of alcoholics in a Veterans Administration hospital substance-abuse program. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following three experimental conditions: (a) progressive relaxation training group, (b) meditation training group, or (c) quiet rest control group. All groups met for 3 weeks during which state anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, and spontaneous galvanic skin responses were measured. The measures were designed to assess the treatment effects following the first training session and at the end of the total training period. The results indicate that both progressive relaxation training and meditation training are useful for reducing blood pressure in alcoholics. In addition, significant differences between the groups in the effectiveness of the relaxation procedures were found. Meditation training induced blood pressure decreases at an earlier point in the 3-week training period and affected decreases in systolic blood pressure that progressive relaxation training did not. These results support the idea of considerable specificity of response to relaxation techniques. Slutsky, Jeffrey; Allen, George J. (1978). Influence of contextual cues on the efficacy of desensitization and a credible placebo in alleviating public speaking anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (1), 119-125. This investigation was designed to determine the extent to which contextual cues mediated the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and a plausible placebo in alleviating public speaking anxiety. After participating in a public speaking situation that allowed the collection of self-report, physiological, and behavioral manifestations of anxiety, 67 subjects were randomly assigned to receive five sessions of either desensitization, "T scope" therapy, or no treatment. Each of these conditions was conducted in a context that either stressed the clinical relevance of the procedure or presented the procedure as a laboratory investigation of fear without therapeutic implications. Analysis of changes both between groups and within individuals indicated that desensitization reduced public speaking anxiety in both contexts, whereas the placebo was effective only in the therapeutic setting. The superiority of desensitization was most pronounced on the physiological variables. The results are interpreted as indicating support for a counterconditioning, rather than an expectancy, interpretation of desensitization. Weerts, Theodore C.; Lang, Peter J. (1978). Psychophysiology of fear imagery: Differences between focal phobia and social performance anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 1157-1159. Spider phobics and speech anxious subjects imaged fear scenes with spider and public-speaking content and a series of standard scenes that were constructed to vary in degree of emotional arousal and movement. Heart rate, skin conductance, and ocular activity were recorded. Spider phobics rated all imagery contents as more vivid and reported more scene movement than speech anxious subjects. Both groups responded to their own fear scenes with higher ratings of emotion and a greater physiological response than to the other group's fear scenes. The arousal response of spider phobics to relevant fear scenes was greater than that of speech anxious subjects. The data suggest that the outcome of imagery-based therapies may be partly determined by type of fear. 1975 Lick, John R. (1975). Expectancy, false galvanic skin response feedback, and systematic desensitization in the modification of phobic behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43 (4), 557-567. This study compared systematic desensitization and two pseudotherapy manipulations with and without false galvanic skin response feedback after every session suggesting improvement in the modification of intense snake and spider fear. The results indicated no consistent differences between the three treatment groups, although all treatments were significantly more effective than no treatment in modifying physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of fear. A 4-month follow-up showed stability in fear reduction on self-report measures for the three treatment groups. Overall, the results of this experiment were interpreted as contradicting a traditional conditioning explanation of systematic desensitization. An alternate explanation for the operation of systematic desensitization emphasizing the motivational as opposed to conditioning aspects of the procedure is discussed. 1974 Bloom, Richard F. (1974). Validation of suggestion-induced stress. Sixty college men, divided into three equal groups, each attended two induced stress sessions in which their physiological, psychological and performance reactions were measured. Their responses were compared to determine if valid stress reactions could be induced through suggestion in an altered state (in this case, hypnosis), and also to determine the validity of such reactions if the subject had never before experienced that stress situation. It was demonstrated that valid stress reactions can be induced in an individual with the aid of suggestions, especially if the real stress situation has been experienced before. If no previous experience with that real situation exists, the subject still exhibits stressful reactions; however, the closest resemblance to real stress is found in the subjective or psychological measures, less similarity is found in the physiological measures, and the least similarity is found in the performance measures. 1973 Crystal, Thomas H.; Gish, Herbert; Bloom, Richard F. (1973, June). Psychophysiological factors affecting speaker authentication and identification. (See Notes field for additional reference information and information about ordering.) NOTES Research and Development Technical Report ECOM-0161-F; AD-913 696L; Contract DAAB07-71-C-0161 with Signatron, Inc. (Lexington, MA). Distribution limited to U.S. Government agencies only; Other requests for this document must be referred to Commanding General, U.S. Army Electronics Command, ATTN: AMSEL-PP-CM-CR4, Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703. NOTES 2: This document reports on a U.S. Army research project using hypnosis to collect high fidelity samples of the voice under "combat stress" conditions in the laboratory. Using hypnotic regression, combat veterans "re-experienced" their own, actual high stress combat situations. Besides subjective reports of stress levels by subjects, physiological stress measures were obtained from polygraph recordings of heart, respiration and GSR activity. The voice samples were later analyzed by spectrographic techniques to determine which factors remain invariant to identify and authenticate the speaker in a military communications situation. Hypnotic techniques were shown to be useful in establishing controlled emotional states for laboratory research purposes. (Richard Bloom) 1971 McAmmond, D. M.; Davidson, P. O.; Kovitz, D. M. (1971). A comparison of the effects of hypnosis and relaxation training on stress reactions in a dental situation. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 13, 233-242. From Journal of Hypnosis, 1997, Vol. 23, p. 3. Continue typing the Abstract here exactly as found in the source, indenting paragraphs as in the source NOTES Compared the effectiveness of relaxation, hypnosis, and a control condition in reducing in dental phobics the reaction to pressure-algometer stimulation and the injection of anesthesia. For subjects with high baseline skin-conductance levels, relaxation was most effective in reducing stress reactions. Hypnosis did not differ from the control condition. For subjects with a medium or low skin-conductance baseline, relaxation was not effective. The hypnosis group rated their treatment as most effective, and the controls rated their treatment as least effective. Five-month follow-up indicated that all subjects in the hypnosis group returned for dental treatment and that 5 of 10 in the control group and only 1 of the relaxation group returned for care. 1963 Tart, Charles T. (1963). Hypnotic depth and basal skin resistance. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 81-92. This investigation studied the relationship between a self-report scale for measuring the depth of the hypnotic state and basal skin resistance (BSR). The self-report scale accurately predicted the occurrence of hypnotic dreaming and amnesia, traditional criteria for medium and deep hypnotic states. BSR showed a high, positive correlation with the self-report depth scale. The data suggest that both the self-report scale and BSR may be useful measures for detecting changes in hypnotic depth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1961 Germann, A. C. (1961). Hypnosis as related to the scientific detection of deception by polygraph examination: A pilot study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 309-311. Results obtained from 5 college students suggests that hypnotic amnesia does not surreptitiously defeat the polygraphy process, and that hypnotically induced exaggeration of responses may assist the examining process. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II09G. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1960 Kline, Milton V. (1960). Hypnotic age regression and psychotherapy: Clinical and theoretical. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8, 17-35. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 62: 2 II 17K) This paper deals with the experiential use of hypnotically induced age regression as a therapeutic process. Treatment successes were attributed to an intensification of the transference relationship. A main focus was the nature of the regressive relationship and its experiential qualities in relation to general hypnosis. Reid polygraph results suggest the perceptual reality of age regression to Ss. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of Piaget''''s genetic model. From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2II17K. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Sutcliffe, J. P. (1960). 'Credulous' and 'sceptical' view of hypnotic phenomena. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8 (1), 73-102. The author distinguishes between 2 interpretations of hypnotic phenomena: the credulous (S does or does not experience what the hypnotist suggests) and the skeptical (S reports what is suggested regardless of the "reality" of his experience). 2 groups of Ss (distinguished with respect to the presence or not of genuine hypnotic behavior and posthypnotic amnesia) were placed in a 3 [control (not under hypnotic trance), hypnotic trance, nontrance acting (S asked to act as if conditions were as suggested)] by 2 (stimulus present or not) design involving paraesthesias, hallucinations, and delusional thinking. Evidence (such as GSR, interference in thinking due to feedback, test measures of delusion) suggests that S does not misperceive the real situation, but misreports it. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II89S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1959 Barber, Theodore Xenophon; Coules, John (1959). Electrical skin conductance and galvanic skin response during 'Hypnosis'. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (2), 79-92. Summary and Conclusions "Six 'good' hypnotic Ss were given a ten-minute 'hypnotic induction' and a series of 'hypnotic tests.' Both basic skin conductance and momentary variations in skin conductance (GSR) were recorded during the experiment. "The results were as follows: 1. There was no significant variation in skin conductance during the 'hypnotic induction procedure.' 2. Skin conductance generally increased throughout the remainder of the experiment, ie., when the Ss wre given suggestions of 'sensory hallucinations,' 'age-regression,' 'analgesia,' 'negative hallucinations,' and 'post'-hypnotic behavior. 3. The Ss usually showed a GSR when they were given 'hallucinatory' suggestions, i.e., when they were told that they were becoming 'itchy,' 'thirsty,' and 'very hot.' 4. The GSR to a pinprick was essentially the same before the experiment and during 'hypnotic analgesia.' Also, the GSR was essentially the same, during 'hypnotic analgesia,' (a) when three Ss were told they would receive a pinprick but did _not_ receive the pinprick, (b) when they were told they would receive a pinprick and _did_ receive the pinprick, and (c) when they received a pinprick without being told they would receive it. 5. Four Ss showed a GSR each time they were asked to look at a 'negatively hallucinated' object and person. Two Ss did _not_ show a GSR when they were asked to look at the 'negatively hallucinated' object (or person). The four Ss who showed a GSR stated, during or after the experiment, that they were by no means convinced that the person or object was no longer in the room. The two Ss who did not show GSR stated, after the experiment, that they had been 'certain' that the object (or person) was not present in the room.