Nadon, Robert; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Perry, Campbell (1987). Multiple predictors of hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 948-960.

Report two experiments in which various measures thought to be related to hypnotizability were analyzed by stepwise discriminant analysis. Absorption and preference for an imagic style of thinking predicted hypnotizability. Addition of 2 other variables in Experiment 2–a Sleep-Dream score derived from Evans’s Cognitive Control of Sleep Mentation subscale and Gibson’s Dream Questionnaire, and the Belief in the Supernatural subscale of the Taft Experience Questionnaire–increased the correct classification of the medium-hypnotizable subjects from chance levels to 74%. Argue for a confirmatory and hierarchical approach in future studies to explore correlates of hypnotizability more fully. NOTES 1:

The following notes were made at an SCEH presentation: [Robert Nadon, Hypnotizability: A Correlational Study Involving Experiential, Imagery, and Selective Attention Variables.]
Author used a number of variables that have related to hypnotizability in single measure studies to predict with a multiple r. 30 male and 30 female Ss, given Harvard (?) then screened on Form A, and finally on Form C. Classed as Low (0-2), Medium (5-10 without amnesia), and High (11-12 with amnesia).
Independent Variable Triserial r % Correctly Classified Sheehan (1967) short Betts -.69** 57 Preference for Imagery Mode of Thought
(Isaacs 1982) .64** 57 Tellegen’s Absorption .58** Personal Experience Questionnaire .51** 80
(Evans 1982) Concordia Fantasy Questionnaire Pavio Stroop Random Number Generation Task Modified Van Nuys Meditation Task 8 Auditory attention tasks

Belicki, Kathryn; Belicki, Denis (1986). Predisposition for nightmares: A study of hypnotic ability, vividness of imagery, and absorption. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42 (5), 714-718.

The relationships of nightmare frequency to hypnotic ability, vividness of visual imagery, and the tendency to become absorbed in fantasy-like experiences were examined. Subjects were 841 undergraduate university students who participated in group tests of hypnotic ability, after which they estimated the number of nightmares that they had experienced in the prior year. In addition, 406 of the subjects completed Marks’ Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Rotenberg and Bowers’ Absorption scale. Of the subjects, 76% reported experiencing at least one nightmare in the prior year; 8.3% indicated one or more per month. Individuals with frequent nightmares scored higher on hypnotizability, vividness of visual imagery, and absorption.

620, Belicki & Bowers, 1982
Investigated the role of demand characteristics in dream change by comparing dream report change following pre- and postsleep administrations of instructions to pay attention to specific dream content. This design was based on the assumption that if presleep instructions merely distort dream reports rather than influence actual dreams, report change should be observable following a postsleep instruction. 42 undergraduates were prescreened with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (Form A), which allowed experimenters to examine the role of hypnotizability in dream change. Significant differences were observed only following the presleep instructions. It is concluded that report distortion as a result of paying attention to a dimension of dream content was insufficient to account for dream report change following presleep instructions. Hypnotic ability correlated significantly with the amount of dream change.

Priebe, Frances A.; Wallace, Benjamin (1986). Hypnotizability, imaging ability, and the detection of embedded objects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 320-329.

40 Ss participated in an experiment designed to determine the influence of hypnotizability and imaging ability on cognitive performance. Individuals were asked to locate objects embedded within a series of pictorial scenes. For each scene, Ss were allocated a total of 6 minutes to find as many objects as possible. The objects were described to Ss prior to their search for them. Although there were no significant differences in total number of objects found as a function of hypnotizability, high hypnotizable Ss made significantly fewer errors in locating and identifying objects. This difference was attributed to the superior ability of the high hypnotizability Ss in visualizing the hidden objects and in using produced images as a means for correctly identifying them. This did not appear to be the case for the low hypnotizability Ss.
It was this different in search strategy that may ultimately have led to the error difference between high and low hypnotizable Ss. NOTES 1:

High hypnotizables “have been shown to be better able to resist distractions in a tracking task (Mitchell, 1970); to concentrate on their own breathing or on a candle flame (Van Nuys, 1973); to listen to a target story along with a nontarget story and to report what they could remember about the target story (Karlin, 1979); and to perceive Necker cube and Schroeder staircase illusory reversals (Wallace, Knight, & Garrett, 1976).
“Cognitive performance also has been shown to be influenced by imaging ability. For example, Paivio & Ernst (1971) found that when Ss were asked to identify letters, pictures, and geometric forms flashed to either the left or right visual field, those judged to be high imagers on a self-report test demonstrated better visual recognition. Similar findings were reported by Gur and Hilgard (1975) and Paivio (1978a, b).
“In addition to reports that imaging ability and hypnotizability affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, there have also been reports that these two variables are related, at least to some degree (Diamond & Taft, 1975; Palmer & Field, 1968; Sutcliffe, Perry, & Sheehan, 1970). Some, however, have found that … low imagers tend to be low in hypnotizability but high imagers may not necessarily be high in hypnotizability (Perry, 1973)” (pp. 320-321). A correlation between hypnotizability and imaging ability also was found by T’Hoen (1978) in a paired associates learning task in which imagery and concreteness of the word pairs was varied; and by other investigators using other research designs (Gur & Hilgard, 1975; Paivio, 1978a, b; Paivio & Ernst, 1971).
Cognitive performance of high hypnotizable people was superior to low hypnotizables when the task was locating an imbedded letter (‘Z’) or completing double- digit arithmetic problems (Wallace and Patterson, 1984), possibly because highs may be using imagery to facilitate their performance. Highs performed better in detecting small differences in picture pairs when hypnotized but not when awake (Crawford and Allen, 1983). It appears that both highs and lows may use memorization of details for task performance, but only highs switch to a ‘holistic’ cognitive processing style, and mostly during hypnosis. Actually, Wallace and Patterson (1984) found that highs also used a holistic strategy in the waking state, not just in the hypnotized condition.
In the present study, subjects were 40 volunteers (20 highly hypnotizable subjects with scores of 9-12 on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and 20 lows with scores of 0-3). The task was to locate hidden objects in pictures, with level of difficulty rated as hard, medium, or easy. The outcome data were analyzed by analysis of variance for hypnotizability, picture difficulty, and time (six successive 1-min periods).
In Session 1 subjects were administered the Harvard Scale and the Marks Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire; in Session 2 the group Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: C was administered.
Before the actual experimental task of circling hidden pictures within larger pictorial scenes, each subject was given a list of words representing things that were embedded in the scenes, and asked to visualize each item. Then they were given six minutes to complete the item-finding task. They received three scores: the total number of objects located in six minutes, the number of objects correctly found, and number of errors. The 2x3x6 ANOVA was performed for each of these three dependent variables.
Hypnotizability was not an important variable determining the number of correct objects located, but was significantly associated with the occurrence of fewer errors. Mean errors were 4.5 for Lows and 2.7 for Highs. Furthermore, hypnotizability was associated with using a ‘holistic strategy’ rather than a ‘detail strategy’ for finding items (self report on storing a memory of the list of objects-to-be found, preparatory to making the search, rather than checking back with the list during the search). Hypnotizability correlated with imaging ability r = .34, p < .05. In their Discussion, the authors noted that low hypnotizable people did not tend to use imagery for locating hidden objects, but would glance back and forth between the list and the picture--sometimes using a check-off mark next to items. High hypnotizables spent an average of 20 seconds looking at the list and becoming more familiar with it before starting to try to find the hidden objects. "One can assume this was a preparatory step in the formation of images for a subsequent visual search and the deployment of a holistic strategy during the search. "When asked why they engaged in their respective behaviors, low hypnotizables generally said that they were not too concerned with the list initially because they searched for hidden items by constructing objects out of discrepancies in the picture. Only when they found what they thought had the properties of an embedded object did the list become important. At that point they would refer back to the list to determine if the object was among those to be located. The list thus served as a tool for confirming the existence of an object they had found as well as a means for enabling them to double check which items they still had to find. High hypnotizable Ss generally claimed that they formed mental images in their heads for each item on the list. Once they found an object in the picture, they compared that object to the formed, mental image rather than referring back to the actual list. "As was previously mentioned, Crawford and Allen (1983) only found a difference in cognitive strategy between high and low hypnotizable Ss in the hypnotic state. In the present study, however, a strategy difference between these groups was noted in the waking state but only in terms of number of errors produced. A significant difference between high and low hypnotizables was not found in terms of the number of objects correctly found in a pictorial scene within a set period of time. It is possible that had cognitive strategies used in the hypnotic state been compared to those used in the waking state, our results might have been different. It is equally plausible, however, that hypnosis is not the critical factor in producing the difference between the results of the present study and those of Crawford and Allen (1983). It is possible that high hypnotizable Ss may show a holistic strategy when they are encouraged to involve themselves imaginatively and this encouragement is naturally provided in hypnosis, but it could also be present in the waking state if the task being used is appropriately structured. The task used in the present study is one that could be said to especially encourage the use of imagery, and in this sense, it may be relatively distinct from that used by Crawford and Allen. The fact that Ss practiced imagery on the element list beforehand simply reinforces the difference. Thus, the nature of the cognitive task may be what is at issue and not the presence or absence of hypnosis" (p. 327). Slomoff, Daniel A. (1986, March). Hypnotic susceptibility, vividness of imagery and the ability to self-regulate pain in a cold pressor test (Dissertation, Fielding Institute). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9), 3231-B. "Previous studies suggested that subjects who used more vivid images and who are good hypnotic subjects are more involved in their imagery and therefore have better pain control. In this study, subjects were given the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Sheehan-Betts Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery and then exposed to a cold pressor test for pain. Previous studies had limitations using an imagery scale which only tested for visual imagery, asking subjects to learn a new cognitive strategy, and limiting the study to female subjects. This study used both an objective and subjective multisensory test of imagery, tested for both genders, and allowed subjects to use their inherent cognitive strategies. "It was hypothesized that hypnotically susceptible subjects would demonstrate greater pain tolerance and pain intensity. This was not supported. It was also hypothesized that subjects who scored high on pain intensity control and this was also not supported. It was discussed that the instruments may not be strong enough to measure differences when pain tolerance and pain control are being looked at. "It was further predicted that there would be an interaction effect between hypnotizability and vividness of imagery for pain tolerance and pain intensity control. The results did not support this hypothesis. the author felt that it might be necessary to compare high and low imagers rather than high and medium imagers in this study. In that case the degree of difference between the groups might be great enough to demonstrate the interaction effects. As was predicted, it was found that highly hypnotizable subjects who were good imagers did use more imagery and rated this imagery as more effective and more vivid. "It is suggested that future research assess the type of imagery associated with a specific kind of pain experience. Pain as the result of temperature, pressure, or electrical stimulation might require different imagery as a cognitive coping strategy. Appropriate assessment tools will then need to be developed in this regard" (p. 3231). Spanos, Nicholas P.; Robertson, Lynda A.; Menary, Evelyn P.; Brett, Pamela J. (1986). Component analysis of cognitive skill training for the enhancement of hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 350-357. Four treatments to enhance the hypnotic responsiveness of subjects who pretested as low in hypnotic susceptibility were compared. Complete skill training included information aimed at encouraging (a) positive attitudes, (b) the use of imagery strategies, and (c) an interpretation of hypnotic behavior as active responding. Partial training included only components (a) and (b). Both training packages enhanced attitudes toward hypnosis to an equivalent degree. However, complete training was much more effective than either partial training or no treatment at enhancing behavioral and subjective responding on two different posttest scales of hypnotic susceptibility. More than half of the subjects who received complete training, but none of the partial training or control subjects, scored in the high-susceptibility range on both posttests. Subjects explicitly instructed to fake hypnosis and those in the complete skill-training treatment exhibited significantly different patterns of posttest responding. Findings support social psychological perspectives that emphasize the importance of contextual factors in hypnotic responding. Strosahl, K. D. (1986). Imagery assessment by self report: A multidimensional analysis of clinical imagery. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 187-199. Conducted 2 studies to test the theory that emotive-abstract, sensory modality, and control imagery are functionally distinct abilities and that emotive-abstract imagery and image control are directly related to the quality of in-therapy imagery. In Study 1, 199 undergraduates completed self-report measures of sensory modality, molar imagery, and image control and completed an analog clinical visualization task. In Study 2, 53 undergraduate test-anxious covert behavior therapy participants completed the self- report battery and provided ratings of in-therapy image clarity. Results suggest that emotive/abstract imagery, sensory modality imagery, and image control are factorially distinguishable abilities. A cross-sample factor analysis revealed some instability; however, a theoretically consistent pattern of results emerged. Regression analyses demonstrated that emotive-abstract imagery abilities were the best predictors of performance on the analog task, whereas both image control and emotive imagery were related to the clarity of in-therapy imagery. Results illustrate the qualitative difference between low- and high-order image processes and the possible interaction between emotive imagery and image control. 1985 Acosta, Enrique; Crawford, Helen J. (1985). Iconic memory and hypnotizability: Processing speed, skill or strategy differences?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 236-245. The purported relationship between hypnotizability and speed of information transfer from iconic to short-term memory was studied in a comparison of 12 low and 12 high hypnotizable Ss. As in Ingram, Saccuzzo, McNeill, and McDonald (1979), high hypnotizable Ss showed less interference from a visual mask in the report of a briefly presented item than did low hypnotizable Ss when the mask delays were predictable. When the delay of the mask could not be anticipated, however, differences between high and low hypnotizable Ss disappeared. It is suggested that differences in information processing related to hypnotizability may be due to differences in strategy, skills, or other factors, rather than underlying information processing speed. NOTES Hypnosis may require concentrative or selective attention, which usually is measured by self-report (e.g. Absorption) or by experimental measures. Several investigations indicate that high hypnotizable people are better than low hypnotizables at focusing on a task and ignoring extraneous information (Brown, Crawford, Smith, Leu, & Brock, 1983; Graham & Evans, 1977; Karlin, 1979; Miller, 1975; Wallace, 1979; Wallace, Garrett, & Anstadt, 1974; Wallace, Knight, & Garrett, 1976). One way to study attentional processes is through the effect of presenting a mask (e.g. $$$$$) shortly after presenting a stimulus (e.g. ABCDE). Ingram (1979) found that highs had faster information processing, but that might be due to anticipation bias associated with the method of limits employed. This study uses both an ascending method of limits, like Ingram, and a condition in which the mask delays were presented randomly within another block of trials. RESULTS "While the present study replicated Ingram et al.'s (1979) findings when an ascending method of limits was used (the same used by Ingram et al.) differences were not found in processing when ISIs were presented randomly. Thus, these results suggest that high and low hypnotizable Ss do not differ in their information transmission rates, but rather they may differ in other aspects which mediate performance in this task" (pp. 241- 242). "Several lines of evidence point towards strategy or skill differences between high and low hypnotizable Ss as a possible explanation for the present findings. First, it was found that when Ss could anticipate the mask delay (the ascending condition), high hypnotizable Ss outperformed the low hypnotizables. When this anticipation was controlled, as in the random condition, the two groups did not differ when the data were scored by serial position. When the data were scored by a free recall scheme, there was a nonsignificant trend for high hypnotizable Ss to score higher than did the low hypnotizables. This trend suggests that high hypnotizable Ss may be more willing to guess, and to guess more accurately than low hypnotizables, when they have partial information about a letter, and/or they may have greater skill in perceiving incomplete information. The latter suggestion finds indirect support from Crawford (1981) who reported that high hypnotizable Ss can process fragmented stimuli (Gestalt Closure tests, see Thurstone & Jeffrey, 1966), significantly better than can low hypnotizables. High imagers have been shown also to perform significantly better than low imagers in Gestalt Closure tasks (Ernest, 1980). At a speculative level, given that recent research has suggested that iconic memory may be a right hemisphere phenomenon (e.g. Cohen, 1976, but also see DiLollo, 1981), and high hypnotizable Ss outperform low hypnotizables on certain right hemisphere tasks (e.g. Crawford, 1981), it may be asked if the trends found with the free recall scoring scheme in the present study might be a reflection of differential right hemisphere processing. Such a hypothesis could be investigated in future research by comparing the performance of high and low hypnotizable Ss, as possibly moderated by visuo-spatial ability, for stimuli presented to the left versus the right visual hemifield (Ernest, 1983). "A second set of evidence in favor of strategy differences was found in Saccuzzo et al. (1982) which was published after the data for the present experiment were collected. In the Saccuzzo et al. (1982) paper, which was an extension and replication of Ingram et al. (1979), the same mask delay was used throughout a 10-trial block. The order of the blocks (i.e., the mask delays) was random. Thus, while S did not know which mask delay was used in the first trial of a block, the remaining 9 trials were the same and could be anticipated. During the first session, high hypnotizable Ss outperformed the low hypnotizables, but these differences disappeared on the second testing session. These results suggest that practice may have affected performance, rather than any underlying information processing speed differences" (pp. 242-243). Nogrady, Heather; McConkey, Kevin M.; Perry, Campbell (1985). Enhancing visual memory: Trying hypnosis, trying imagination, and trying again. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (2), 195-204. Tested visual recall memory of high (n = 24) and low (n = 24) hypnotizable undergraduates (screened under the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale) for black and white line drawings of common objects in either hypnosis, imagination, or control conditions. Memory performance in terms of both correct and incorrect items increased appreciably across the recall tests. Neither hypnosis nor imagination enhanced recall beyond that of normal repeated testing. Hypnotizability was not related to the amount of correct material recalled but was related to the amount of incorrect material reported. High hypnotizable Ss in the hypnosis condition were more likely than other Ss to confidently rate the incorrect material as correct. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of hypnosis on and the relevance of hypnotizability to enhancing visual memory. Wallinga, Gary Alan (1985, January). Imagery enhancement: The effects of hypnosis and practice (Dissertation, University of South Dakota). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7), 2326-B. This study examined the imagery enhancement effects of hypnosis and imagery practice. It also compared the effects of these imagery enhancement techniques when administered to individual subjects as compared to groups of subjects. The sample consisted of 120 undergraduate male student volunteers who were randomly assigned to each of the experimental conditions: 1) imagery practice, 2) hypnosis, 3) hypnosis followed by imagery practice, 4) imagery practice followed by hypnosis, 5) inert treatment control. Each experimental condition was administered to an equal number of subjects individually and in groups. Subjects' self-reports of imagery vividness and imagery control were obtained following administration of the experimental procedures. Three standard imagery questionnaires were used: 4) Betts' (1909) Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery, as revised by Sheehan, 2) the Guy Emotive Imagery Scale, (Guy and McCarter, 1978), and 3) Gordon's (1949) Test of Visual Imagery Control, as revised by Richardson, (1969). According to the results obtained in the present study, the effectiveness of imagery enhancement was not supported. Imagery enhancement techniques involving hypnosis decreased subjects' imagery vividness and control while techniques using imagery practice had no effect on imaginal functioning. The results further suggested that across all experimental conditions, subjects trained in groups did not differ significantly from those trained individually. Previous research provides both conflicting and supportive evidence for these results. It is suggested that future research will need to examine differences in experimental processes, uncontrolled for subject characteristics, and alternative dependent measures, in order to reconcile these discrepant findings" (p. 2326). 1984 Billotti, Thomas J. (1984, August). The effects of rational emotive imagery and rational emotive imagery plus hypnosis in reduced public speaking anxiety (Dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (2), 633-634-B. Previous investigations have demonstrated the effectiveness of rational emotive therapy in reducing public speaking anxiety and the increased benefit derived by combining rational emotive procedures with hypnosis. The present study examined the effectiveness of rational emotive imagery and rational emotive imagery plus hypnosis in reducing public speaking anxiety in subjects with high and low levels of imaginative ability. The dependent measures employed included self report, behavioral and physiological measures of anxiety. "47 undergraduate students who reported anxiety while speaking in public served as subjects in the study. The subjects were divided into high and low levels of imaginative ability and randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups as follows: rational emotive imagery, rational emotive imagery plus hypnosis, and an instructional control group. It was hypothesized that subjects in the rational emotive imagery plus hypnosis group would evidence significantly less anxiety than subjects in the rational emotive imagery and instructional control group, and that subjects with high pre-treatment levels of imaginative ability would evidence significantly less anxiety than subjects with low pre- treatment levels of imaginative ability. "The results of this study provided some support for the efficacy of combining rational emotive imagery with hypnosis. Subjects in the rational emotive imagery plus hypnosis group evidenced significantly less anxiety than subjects in the rational emotive imagery and instructional control group on the two self-report measures. There were no significant differences as between subjects in the rational emotive imagery group and instructional control group or between subjects with high and low imaginative ability on post-treatment assessments. Subjects tended to have their highest pulse rates at the start of the speeches, their lowest pulse rate just after the speeches, and moderate pulse rates just before and during the speeches. "Factors contributing to these results and interpretations of the data were discussed. Suggestions regarding the direction of future research were offered" (p. 633- 634). 1984 Kearns, John S.; Zamansky, Harold S. (1984). Synthetic versus analytic imaging ability as correlates of hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32, 41-50. It was hypothesized that synthetic imaging ability, but not analytic imaging ability, is positively related to hypnotizability. The correlation of scores on a paired- associates task, used as a measure of synthetic imaging ability, with scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1962), indicated a statistically nonsignificant trend in the predicted direction. 2 measures of analytic imaging ability, as well as Sheehan's (1967) revision of the Betts (1909) Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery, a measure of vividness of imagery, did not correlate significantly with SHSS:C. The results are discussed in terms of their relation to studies of creativity and goal-directed fantasy. NOTES The authors review the literature on imagery and hypnotizability and propose that an important variable in hypnosis is an ability to expand imaginatively upon a given verbal input (synthetic imaging ability), akin to Spanos' (1971) concept of goal-directed fantasy. They cite studies relating creativity ("essentially a synthetic process") to hypnotizability, and predict that skill in solving spatial relations problems (analytic imaging ability) is not correlated with hypnotizability because it involves "accurately scanning visual images and converging on solutions to specific problems," (p. 42) rather than creative fantasy characteristic of hypnotic behavior. Forty Subjects had two sessions each: imagery tests in #1 and SHSS:C in #2. Imagery tests included, in this order: 1. Paired Associates (Paivio, 1972; a test of synthetic imaging), in which paired words are learned and later recalled; Experimental Ss were to learn them by combining them into an image, while Control Ss were to simply try to learn them. The nouns differed in imagery strength (potential for stimulating images). 2. Nonsense Forms (a test of analytic imaging), in which Subjects trace with their fingers an irregularly shaped Masonite form, blindfolded, and then choose one of 5 drawings that best matches the form. 3. Cube Visualization (a test of analytic imaging), in which Ss imagine a 2" wooden cube painted red on all faces, that had been sawed into 1" cubes; they are to say how many of the smaller cubes would be red on 3 faces, 2 faces, one face, and none of the faces. 4. Betts QMI. The Paired Associates (PA) scores were a ratio of high imagery words recalled to low imagery words recalled, intended to reflect the impact of imagery availability on memory. There was a trend for hypnotizability to correlate with PA ratio scores, regardless of whether intermediate or low imagery nouns were used as baseline (rho = .37 and .34, p <.10) in the experimental group ("Use imagery to learn."), a trend that was not found in the control group (no imagery instructions). Neither measure of analytic imaging ability (Nonsense Forms, Cube test) correlated with hypnotizability. In their Discussion, the authors write, "The common factor in successful performance of both imagery-mediated paired associates learning tasks and hypnotic suggestions appears to be the ability to expand imaginatively upon a given verbal input" (p. 47). They cite the literature relating hypnotizable and creative performance (p. 47). "The present findings with the Nonsense Forms Test and the Cube Visualization Test, both of which failed to correlate significantly with SHSS:C, support the hypothesis that hypnotizability is not related to analytic, spatial-imagining skills" (p. 47). "The nonsignificant correlation between Betts QMI and SHSS:C adds to the growing body of inconsistent findings observed with Betts QMI" (p. 47). "Given the complex nature of hypnotic susceptibility and of imagery (Monteiro et al., 1980), it is perhaps not surprising that studies attempting to relate the two variables directly frequently yield only modest relationships. Very likely, the inclusion of appropriate mediating variables would serve to clarify and, in particular instances, augment the relationships observed between hypnotic responsiveness and imaging ability. One such variable may be the capacity to become fully involved in everyday nonhypnotic experiences, commonly called absorption. This variable has been shown in numerous studies to be related to hypnotizability (e.g. Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974), as well as to creativity and vividness of imagery (P. Bowers, 1978, 1979; Monteiro et al., 1980). Even more relevant to the present study is the possible interaction between level of hypnotic susceptibility and the relationship between synthetic imaging ability and SHSS:C scores. It may be, for example, that the contribution of synthetic imaging ability becomes more critical in eliciting hypnotic behavior from Ss who are only moderately susceptible to hypnosis. Such an analysis was not possible in the present experiment, since the number of high, medium, and low susceptible Ss was approximately equal, and, therefore, the number of Ss at each level was insufficient for an adequate subgroup analysis. Clearly, however, future studies of the role of imaginal skills in hypnotic responsivity must move in directions such as these" (p. 48). 1983 Crawford, Helen J.; Allen, Steven N. (1983). Enhanced visual memory during hypnosis as mediated by hypnotic responsiveness and cognitive strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112 (4), 662-685. To investigate the hypothesis that hypnosis has an enhancing effect on imagery processing, as mediated by hypnotic responsiveness and cognitive strategies, four experiments compared performance of low and high, or low, medium, and high hypnotically responsive subjects in waking and hypnosis conditions on a successive visual memory discrimination task that required detecting differences between successively presented picture pairs in which one member of the pair was slightly altered. Consistently, hypnotically responsive individuals showed enhanced mean number of correct performance during hypnosis, whereas nonresponsive ones did not. Hypnotic responsiveness correlated .52 (p < .001) with enhanced performance during hypnosis, but it was uncorrelated with waking performance (Experiment 3). Reaction time was not affected by hypnosis, although high hypnotizables were faster than lows in their responses (Experiments 1 and 2). NOTES Subjects reported enhanced imagery vividness on the self-report Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire during hypnosis. The differential effect between lows and highs was in the anticipated direction but not significant (Experiments 1 and 2). Two cognitive strategies appeared to mediate visual memory performance: (a) detail strategy (memorization and rehearsal of individual details) and (b) holistic strategy (looking at and remembering the whole picture with accompanying imagery). Both lows and highs reported predominantly detail-oriented strategies during waking; however the highs shifted to a more holistic strategy during hypnosis. It appears that high hypnotizables have a greater capacity than lows for cognitive flexibility (Battig, 1979). Results are discussed in terms of Paivio's (1971) dual coding theory and Craik and Tulving's (1975) depth of processing theory. The authors also discuss whether hypnosis involves a shift in cerebral dominance, as reflected by the cognitive strategy changes and enhanced imagery processing. Farthing, G. William; Venturino, Michael; Brown, Scott W. (1983). Relationship between two different types of imagery vividness questionnaire items and three hypnotic susceptibility scale factors: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31, 8-13. 122 Ss were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974), and 2 tape-recorded questionnaires on vividness of mental imagery. On 1 imagery questionnaire the items were impersonal, objective visual scenes (MIQ:VS), whereas on the other questionnaire the items involved discrete personal actions which elicited a combination of visual and kinesthetic imagery (MIQ:PA). Imagery vividness scores from both questionnaires correlated significantly with hypnotizability scores. MIQ:VS vividness scores were better than MIQ:PA vividness scores at predicting cognitive factor item scores of HGSHS:A, but not ideomotor or challenge factor items scores. Multiple correlations involving MIQ:VS vividness and the Tellegen predicted cognitive factor scores better than ideomotor or challenge factor scores. 1982 Crawford, Helen J. (1982). Hypnotizability, daydreaming styles, imagery vividness, and absorption: A multidimensional study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42 (5), 915-926. In 25 male and 31 female university student and staff volunteers, the interrelationships between the following measures were studied: hypnotic susceptibility (SHSS:A and C), imagery vividness (VVIQ), involvement in everyday activities (TAS), and daydreaming styles (28 scales of Singer & Antrobus's Imaginal Processes Inventory). Factor analysis produced a factor characterized as a positively vivid and absorptive imagination style. Hypnotic susceptibility, VVIQ, TAS, and positive-affect daydreaming styles all loaded on this factor. Two other factors were a dysphoric daydreaming style and a lack-of-attentional-control style. Stepwise multiple regressions suggested that males and females, at least within this sample, exhibit different relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and predictor variables. Similar differences were found for the VVIQ and the TAS and their daydreaming-scale predictor variables. Smigielski, Jeffrey Steven (1982). Imagery enhancement: An investigation of the effects of hypnosis and practice (Dissertation, University of South Dakota). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (n6-B), 2004. (Order No. DA 8226277) A variety of psychotherapeutic techniques utilize imagery procedures. Many of these are considered to be dependent upon the participant's ability to produce clear, vivid, and manipulable imagery. Clinical procedures have been devised to attempt to enhance imagery ability, in order to obtain maximum therapy effectiveness. The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of three variations of enhancement procedures. Eighty undergraduate student volunteers, paid for their participation, were selected on the basis of screening for level of hypnotic susceptibility. Ten high susceptibility and ten low susceptibility individuals were randomly assigned to each of 4 experimental conditions: (1) imagery practice only (PR), (2) hypnosis only (Hypnotic), (3) hypnosis plus practice (Help), and (4) inert treatment control (Can). Ss' self reports of imagery vividness and imagery control were obtained following administration of the experimental procedures. Three standard imagery questionnaires were used for this purpose: (1) Betts' (1909) Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery (QMI), as revised by Sheehan (1967), (2) the Guy Emotional Imagery Scale (GEIS, Guy and McCarter, 1978), and (3) Gordon's (1949) Test of Visual Imagery Control (TVIC), as presented in Richardson (1979). Analyses of variance using the QMI and GEIS as dependent variables yielded no significant treatment effects. Significant differences were noted in analysis of TVIC scores. Post hoc analysis of differences indicated that low susceptibility individuals assigned to the Help condition reported significantly lower imaginal control in comparison with low susceptibility individuals in the PR and Hypnotic conditions, and with high susceptibility controls. They did not differ significantly from low susceptibility controls. Results were interpreted as failing to support the effectiveness of imagery enhancement procedures. Results were considered to be generally consistent with previous work. Suggestions for further research were discussed. Comparison of group versus individually administered enhancement procedures was considered likely to be especially important in future research" (p. 2004). 1981 Hilgard, Ernest R.; Sheehan, Peter W.; Monteiro, K. P.; Macdonald, Hugh (1981). Factorial structure of the Creative Imagination Scale as a measure of hypnotic responsiveness: An international comparative study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 66-76. The factor structure of the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) of Wilson and Barber (1978) was investigated in two studies by correlating scores on it with scores on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962), the Absorption scale of Tellegen and Atkinson (1974), and Sheehan's (1967) revision of Betts' (1909) imagery scale. One of the studies was conducted at the University of Queensland in Australia (N = 237), the other at Stanford University in California (N = 92). The major finding, consistent in both investigations, was that two factors accounted for the major portion of the variance, one factor designated as a Hypnotic Performance factor, the other designated as an Absorption/Imagination factor. The CIS was weighted highly on both factors, the data bearing on earlier claims that CIS represents a single-factor scale. Singer, Jerome L.; Pope, Kenneth S. (1981). Daydreaming and imagery skills as predisposing capacities for self-hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (3), 271-281. A growing body of empirical literature suggests that daydreaming and related forms of waking reverie are natural-occurring, common experiences in normal individuals. Specific experiments relating daydreaming and the stream of ongoing thought as an alternative source of stimulation to external cues are described. It is proposed that everyday waking consciousness has many features of internal absorption in imagery and adaptive but non-sequential processes that resemble fantasy, hypnosis, and night dreaming. Experiments linking daydreaming, imagery vividness, and hypnosis are cited as suggesting that individuals may develop capacities for control over the stream of thought and that such capacities are closely similar to the skills needed for self-hypnosis. 1980 Coe, William C.; St. Jean, R. L.; Burger, J. M. (1980). Hypnosis and the enhancement of visual imagery. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 225-234. The enhancing effect of hypnosis on the vividness and the control of imagery was investigated. In 1 experiment, Ss who volunteered to be hypnotized were administered 2 measures of imagery, 1 under hypnotic conditions and 1 under imagination instructions while waking (counter-balanced). In another experiment, the imagery of 2 independent samples of Ss (waking or hypnotized) who volunteered for an imagery experiment was evaluated. Of the samples, hypnosis enhanced the vividness and control of imagery in only 1 -- the sample with Ss who volunteered for hypnosis and were first administered a test of imagination while awake. Between the 2 independent samples, control of imagery was reduced in the hypnotized sample. There were no differences in the findings on vividness and control of imagery across high, medium, and low susceptible Ss. Combining all Ss, the correlation between vividness of visual imagery and hypnotic responsiveness was significant for males (r = .52) and the total sample (r = .33) but not for females (r = .15). Similar correlations for the control of imagery were not significant for males or females alone, but they were for the total sample (r = .18). The implications of the results are discussed in light of their relevance to theory, future research, and clinical practice. Straus, R. A. (1980). A naturalistic experiment investigating the effects of hypnotic induction upon Creative Imagination Scale performance in a clinical setting. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (3), 218-224. A novel experimental design compared performances on the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) of Wilson and Barber (1978) under hypnotic induction and control conditions. The Ss were 42 paying clients who participated in the study as an implicit part of their first clinical session. Results in this clinical context replicated previous laboratory studies which found that a conventional hypnotic induction procedure did not enhance scores on CIS. The present study suggests that the implicit clinical investigation, where appropriate, permits scientifically sound hypnosis research in natural field settings. 1979 Spanos, Nicholas P.; Ansari, Ferhana; Stam, Henderikus J. (1979). Hypnotic age regression and eidetic imagery: A failure to replicate. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (1), 88-91. Walker, Garrett, & Wallace (1976) reported the restoration of eidetic imagery in hypnotically age-regressed subjects. In an attempted replication of that study, 60 subjects who previously scored high on hypnotic susceptibility were 'hypnotically regressed' to age 7. Before administration of the hypnotic procedures and again after age regression, subjects were tested for eidetic imagery using the random-dot stereograms employed by Walker et al. None of our subjects including those who were age regressed according to standard criteria and who reported having been eidetikers as children, were successful at the stereogram tasks. Although these results fail to replicate those of Walker et al., they are consistent with the available evidence concerning the performance of children on stereogram tasks. Contrary to the impression conveyed by Walker et al., children tested to date, including those classified as eidetikers by Haber and Haber's criteria, have been unsuccessful at stereogram tasks. 1978 Dyckman, John M.; Cowan, Philip A. (1978). Imaging vividness and the outcome of in vivo and imagined scene desensitization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 1155-1156. This study reexamined the role of imaging vividness in desensitization success. Scores on the Betts Questionnaire on Mental Imagery were used to divide 48 snake-phobic subjects into high, medium, and low vivid groups, who were assigned to imagined scene or in vivo desensitization treatments. Imaging vividness was assessed at scheduled points during therapy. Significant decreases in behavioral and self-reported fear were observed after both treatments, though in vivo desensitization produced significantly greater fear reduction. In therapy imaging vividness scores were significantly correlated with therapeutic success and were superior to pretherapy ratings as predictors of outcome. Hiscock, Merrill (1978). Imagery assessment through self-report: What do imagery questionnaires measure?. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 223-229. Four studies examined imagery questionnaires and addressed issues of reliability, agreement among different questionnaires, social desirability, and construct validity. The Betts, Paivio, and Gordon scales were examined. In two studies the Betts and Paivio correlated .45-.50, but correlations involving the Gordon were inconsistent from one study to the next. Imagery measures generally were not influenced by social desirability. Factor analysis indicated that subjective and objective measures of visualization are independent. Concludes that imagery is not a unitary construct and that criteria other than visuospatial tests may be appropriate for validating imagery questionnaires. t'Hoen, P. (1978). Effects of hypnotizability and visualizing ability on imagery mediated learning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 45-54 The Ss selected for hypnotizability and visualizing ability were tested for their performance on an imagery-mediated, paired-associates task in which the stimulus materials were varied in imagery and concreteness. Imagery and concreteness showed significant main effects and an additive interaction facilitating learning. Neither hypnotizability nor visualizing ability showed main effects, thereby contradicting the conjecture that those 2 factors would facilitate imagery-mediated learning. However, high hypnotizable Ss learned more high imagery words than the low hypnotizables, and visualizing ability was shown to interact with word concreteness. It is concluded that the effects of hypnotizability and visualizing ability on verbal learning are, at least in part, a function of the content of the words to be learned. 1977 Buckner, Linda G.; Coe, William C. (1977). Imaginative skill, wording of suggestions and hypnotic-susceptibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 27-36. 3 groups of 20 s based on preselected imaginative capacity were administered either a hypnotic susceptibility scale containing item wording that suggested a goal-directed fantasy or one that did not. Preselected imaginative ability did not predict hypnotic susceptibility or the production of goal-directed fantasies during hypnosis. However, Ss who received the hypnotic scale containing item wording that suggested goal-directed fantasies reported more goal-directed fantasies than Ss who received the other scale. Limitations of the study are discussed and the causal role of goal-directed fantasy in hypnotic responsiveness is questioned. 1976 Slade, P. D. (1976). An investigation of psychological factors involved in the predisposition to auditory hallucinations. Psychological Medicine, 6 (1), 123-132. Previous research by the author (Slade, 1972, 1973) and others has suggested that psychological stress plays an important role in triggering off the experience of auditory hallucinations. Clearly, however, predispositional factors are involved as well. The present study is an attempt to investigate some of the psychological factors which may predispose the individual to such experiences. A battery of tests involving cognitive, personality and mental imagery variables and the verbal transformation effect was administered to two small groups of psychotic patients differing only in respect of a history of auditory hallucinations and a normal control group. The main conclusion was that the results lend direct support to the proposition of Mintz & Alpert (1972) that a combination of vivid mental imagery and poor reality-testing in the auditory modality provides the basic predisposition for the experience of auditory hallucinations. 6458, Slade, 1976 1970 Davis, Daniel; McLemore, Clinton W.; London, Perry (1970). The role of visual imagery in desensitization. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8 (1), 11-13. NOTES Summary: a measure of visual imagery ability was obtained for 33 females who and participated in desensitization therapy for snake phobia. Visual imagery was positively related to pretherapy performance (closeness of approach to a live snake), but not to improvement. On the basis of these results and the results of two other studies, it was hypothesized that the fear of good imagers tends to be based on imagination while that of poor imagers tends to be based on sensory experience. Most psychologists now recognize behavior therapy as effective in alleviating a wide variety of fears, but the nature of the processes underlying the various methods remains an open issue. Imagery has been of particular interest as a possible common denominator among various desensitization techniques. Lazarus (1961), for example, asserts that a "prerequisite for effective application of desensitization is the ability to conjure up reasonably vivid images," and Wolpe (1961) claims, "it is essential for visualizing to be at least moderately clear." London suggests that theoretically opposed treatments such as reciprocal inhibition (Wolpe, 1958) and implosion (Stampfl and Levis, 1967) may both be facilitated by repeated imagery which "produces a discrimination set such that the patient learns to distinguish between the imaginative, cognitive, affective aspects of experience, and the sensory and overt muscular aspects" (1964, p. 130). However, no systematic studies linking visual imagery to desensitization have been reported. This study examined the relationship between visual imagery and success in desensitization therapy IMAGINATION 2003 Holroyd, Jean (2003). The science of meditation and the state of hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 46 (2), 109-128. Two aspects of Buddhist meditation -- concentration and mindfulness -- are discussed in relationship to hypnosis. Mindfulness training facilitates the investigation of subjective responses to hypnosis. Concentration practice leads to altered states similar to those in hypnosis, both phenomenologically and neurologically. The similarities and differences between hypnosis and meditation are used to shed light on perennial questions: (1) Does hypnosis involve an altered state of consciousness? (2) Does a hypnotic induction increase suggestibility? It is concluded that a model for hypnosis should include altered states as well as capacity for imaginative involvement and expectations. Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim (2003). Creative imagination, absorption, and dissociation with African American college students. Sleep and Hypnosis, 5 (2), 95-104. The purpose of this study was to assess creative imagination, absorption, and dissociation with African American college students. Two hundred thirty-six undergraduate African American students ranging between the ages of 18 to 22 participated in this study. Students were assigned to the following experimental manipulation: (a) Creative Imagination Scale (CIS), a cognitive-behavioral measure of hypnotizability; and (b) Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), General Dissociation Scale (GDS), and Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) embedded within the CIS. Results indicated that dissociation and absorption were affected by the CIS. Finally, this sample was compared with the European American sample obtained by Barber and Wilson (1978) and Wilson and Barber (1978), and clearly the two samples differed on creative imagination, t=(405)=7.00, p<.005. The African American sample had a signficantly lower mean CIS score than the European American sample. NOTES 1: Key words: imagination, hypnosis, absorption, dissociation, adolescents, cultural differences, African American college students, cognition. 2001 Fredericks, Lillian E. (2001). The use of hypnosis in surgery and anesthesiology. Springfield IL USA: Charles C Thomas. NOTES Preface: Definition of Hypnosis History of Hypnosis in Surgery Theories of Hypnosis Chapter: 1. An Introduction to Hypnosis 2. Hypnosis in the Management of Chronic Pain 3. Hypnosis in Conjunction with Chemical Anesthesia 4. Hypnosis in Conjunction with Regional Anesthesia 5. Hypnosis as the Sole Anesthetic 6. Hypnosis in the Intensive Care Unit 7. Hypnosis in the Emergency Unit 8. Hypnosis in Pediatric Surgery 9. Hypnosis in Obstetrics and Gynecology 10. Perspectives from Physician-Patients Gibbons, Don E. (2001). Experience as an art form: Hypnosis, hyperempiria, and the Best Me technique. San Jose CA: Authors Choice Press. (([available online:] http//www.iuniverse.com/bookstore/marketplace)) NOTES