Session 1:
Procedure entailed finger pressure pain: baseline, followed by 2 hypnosis treatment trials. Ss were not informed of the second trial before they did the first.
Standard suggestions: imagery congruent with the suggestion (hand like block of wood, protected by a glove)
Imageless condition: your hand will remain comfortably nonresponsive to the pressure; you will not allow other things to come into your mind.
Outcome Measures
Analogue scale for pain 0-10
Nonvoluntary experience rated 0-4
Session 2:
Administered Tellegen Scale, Woody & Oakman Scale, Marks Vividness of Imagery, Bowers’ Effortless Experiencing, and Duality of Experience during age regression.

No difference was found between the standard and imageless conditions in amount of pain reduced. So in high hypnotizables, use of imagery or not doesn’t matter for controlling pain. Some Ss had a clear preference however, for one or the other method (even counter to their own expectations).
Feelings of nonvolition did not differ as a function of imagery use.
Multiple regression showed effects of hypnotizability and effortless experiencing. Ss who have an effortless experiencing of imagery benefit from using it to reduce pain; those who find it more effortful do better without imagery when attempting to reduce pain.
Contrary to last year’s results reported by Bowers, high imagery was related to duality of experiencing in age regression.
Dissociated control theory is consistent with the results but not necessarily demonstrated. It is important to discriminate between imagery as a mediator rather than as a co-occurrence. This research suggests, as did Zamansky’s work on counter suggestions, that imagery is not as critical for hypnotic response as we previously thought.

Holroyd, Jean (1992). Hypnosis as a methodology in psychological research. In Contemporary hypnosis research (pp. 201-226). New York: Guilford Press.

This chapter deals with how the changes brought about by hypnosis (in cognition, behavior, motivation, etc.) may be used in research in other areas of psychology. “The distinction between experimental effects attributable to a personality trait (i.e. hypnotizability), hypnosis context (i.e. an induction), and interaction between the two is particularly important in using hypnosis as a research strategy.
The author discusses suggestibility, imagery enhancement, and changes in the mind-body relationship (immunology, pain, cognitive neuropsychology, attention, learning and memory, and awareness) as they might be employed in social psychology or psychophysiology research. She reviews problems inherent in using hypnosis as part of the research methodology, while noting that hypnosis nevertheless offers new information when introduced into traditional content areas. “For example, in cognitive psychology it has re-introduced the importance of studying experiential aspects of cognition, i.e. I think, I remember, or self reference (Kihlstrom, 1987)” (p. 223).
She concludes, “Hypnosis as a research method will continue to benefit from contributions of radically different theoretical views of hypnotic phenomena. Social- cognitive psychologists have contributed significantly toward unifying the fields of hypnosis research and general experimental psychology. At the same time, advances in neurophysiology and psychosomatic medicine employing hypnosis indicate that there is a role for hypnosis as a research strategy, solely because of its altered-state characteristics. If theoretical physics can reconcile both wave and particle theories of light, it is conceivable that psychology can accommodate both behavioral and state theories of hypnosis” (p. 224).
Kraft, Tom (1992). Counteracting pain in malignant disease by hypnotic techniques: Five case studies. Contemporary Hypnosis, 9, 123-129.
Five cases of patients suffering from cancer are described in which hypnotic visualization techniques were successfully employed to relieve pain and anxiety. This study supports the view that hypnosis can be an effective tool for pain relief in malignant disease, particularly when traditional methods have been exhausted.

Grossarth-Maticek, R.; Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Creative novation behaviour therapy as a prophylactic treatment for cancer and coronary heart disease: Part II – Effects of treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 17-31.

Reports on what they call creative novation behavior therapy or “autonomy training” to prevent cancer and coronary heart disease in prone individuals. This individually tailored cognitive-behavioral program includes the use of hypnosis and of imagery. When administered individually (20-30 hours) in a group (6-15 sessions of up to several hours) or via bibliotherapy with 4-6 hours of individual therapy, the outcome was better than that of control subjects. After 13 years, 45 of 50 cancer-prone subjects in individual treatment were still alive (and none of the 5 deaths were from cancer), while among 50 control subjects, 31 died, 16 from cancer. This study along with Spiegel et al. (1989) article in Lancet have important implications for health care.

Hinshaw, Karin E. (1991). The effects of mental practice on motor skill performance: Critical evaluation and meta-analysis. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 11, 3-35.

21 studies that met the criteria of having both an adequate control and a mental practice alone group were included. The 44 separate effect sizes resulted in an overall average effect size of .68 (SD = .11) indicating that there is a significant benefit to performance of using mental practice over no practice. A series of General Linear Models revealed that the use of “internal” imagery produced a larger average effect size than the use of “external” imagery, and that mental practice sessions of less than one minute or between ten and fifteen minutes in length produced a larger average effect size than sessions of three to five minutes in length. These findings suggest the complexity of the relationship between variables that influence mental practice.

Avants, S. Kelly; Margolin, Arthur; Salovey, Peter (1990-91). Stress management techniques: Anxiety reduction, appeal, and individual differences. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 10, 3-23.

Four stress management techniques were evaluated for their general appeal, their immediate benefits, and the subjective experiences they evoke. One hundred undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) progressive muscle relaxation (PMR); (2) distraction imagery; (3) focused imagery; (4) listening to music; (5) sitting quietly (control). Distraction imagery and listening to music were the only techniques found to reduce anxiety to a greater extent than simply sitting quietly. The techniques differed in the way they made subjects feel, but not in their general appeal. Individuals with a ‘blunting’ coping style were more likely to find all five techniques appealing.
Tests used included the Miller Behavioral Style Scale, Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire of Schwartz, Davidson & Golman, Life Orientation Test of Scheier & Carver, Somatic Perception Questionnaire of Landy and Stern, Body Consciousness Questionnaire of L. C. Miller, Murphy, & Buss, Betts’ Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery, Shortened Form, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Technique Evaluation Questionnaire of the authors.
Progressive muscle relaxation was according to Bernstein & Borkovec. Distraction imagery involved successively imagining a walk along a beach, a stroll across a flower filled meadow, sitting by a stream, a walk into the woods, sitting in a cabin in the woods listening to the rain against the windowpane, all including images in a variety of sense modalities. Focused imagery involved creating an image of a stressor, then through symbolic imagery experiences Ss were guided through a typical day’s events that might lead up to the stressor, reinterpreting cues associated with the stressor as signals that they are in control, visualizing encountering the stressor feeling strong and determined, and any physical sensations reinterpreted as ‘energy’ that would help them to cope, visualizing enjoying their success (from Crits-Cristoph & Singer. Music was a 20-min tape (10 min of music used in the distraction imagery tape–Natural Light by Steve Halpern & David Smith) and 10 min of music used in background of the focused imagery tape (Structures of Silence by Michael Lanz). A 5th group, Control, was instructed to sit quietly with eyes closed.
This data can be used in support of imagery-suggestion types of hypnosis (as in surgery study) reducing anxiety. It shows particularly strong effects for people high in cognitive anxiety or low in optimism, pre-treatment.
Discussion: “… we feel confident that our distraction techniques were more effective for the immediate relief of anxiety than was PMR. This conclusion is consistent with the Suls and Fletcher meta-analysis (29) that suggested that ‘avoidance’ is an effective short-term coping strategy. That distraction (positive) imagery may be a more useful clinical technique than focused (active involvement) imagery was concluded in a study comparing these two techniques in the treatment of phobias (24)” (p. 19. [Ref #24 is Crits-Cristoph & Singer (1983) in Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.]
“Pessimism and cognitive anxiety emerged as the only individual difference variables to influence anxiety reduction. Pessimism as measured by the LOT is cognitive in nature, with most of the items relating to expectations of negative outcomes; similarly, cognitive anxiety is characterized by worry and an inability to control negative thoughts and images. That individuals who perceive their world somewhat negatively should have entered the study more anxious than individuals who do not is hardly surprising. What is surprising is that despite an inverse relation between cognitive anxiety and the ability to relax, these individuals were able to benefit from whatever technique they performed to a greater extent than were individuals with a more positive outlook. In fact, after performing the technique, pessimists had reduced their anxiety to the level of optimists” (p. 19).
“The stress management techniques used in the current study did not differ in their appeal” (p. 20). “Our finding that PMR produced more somatic effects than did focused imagery and less cognitive effects than did distraction imagery, listening to music, or sitting quietly is consistent with the model of anxiety proposed by Davidson and Schwartz (17). Our findings are also generally consistent with a conclusion reached by Woolfolk and Lehrer (4): that although various techniques are generally stress reducing, they seem to have highly specific effects. However, we found no support for the hypothesis that individuals who express anxiety cognitively (or somatically) prefer and benefit most from techniques that produce cognitive (or somatic) effects. In fact, the extremely high correlation found between the cognitive and somatic anxiety subscales of the Schwartz et al. measure (5) casts some doubt on the usefulness of a cognitive-somatic distinction, as does the corr between the experience of physical symptoms under stress (the Somatic Perception Questionnaire) with the cognitive, as well as the somatic, anxiety subscale.
“The finding that blunters experiences more ‘somatic effects’ regardless of the technique they were assigned may have been the result of a single response–‘how much did mind-wandering interfere with performing the technique’–which was the only Factor 2 item that was highly inversely) related to blunting. Since blunters are more likely to perceive mind wandering as the essence of stress management rather than as ‘interference,’ we do not view this main effect as particularly illuminating” (p. 20). “However, our finding that blunters experienced all techniques as appealing is consistent with the results of Martelli et al. (1) who found that individuals with low information-preference benefitted from what the authors labeled an ’emotion-focused’ intervention, but which, in fact, included many of the quite diverse stress management techniques that we compared in the current study. That ‘avoiders’ failed to benefit from any intervention in the Scott and Clum study (11) may be due to the nature of the stressor [postsurgical pain]. Our undergraduates may have been more like the Martelli dental patients in terms of their level of distress than were the Scott and Clum subjects who were patients undergoing major surgery (hysterectomy or cholecystectomy). Future research needs to examine possible three-way, technique by patient by stressor-type, interactions (cf. 19)” pp 20-21.

Heyneman, Nicholas E. (1990). The role of imagery in hypnosis: An information processing approach. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38 (1), 39-59.

Imagery is widely agreed to be an important component of hypnosis. The theoretical framework from which to conceptualize the role of imagery in hypnosis, however, has remained controversial. A model is presented which attempts to reconceptualize hypnotic imaginal processing in terms of current theory and research in cognitive psychology and psychophysiology. This model draws from a propositional approach to imagery (e.g. Pylyshyn, 1973), particularly as adapted by Lang’s (1979) bioinformational theory. It is argued that the hypnotic image is fundamentally more complex than simple iconic mental representation, containing instead both stimulus and response components. It is proposed that the critical properties of the hypnotic image are not the stimulus components or propositions which give rise to the experience of the image but instead are response propositions which are associated with overt behavior. Processing of these response propositions is conceptualized as a negative feedback system between the brain and effector site. Some preliminary sources of support as well as implications and research suggested by this model are discussed.

The author notes that the brain does not store a kind of “photograph,” but rather stores “meanings” (Anderson, 1978); and that images actually represent response processes, as observable in physiological concomitants (Lang, 1977).
The hypnotic suggestion that a Subject’s arm is being pulled up into the air by a large helium balloon is represented by two separate propositions: “There is a helium balloon tied to your arm” (a stimulus proposition) and “Your arm is moving up into the air” (a response proposition). According to Peter Lang (1979), an image is not a mental stimulus to which a response is made, but is in itself an active response process, accompanied by physiological activity. Verbal instructions to a Subject determine whether they will access stimulus propositions or response propositions. “Lang et al. (1980) found that only those Ss given response training coupled with response proposition scripts showed significant physiological arousal. These Ss were presumably better able to access and process that portion of the propositional network which controls visceral and motoric responding” (p. 46).
This author proposes that cognitive processing of a hypnotic image involves (internal) responding, and that ‘responsive propositions’ provide the basis for understanding the function of imagery in hypnosis, and are more important to hypnotic imagery than stimulus propositions. “In other words, the experience of a visual image and thus the vividness or controllability of that image is not critical for hypnosis. What is important to note is that the hypnotic behavior is not a response to a visual image but is instead a function of the processing of the image itself (cf. Lang, 1979)” (pp. 47-48).
In explaining how an image might facilitate amplification of a subtle response (such as in arm levitation), the author suggests that physiological and external feedback systems are involved–principally a neural feedback loop between brain and target organ (in this case, arm muscles). “Efferent signals, which are activated by processing response propositions, initiate the overt behavior while afferent signals feed back to the brain and modulate further input tot he effector system. The process progressively reduces the mismatch between the image instructions and behavior until the hypnotic task is completed” (p. 48). The feedback loop “provides information on the discrepancy between desired behavior and actual behavior: e = Bd-Ba, where e = error, Bd = desired behavior, and Ba= actual behavior (Arbib, 1972). The error signal generated by this discrepancy modifies the efferent output so as to eventually approximate e = 0” (p. 49). The author notes that this complex process of physiological feedback may be “augmented by external feedback such as modified verbal instructions or vocal intonations of the hypnotist and self-observation by S” (p. 49).
The author’s model is summarized as: “1. The context, setting, and expectations implied by being hypnotized as well as the wording of the hypnotic suggestions provides S with: (a) explicit or implicit instructions to use imagery, (b) repetitious wording which may increase the probability of fully accessing the relevant propositions, and (c) instructions that task completion is expected. This may function to increase the probability that the deep structure of the response propositions will be processed. 2. The hypnotic suggestion proper is composed of stimulus and response propositions embedded within a propositional network. 3. Stimulus propositions give rise to the phenomenological characteristics or the percept- like experience of the image but may be unimportant in determining hypnotic behavior. 4. Processing of the response propositions includes an active response. This response process is facilitated by S’s expectation to become actively involved in the imagined scene. Response propositions are the critical features of hypnotic imagery. 5. During hypnosis, the propositional network may be systematically modified by physiological or external feedback regarding the relative progress of the behavior toward task completion. This processing of response propositions is conceptualized as a negative feedback system. Efferent signals are delivered to the appropriate effector site while afferent signals feed back to the brain in order to modify further neural input, functioning to reduce the error between image and behavior. While the initial feedback is probably physiological, additional feedback may be obtained from the hypnotist’s instructions and S’s self-observations. 6. If stimulus propositions are simultaneously accessed, S experiences an image” (p. 51).

Holroyd, Jean (1990). How hypnosis may potentiate psychotherapy. In Fass, Margot L.; Brown, Daniel (Ed.), Creative mastery in hypnosis and hypnoanalysis (pp. 125-130). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This chapter is a reprint of an article published in the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis in 1987. It provides a conceptual framework for understanding psychotherapy processes in the context of a hypnotic state. Based on empirical and theoretical considerations, the author identified nine changes occurring with hypnosis: changes in attention and awareness, imagery, dissociation, reality orientation, suggestibility, mind-body interactions, initiative or volition, availability of affect, and relationship. “This chapter proposes that hypnotherapy exploits hypnotic phenomena– takes advantage of them–in the service of standard therapy endeavors” (p. 125).

Lombard, Lisa S.; Kahn, Stephen P.; Fromm, Erika (1990). The role of imagery in self-hypnosis: Its relationship to personality characteristics and gender. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38 (1), 25-38.

30 volunteer Ss practiced self-hypnosis for approximately 4 weeks and wrote a record of their experiences in a diary following each session. Imagery produced during self-hypnosis was coded in 2 ways: the imagery was either reality oriented or it was fantastic and had primary process qualities. Levels of imagery production remained virtually the same over a 4-week period. Self-hypnotic imagery was significantly greater for the female Ss than for the male Ss, particularly primary process imagery. Verbal expressivity (measured as the average number of words per page of each S diary) was calculated to control for the effects of verbal production on Ss’ imagery scores. When imagery scores were standardized based on verbal expressivity, female Ss still produced significantly more primary process imagery than male Ss. Personality characteristics (assessed by standardized personality inventories) were examined in relation to self- hypnotic imagery. “Impulse Expression” was positively related to primary process imagery for the female Ss. “Outgoingness” was positively related to primary process imagery for the entire sample, but especially for the female Ss.

McAleney, Patrick J.; Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne (1990). Effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation on intercollegiate tennis performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 1023-1028.

The study investigated the effects of flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation (REST) with an imagery message on the competitive performance of intercollegiate tennis players (10 men, 10 women). Pre- and posttreatment athletic performance was measured during intercollegiate competition. Posttreatment results indicated that subjects exposed to flotation REST with an imagery message performed significantly better than subjects exposed to imagery only on a measure of first service accuracy. Findings suggest that flotation REST can be used to enhance the performance of a well learned skill by athletes of high ability.

Newshan, Gayle; Balamuth, Ron (1990-91). Use of imagery in a chronic pain outpatient group. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 10, 25-38.
Reports treatment of chronic pain, integrating relaxation, cognitive therapy, and imagery techniques for 3 groups of chronic pain patients. Imagery and visualization were the most important components of the treatment. NOTES 1:

Chronic nonmalignant pain is defined as pain that exists beyond the normal and expected healing time, usually six months or more after the initial injury or trauma.
Patients used daily journal to monitor level of pain using a color scale 4 times/day (blue – little or no pain, green mild pain, yellow moderate, orange severe, and red pain so intense it could kill or render the patient unconscious.
Used two types of imagery: mental rehearsal of actually doing and reaching a goal, or symbolic representation of the pain as a creature, alive, within their bodies. They dialog with the creature, asking Why are you here? What do you need from me? What can I do to live with you? What is the message you have for me? patients are asked to listen very closely for the response.
Cognitive restructuring is introduced later to identify dysfunctional thought patterns and correct them. They are taught, 1) thoughts influence behavior and emotions, 2) thoughts can be changed, and therefore 3) behavior can be changed. However, not all patients benefit from cognitive restructuring (because resistant to self monitoring or frightened or critical of own negative thoughts.
Relaxation is especially beneficial in breaking the pain/anxiety cycle, reducing fear associated with pain, improving sleep patterns, promoting a general feeling of well-being and facilitating mental imagery. Mental imagery, on the other hand, provides a means of self-discovery. It is defined by Achterberg and Lawlis (1980) as the internal experience of a perceptual event in the absence of the actual external stimuli; although usually thought of as visual, it may well involve any other sensory modality associated with the image.
Imagery is a proverbial process, eliciting the rich symbolism of knowledge of a person’s unconscious and providing powerful insights indirectly. It provides an opportunity for one to reorganize a problem or experience, such as pain, towards a more positive resolution. Imagery can increase the patient’s self-esteem and self-control and seems to facilitate well behavior. It is also a vivid method of communication from the patient to the therapist and the rest of the group. The group members had a healthy respect for these images and were able to appreciate the impact they had in their recovery, even if the process is not completely understood.
In each of their cases, “it is important to emphasize that the pain was never ‘cured,’ the pain persisted throughout treatment. Again, the program does not take away the patients’ pain but changes the pain experience and enables patients to participate more fully in their lives despite the pain. As suggested by the ‘big person, small person’ concept, the pain would probably always be part of their lives, but through the program it could be a smaller, more manageable part. Imagery proved to be a valuable tool in helping clients achieve this goal.

Nilsson, Kayla Mae (1990). The effect of subject expectations of ‘hypnosis’ upon vividness of visual imagery. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38, 17-24.

This study explored how the expectation of hypnosis and the expectation of relaxation affected the vividness of visual imagery. 63 Ss who volunteered for a visual imagination study were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Ss were administered the vividness subscale (VS) of the Vividness and Control of Imagery Scale twice. In the 3 experimental groups, expectations were varied during the 2 VS administrations. All 3 groups were presented with a relaxation exercise between VS administrations. In 2 groups, it was labeled “hypnosis,” and in the third group it was correctly labeled “relaxation.” A control group listened to a neutral tape between their VSs. All groups were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. C. Orne, 1962) after the 2 imagery tests. The results indicated that the vividness of visual imagery was significantly enhanced (equally) in the experimental groups but not in the control group.

Cooper, Nancy A.; Clum, George A. (1989). Imaginal flooding as a supplementary treatment for PTSD in combat veterans: A controlled study. Behavior Therapy, 20 (3), 381-391.

14 Vietnam veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assigned either to standard treatment (control group), or standard treatment plus imaginal flooding (experimental group). The 2 groups were closely matched on medications and combat roles and tours of duty were comparable. Experimental Ss received up to 14 sessions of flooding for a maximum of one and one-half hours per session. Self-report measures were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at 3-mo follow-up. These measures included the Behavioral Avoidance Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and a Modified Vietnam Experiences Questionnaire. Results indicate that flooding increased the effectiveness of usual treatment, particularly in such areas as re-experiencing symptoms and sleep disturbances. However, flooding had no effect on level of depression, trait anxiety, and violence-proneness.

Grant, Guy (1989, June). An investigation of hypnotic susceptibility in self-hypnosis and imagery (Dissertation, University of Utah). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (12), 5517-5518-B.

“There were two phases in the study. In Phase One hypnotic susceptibility scores were assessed for 43 graduate student subjects by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (HGSHS:A). In addition, the Self-Hypnosis Research Questionnaire (an experimental scale) provided performance scores for subjects under three hypnosis conditions: heterohypnosis, self-directed self-hypnosis, and tape-assisted self-hypnosis. The first purpose in Phase One was to calculate correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and each of the hypnosis conditions. The second purpose was to determine if there were significant differences across the three types of hypnosis. The third purpose was to discover if any existing differences were dependent on level (e.g., low, medium, or high) of hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis of the data yielded significant correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and (a) heterohypnosis, (b) self-directed self- hypnosis, and (c) tape-assisted self-hypnosis. There were significant performance differences across the three hypnosis conditions with heterohypnosis being somewhat superior to tape-assisted self-hypnosis, and tape-assisted self-hypnosis being slightly superior to self-directed self-hypnosis. This relationship held true regardless of level of hypnotic susceptibility (e.g., low, medium, and high).
“In Phase Two, 49 graduate student subjects were administered the shortened form of the Betts’ Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery (QMI) as well as the HGSHS:A, and to determine if mental imagery is an important component of hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis yielded a significant correlation between the two measures.
“Based on the current data, it was concluded that the HGSHS:A had some utility for predicting performance in hypnosis. It was noted that, as compared with self-hypnosis, heterohypnosis provided the greatest chance of eliciting a positive hypnotic response from subjects not trained or experienced in hypnosis. It was also concluded that the QMI was correlated with and had some utility for predicting performance on the HGSHS:A. It had difficulty, however, differentiating between low and medium hypnotizability” (pp. 5517- 5518).

Hall, H.; Minnes, L. (1989). Psychological modulation of auditory responses. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 36 (1-4), 59-63.

Psychological modulation of auditory response, the effects of imagery and suggestion on auditory thresholds were examined in naive subjects. After a hypnosis-like induction, the subjects, who were not aware of the purpose of the study, were asked to generate and maintain a specific set of images before, during, and after which their auditory thresholds were tested. Following the imagery, which represented cooling and vasoconstriction in the cochlea, audiograms revealed a temporary auditory threshold shift (TTS) in the experimental group only. This TTS pattern was similar to that produced by exposure to loud noise. Information carried in the image is suggested as the basis for the observed auditory changes. Although a hypnosis-like induction was employed, the subjects’ level of hypnotizability did not appear to be related to the findings.

Jirout, J. (1989). Reaction of the cerebral vertebrae in imagined changes in the shape of the cervical spine. Ceskoslovenska Neurologie a Neurochirurgie, 52, 75-77.

Postural reaction of the cervical vertebrae on imagined, but actually not performed, changes in the shape of the cervical spine in the sagittal plane are described. The percentage of reacting vertebrae is relatively high. The findings seem to indicate that, (1) the described phenomena belong to the constant features of the spinal dynamics, (2) that there probably exist residual traces of preceding activities, and (3) that these changes are due to the activation of the polymetameric system of the intrasegmental muscles. Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1990, v. 32, p. 213.

Kahn, Stephen P.; Fromm, Erika; Lombard, Lisa S.; Sossi, Michael (1989). The relation of self-reports of hypnotic depth in self-hypnosis to hypnotizability and imagery production. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 290-304.

Studied multidimensional nature of self-hypnotic depth in 22 high hypnotizables who volunteered for self hypnosis research. On personality scales, they were distinguished from the population at large by: strong theoretical orientation, high level of curiosity, disregard for opinions of others, and high Mf scale on the MMPI. Used the Stanford Profile Scale, SHSS:C and HGSHS:A, which measure the entire range of phenomena ordinarily used in experimental studies of hypnosis, including ideomotor phenomena, hypnotic fantasy and dreams, hypermnesias and age regressions, analgesias, negative and positive hallucinations, amnesias, posthypnotic phenomena, and cognitive and affective distortions. They asked Subjects to experience self hypnosis for 60 minutes/day for 4 weeks. Journals were coded for imagery production by scoring for both reality-oriented and primary process imagery. Subject had been taught to monitor their hypnotic depth using a slightly revised version of the Extended North Carolina Scale (ENCS) of Tart (1979). Previously, ENCS has been used only with hetero-hypnotic Subjects. The self- reports of depth using ENCS correlated highly with hypnotizability as measured by the Revised Stanford Profile Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility… and with imagery production. Results demonstrate that ENCS scores are also a valid indicator of self-hypnotic depth among highly hypnotizable Subjects. Furthermore, they indicate that both hetero- hypnotizability and imagery production are related to self-hypnotic depth, but that the association between imagery and hypnotizability is due to their individual relationships to self-hypnotic depth.

Kihlstrom, John F.; Register, Patricia A.; Hoyt, Irene P.; Albright, Jeanne Sumi; Grigorian, Ellen M.; Heindel, William C.; Morrison, Charles R. (1989). Dispositional correlates of hypnosis: A phenomenological approach. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 249-263.

Attempted to construct and validate a questionnaire measure of hypnotic- like experiences based on Shor’s (1979) 8-dimension phenomenological analysis of hypnosis. Separate item pools were developed to measure each disposition: Trance, Nonconscious Involvement, Archaic Involvement, Drowsiness, Relaxation, Vividness of Imagery, Absorption, and Access to the Unconscious. Based on preliminary testing (total Number – 856), a final questionnaire was produced containing 5 items measuring normal, everyday experiences in each domain. Results from a standardization sample (Number – 468) showed that each of the subscales, except for Archaic Involvement, possessed satisfactory levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Factor analysis indicated that 6 subscales loaded highly on a common factor similar to the absorption construct (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974), while items pertaining to Relaxation and Archaic Involvement formed separate factors. Validation testing on 4 samples receiving the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962) (total Number = 1855) showed that the Absorption and Trance dimensions correlated most strongly with HGSHS:A; the correlations with Drowsiness, Relaxation, and Nonconscious Involvement approached 0. The scales derived form Shor’s analysis, however, did not improve the prediction of hypnotizability over that obtained with the absorption scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974).

Kunzendorf, Robert G. (1989-90). Posthypnotic amnesia: Dissociation of self-concept or self-consciousness?. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 321-334.

Two studies of posthypnotic amnesia tested predictions derived from the ‘source’ monitoring theory of self-consciousness. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that posthypnotic source amnesia is irreversible, because hypnosis attenuates self- consciousness of whether one’s sensations have an imaginal source or a perceptual source. In this initial study, recall amnesia was reversed by posthypnotic cueing with a prearranged signal, but source amnesia was not reversed by such cueing. Experiment 2 examined whether the cued reversal of recall amnesia is attributable, in part, to the hypnotic attenuation of self-conscious ‘source monitoring’ and, in part, to the reversal of recall criteria: from a criterion rejecting ‘seemingly imaginary’ or ‘sourceless’ memories, to a criterion accepting ‘sourceless but familiar’ memories. In this latter study, posthypnotic recall amnesia was breached when subjects were instructed to trust their seemingly imaginary memories, but not when they were instructed to try harder to remember [emphasis removed from quoted text].

Matheson, George; Shu, Karen L.; Bart, Catherine (1989). A validation study of a short-form hypnotic-experience questionnaire and its relationship to hypnotizability. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 32, 17-26.

Investigated the validity of a 16-item scale inquiring about hypnotic experience, drawn from the Hypnotic Experience Questionnaire developed by Kelly (1985) to measure components of hypnotic experience. We administered the HEQ-S and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (HGSHS:A) to 198 students. Factor analysis of the scale produced three stable principal components accounting for 70% of the data variance: Dissociation/Altered State (DAS), Rapport (RAP), and Relaxation (REL). Subscales representing these three factors and a composite measure, “General Depth,” were constructed. Subscale correlations with HGSHS:A scores were highest for the DAS subscale (.69) and lowest for REL (.41). Applications of the HEQ-S in clinical and research use are considered.
Using the phenomenological studies and theories of J. R. Hilgard (1979) and Shor (1962), Kelly (1985) constructed the Hypnotic Experience Questionnaire (HEQ), a 47- item scale designed to demonstrate the existence of five factors of the hypnotic experience. These factors included dissociation/altered state, relaxation, rapport, visual imagery, and a negatively correlated factor of cognitive rumination measuring the amount of anxious self-reflective, and interfering thought. A composite scale, General Depth, was also derived to provide a summary measure of the subjective quality of the hypnotic experience. The HEQ was developed as a research instrument.
The HEQ-S was administered immediately after Ss completed the Harvard response record. Items were responded to on a 5-point Likert scale ranging form one (No, none or not at all) to 5 (Yes, a great deal, or almost completely).

Groh, Margaret (1989). Correlates of hypnotic susceptibility. In Spanos, Nicholas P.; Chaves, John F. (Ed.), Hypnosis: The cognitive-behavioral perspective (pp. 32-63). Buffal

The author describes a non-linear relationship between imagery and hypnotizability and between absorption and hypnotizability. People good at imagery may be high or low on hypnotizability scales; the same is true for people high on absorption trait. However, people low on those traits generally are low on measured hypnotizability.

Borgeat, Francois; Rezanowicz, Thaddeus; Chaloult, Louis (1988). La stimulation preconsciente et consciente de l’imaginaire erotique. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 33, 394-398.

The stimulation of erotic fantasies through the association of relaxation and erotic conscious or preconscious suggestions has been evaluated. This study was attempted following positive results in the stimulation of fantasmatic activity in alexithymic subjects with a similar procedure. Thirty female subjects, allocated into three groups practiced relaxation daily for two weeks including three sessions with psychological measures. During the second week, erotic suggestions, preconscious for one group and conscious for another one were added. The third group (control) received only relaxation throughout. Results have shown an increase of sexual arousal and erotic imagery during the sessions with erotic suggestions. Sexual activities and desire increased in the two experimental groups. There was no difference between the effects of the preconscious and conscious suggestions. Possible clinical applications of such a procedure are discussed.

Brink, Nicholas E. (1988-89). Using imagery as a planning and treatment guide in therapy. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 8, 187-200.

Procedures and case studies of how imagery can provide a means to redefine the problem, an agenda for therapy, information for determining the appropriate interventions, a criteria for evaluating progress, and the appropriate time for termination are presented. Images are evoked using one of several imagery situations. These images may converge on the common dynamic pattern clarifying the problem, represent different aspects of the problem, or represent different problems, depending upon the hypnotic suggestion used in evoking the images. The emerging pattern(s) provide the agenda for therapy. Emotional energy in imagery work is used to determine the appropriate timing and content for the therapeutic interventions. Emotional release provides a means of evaluating progress. When each of the items on the agenda are resolved with an emotional release the time for termination is near at hand. Therapy begins by evoking a minimum of three images using one of several situations, including time regression, seeing behind doors on a hallway, or going down in an elevator. These images may represent different aspects of the problem, different problems, or, by using the affect bridge, may converge on a common dynamic pattern clarifying the nature of a single problem.

Cross, W. P.; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1988-89). The effects of imagery vividness and receptivity on skill training induced enhancements in hypnotic susceptibility. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 8, 89-103.

This article is cited by Spanos & Flynn (1989) as indicating that high hypnotizability requires imaginative skills that some people do not possess in sufficient degrees.

Dougherty, John E.; Payne, Paul A. (1988). The use of breathing rhythm to enhance the vividness of mental imagery. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 8 (2), 175-179.

The study assessed Jencks’ claim that responses to certain suggestions are enhanced by being paced with different phases of the breathing cycle. Following hypnotic induction, twenty-four subjects were given four treatments in counterbalanced order: 1) exhalation-enhanced suggestions paced to exhalation, 2) inhalation-enhanced suggestions paced to inhalation, 3) inhalation-enhanced suggestions counterpaced to exhalation, and 4) exhalation-enhanced suggestions counterpaced to inhalation. Subjects’ reports of imagery vividness provided marginal support (p < .06) for Jencks' hypothesis. Post-experimental inquiry indicated subjects were unaware of the breathing contingency. Results suggest that appropriate pacing may make a greater difference for the energy-confidence group of suggestions (inhalation-paced) than for the calm-relaxation group (exhalation-paced). Dywan, Jane (1988). The imagery factor in hypnotic hypermnesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 312-326. Week-long repeated recall attempts were used as baseline against which to assess the effects of hypnosis on the recall of pictures. Hypnosis increased errors for all Ss but especially for high hypnotizables. In Experiment 1, dividing Ss on the basis of imagery ability had the same effect on recall as dividing them on the basis of hypnotic ability. In Experiment 2, imagery ability was found to interact with hypnosis in mediating the level of error during waking trials. Results do not support the claim that hypnosis enhances recall, but they do suggest that further study is needed to clarify the role that imagery ability plays in recall patterns over time. NOTES 1: NOTES Author reviews research indicating that introduction of confident errors is a reliable finding in hypnosis-memory research, and notes that the role of imagery ability has not as yet been examined even though imagery is viewed as important to memory functioning. She also reviews the imagery- hypnotizability correlation literature. EXPERIMENT 1 Involved 54 Ss screened by Harvard Scale and SHSS:C, divided into highs (7-12) and lows (1-6) by SHSS:C. Stimuli were 60 black and white line drawings. There were 3 baseline trials in the lab; Ss were then given 6 envelopes, each containing a 60 blank item recall sheet, and asked to complete one each day and return it via campus mail. (When unable to recall more items, they were asked to draw a line under the last item recalled and then use "educated guesses." ) After a week of repeated recalls, Ss in the hypnosis condition were told they would be able to 'see' the slides appear before them; in the task motivating condition Ss were informed about such things as context dependent recall, the importance of focused attention, and the importance of good recall for forensic investigations. Results were analyzed for increase in recall over the cumulative number of correct items recalled. Neither hypnotizability nor visual imagery ability influenced the cumulative baseline measures. High hypnotizable Ss produced a small but significantly greater increase in new, correct information during hypnosis than other Ss, but also made 3 times as many errors. Dividing Ss by imagery score produced similar results. That is, people with very good imaging ability reacted in the same manner as the highly hypnotizable Ss: in hypnosis they increased the number of items they were willing to call a memory but also increased the number of errors. EXPERIMENT 2 Differed from Experiment 1 in that Ss were selected for hypnotic ability and imagery ability so that both would be adequately represented. (The high hypnotizable - low visual imagery group is a group that hasn't been represented much in earlier research, and the author notes that those Ss are rather difficult to locate. ) The task motivation condition was not used, based on results of Experiment 1. Ss who were low on hypnotizability and imagery ability served as the controls. Ss were told that they could be either in a hypnosis condition or a control condition but actually all Ss received a hypnotic induction. (This is like the London- Fuhrer, 1961, research design, which goes on the assumption that low hypnotizables do not enter into hypnosis even though they are exposed to an induction. Thus, hypnotic effects are not assumed for lows in the hypnotic condition and they become "controls.") Results of correct and error recall over the baseline week were analyzed. There was no difference in correct recall as a function of hypnotic ability or visual imagery ability. However, there was a main effect for visual imagery ability and for hypnotizability, and a significant interaction between trials, for cumulative errors over the baseline week. Effects of hypnosis were weaker than in Experiment 1 but followed same pattern. Those Ss most likely to have been hypnotized (highs) produced slightly more correct information than lows, and showed a greater increase in errors than lows. However high and low visualizers did not differ in response to hypnosis for correct information or for errors. Since there was an interaction between hypnotic ability and visual imagery ability for error rate during waking trials, the author tested for the interaction during hypnosis. Using a 2 x 2 ANOVA with new errors as the dependent measure; no interaction was found. Hypnotic ability was therefore responsible for determining Ss' responses in the hypnosis condition. Author attributes the effect to being hypnotized rather than to individual differences in hypnotizability or to context effects. DISCUSSION Includes the author's delineation of differences between the two experiments that might explain differences in results. The increase in errors that was observed may be due to increased fluency in producing items under hypnosis (Sheehan & Tilden, 1984, 1986) or to a shift in reporting criterion (e.g., M. T. Orne, Soskis, Dinges, & E. C. Orne, 1984). "Both high and low hypnotizable Ss produced more memories in the task- motivating condition, and low hypnotizables are not totally immune from the effect in the hypnotic context. What the report-criterion hypothesis does not explain is the reason why the memory reports of high hypnotizable Ss are differentially affected by task demands (e.g., task-motivating instructions versus hypnosis in Experiment 1) nor why hypnotized Ss so often seem surprised by the ease with which information seems to be 'recalled' during hypnosis . An alternative hypothesis is that being hypnotized results in a shift to a more imagistic style of information processing. The enhanced vividness of items generated during the retrieval process may convince Ss that these items must have been part of the original stimulus presentation (Dywan, 1985). "Whatever the mechanisms might be, it is clear that the hypnotic effect is the result of an interaction between contextual factors and pre-existing characteristics of the individual. Moreover, these same mechanisms would likely be at work when hypnosis is actually used in the forensic situation, where the pressure to retrieve information could be more acute than what can be mustered in the experimental context. This should cause some concern because the differential increase in errors did not occur only for the relatively small proportion of Ss who were very high in hypnotic ability. The 'high' hypnotizable group in these experiments consisted of Ss of moderate to high levels of hypnotic ability and so the results can be generalized to at least one-half the population" (p. 323). "In summary, it would seem that any pressure for Ss to increase their recall-- whether it be repeated trials, task-motivating instructions, or hypnotic suggestion--results in higher levels of output and lower levels of accuracy. Repeated recall attempts lead to increases in recall and in errors. Some Ss (viz., those with high levels of hypnotic ability and low levels of imagery ability) are particularly prone to producing false-positive responses over the course of repeated recall attempts. When Ss are pressed to recall more information, they all try to do so by increasing their output and this increased output is usually accompanied by an increase in error. When hypnosis is introduced, however, those Ss who are hypnotizable show a differential increase in output. The amount of new correct information retrieved by hypnotized Ss is small and not a highly reliable phenomenon. The increase in errors that occurs in the recall of hypnotized individuals, however, is a substantial and highly reliable effect. Irrespective of how many errors were made as a function of repeated recall attempts, hypnosis can be counted on to increase errors over and above the increases in errors that occur when Ss are not hypnotized. Further work is needed to identify the mechanisms involved in the hypnotic distortion of recall. The role that imagery ability might have in the context of waking and hypnotic recall has not been resolved and this also presents an interesting problem for future study" (pp. 323-324). Gabel, Stewart (1988). The right hemisphere in imagery, hypnosis, rapid eye movement sleep, and dreaming: Empirical studies and tentative conclusions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 323-331. Reviews studies that have addressed the issue of whether there is an increased activation or efficiency of right-hemispheric processes during imagery, hypnosis, REM sleep, and dreaming. Evidence strongly supports the notion of increased right- hemispheric activation in simple imaginal or visual states during usual consciousness. There are also studies supporting this view of REM sleep, dreaming, and hypnotic phenomena. It is concluded, however, that the lack of adequate studies, contradictory or negative findings, and moderating variables (e.g., task difficulty, cognitive style) make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning right-hemispheric processes. Gorassini, Donald R.; Hooper, Cynthia L.; Kitching, Kathleen J. (1988). The active participation of highly susceptible hypnotic subjects in generating their hypnotic experiences. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 7 (3), 215-226. Hypnotized individuals have traditionally been considered to be detached from the control of their own suggested behavior. We tested this and the alternative notion that hypnotized subjects attempt to self-generate the experiences (i.e., mainly of involuntariness) as well as produce the behaviors thought to be prototypical of high hypnotic ability. In an experimental investigation, highly susceptible hypnotic subjects were found to engage in the kind of imaginative activity that would be expected of individuals who were attempting deliberately to generate their experiences of involuntariness; they engaged as actively in imagery-generation as did subjects who were specifically instructed to imagine during suggested responding, and they experienced as much involuntariness as subjects in whom suggested movements were produced by an external physical force. The implications of these findings for the neodissociation and social psychological theories of hypnotic responding are discussed. Katsanis, Joanna; Barnard, Joanna; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1988). Self-predictions, interpretational set and imagery vividness as determinants of hypnotic responding. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 8 (1), 63-77. Two studies assessed the effects of self-predictions and interpretations of suggested demands on hypnotizability. Subjects overestimated their responsiveness to suggestions. Those who believed that they would fail all or almost all suggestions invariably attained low hypnotizability scores. However, those who believed that they would be highly responsive exhibited wide variability in their actual hypnotizability. Among subjects who self-predicted high responsiveness, those who adopted a passive "wait and see" interpretation toward suggestions scored significantly lower in hypnotizability than those who believed that they should actively bring about suggested effects. Study 2 also found that the relationship between adopting an active interpretation and hypnotizability was moderated by subjects' level of imagery vividness. Theoretical implications are discussed. Kumar, V. K.; Pekala, Ronald J. (1988). Hypnotizability, absorption, and individual differences in phenomenological experience. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 80-88. The phenomenological effects associated with a baseline condition of eyes- closed and a hypnotic induction condition were compared across individuals of differing absorption capacity and hypnotizability. The results indicated that individuals of differing absorption capacity and hypnotizability reported different intensities of phenomenological experience during the baseline eyes-closed condition. The induction further augmented intensity differences for low, medium, and high absorption and hypnotizable Ss, but more so for high (and medium) than low hypnotizable Ss. The results support both a trait and state interpretation of hypnotizability, and highlight the importance of the interaction between these factors on the resulting hypnotic experience of S. NOTES Based on a review of relevant literature, the authors predicted that (1) during hypnosis and a baseline condition (eyes-closed), high absorption and high hypnotizable Ss will report the phenomenological effects at greater intensity relative to low absorption and low hypnotizable Ss, respectively; (2) hypnotic induction will be associated with increased absorption; greater alterations in awareness and experience; and decreased volitional control, rationality, and memory; (3) phenomenological intensity differences (hypnosis compared to eyes-closed) will be significantly greater for high than for low hypnotizable Ss. They used the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) developed by Pekala (1982), which is a 53 item self-report instrument that is completed retrospectively in reference to a preceding stimulus condition. The PCI measures the following dimensions and subdimensions: internal dialogue; self-awareness; state of awareness; imagery (amount, vividness); positive affect (joy, sexual excitement, love); negative affect (anger, fear, sadness); altered experience (time sense, body image, perception, unusual meanings); attention (absorption, direction); memory; rationality; volitional control; and arousal. The 217 Ss were administered the Tellegen Absorption Scale, then sat quietly with eyes closed for four minutes, then completed the PCI, Form 1, relative to that 4-minute period. They were administered a slightly shortened version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A); before the posthypnotic suggestion and amnesia suggestion they experienced another 4-minute silent period during which they were told to 'continue to experience the state you are in right now.' After the HGSHS:A they completed PCI, Form 2, in reference to the silent period during the HGSHS:A, before they completed the 11-point questionnaire on the HGSHS:A. Subjects who did not have reliable PCI response forms were removed from the sample, leaving 173 Ss who were divided into high, medium, and low Absorption groups, and high, medium, and low hypnotizability groups. The statistical analysis employed MANOVA on intensity scores for first the major PCI dimensions and then the 14 subdimensions using Conditions (eyes closed, hypnosis) and Groups. There were significant main and interaction effects. Subsequent ANOVAs for each (sub)dimension, Conditions by Hypnotizability Groups (2 x 3) were then performed. Hypnosis "was associated with significantly less positive affect (joy, sexual excitement, love); negative affect (anger, sadness); visual imagery (amount, vividness); self-awareness, internal dialogue, rationality, volitional control, and memory; and significantly more altered experience (time sense, perception) and altered state of awareness. "Significant main effects for Hypnotizability Groups were found for positive affect (joy, love); altered experience (body image, time sense, perception, meaning); attention (direction, absorption); self-awareness; altered state of awareness; rationality; volitional control; and memory.