“The S’s attention was slowly directed to the rhythm of his own breathing as suggestions were given of eye fatigue. If S closed his eyes, he might find it convenient to concentrate on the rhythm of his own breathing. Perhaps this would be easy to think about if he visualized a pendulum swinging in time with his breathing. The E continued to talk and count in rhythm with S’s breathing. Special words, such as ‘breathing in and out; the pendulum swings back and forward,’ were always spoken as S inhaled or exhaled. Counting was also timed to coincide with exhalation. Deeper relaxation was suggested as E counted slowly from 1 to 21, and later, from 1 to 31.
“Throughout the procedure, phrases and words (such as ‘hypnosis,’ ‘trance,’ ‘drowsy’) traditionally employed with hypnotic induction techniques were avoided. After approximately 30 minutes, a natural transition was made to the testing procedure. Suggestions of continued deep relaxation were intermingled between various tests administered. Termination was effected by suggesting that the relaxation would end as E counted from ‘A’ to ‘H'” (p. 75).

Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1965). Physiological effects of ‘hypnotic suggestions’: A critical review of recent research (1960-64). Psychological Bulletin, 201-222.

Recent studies are reviewed which were concerned with the effectiveness of suggestions given under “hypnosis” and “waking” experimental treatments in alleviating allergies, ichthyosis, myopia, and other conditions and in eliciting deafness, blindness, hallucinations, analgesia, cardiac acceleration and deceleration, emotional responses, urine secretion to sham water ingestion, narcotic-like drug effects, and other phenomena. The review indicates that a wide variety of physiological functions can be influenced by suggestions administered under either hypnosis or waking experimental treatments, and direct and indirect suggestions to show the particular physiological manifestations are crucial variables in producing the effects.

Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1957). Concerning the induction of the hypnotic state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 82-98.

The hypnotic state has four attributes: “an effect of emotional stabilitization, a retrogression to an infantile psychological functioning, suggestibility, and transmissibility of the hypnotic relationship” (p. 82). “SUGGESTIBILITY is a special motivation to accept, incorporate within one’s self, and execute direct or implicit propositions, which is equivalent to the motvation of a child to accept, assimilate and carry out the propositions of its parents” (p. 84). The authors propose that verbal and non-verbal suggestions are incorporated during the course of education, lasting years and thus becoming in effect post-hypnotic suggestions. “The person will have in the future a _special responsiveness,_ that may be more or less pronounced according to the circumstances, _for those data_ (coming from books, movies, conversations, etc.) _which agree with his emotionally-incorporated post-hypnotic suggestions_” (p. 85). If while in an auto-hypnotic condition he comes in contact with someone “who appears to be the embodiment of the convictions or prejudices that on being stimulated started the process of emotional activation that led to the development of the hypnotic state, _there may be a transformation of the auto-hypnotic condition into an interpersonal hypnotic relationship_ (p. 86).
According to the authors, this theory can explain post-hypnotic (negative) sequellae. It also accomodates explantions of both Natural or Direct Orientation inductions and Indirect Orientation inductons, and explains phenomena such as patients entering hypnosis rather automatically while awaiting the appearance of Mesmer in his waiting room.
“To conclude, we will stress that the psychological mechanism of hypnotic induction is exactly _the same_ in everyday life and in the experimental environment. The apparent differences like [sic] in the _behavior_ of the subject in the hypnotic state, and are due to the motivation that arises from the circumstances and to the convictions, capacities, psychologicl maturity, and degree of retrogression of the individual” (p. 96).

Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1957). Concerning the nature of hypnotic phenomena. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 67-76.

The authors write about the place of the hypnotic state in general psychology: “the study of the _psychological mechanisms_ that make the appearance of the phenomenon _possible, which need not be different from the normal and current psychological mechanisms in everyday life_” (p. 67). They classify hypnotic phenomena into three groups:
“I. Phenomena _which are a function of the state of psychological_ retrogression (hypnotic depth), appearing in spontaneously [sic] or when proposed by the operator.
II. Phenomena which appear without any specific suggestion, as _a side issue of other suggestions,_ capable of originating emotional states in the subject.
III. Phenomena _which are independent of all suggestion,_ being a constituent part of the hypnotic state itself, in its ‘positive’ or ‘negative’ forms” (p. 68).
Using this framework, the authors describe several aspects of hypnosis: catalepsy, anesthesia, retrogression, the taking of a role, negativism and resistance, visceral changes, emotional stabilization, psychotherapeutic benefits (indirect). They observe that direct suggestions are often not necessary for therapeutic benefit, and give as an example the tendency for less bleeding when dentists suggest that patients will not feel less pain.
“For the elucidation of this point, the authors carried out an experiment in a dental clinic, taking six easily hypnotizable subjects in whom dental extractions were to be performed. They were given only the suggestions that they would feel the doctor working, but not experience pain … that they would pay no attention to it … or even if they felt a little pain, this would not trouble them and they would bear it perfrectly … Nothing was said about the loss of blood. As a result, in all the cases the loss of blood was slight, practically insignificant, though technically difficult extractions of roots were included” (p. 74).
“The explanation of hypnotic phenomena as natural and normal consequences of the hypnotic emotional state, and of the state of psychological retrogression, eliminates the supposed mysterious powers of suggestion. _Suggestion is thus relegated to the modest role of a litmus paper which reveals the psychological functioning of the individual_ in an experimental environment. On the other hand, in everyday-life hypnosis, in the principal hypnotic relationships of parents with their children, of teachers with their pupils, etc. (11), suggestibility plays an important role in education or re-education” (p. 75).

Fisher, Seymour (1955). An investigation of alleged conditioning phenomena under hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (2), 71-103.

“Summary and Conclusions.
“The primary objective of the present investigation was to present rational and empirical evidence supporting a reinterpretation of a number of alleged ‘conditioning’ studies performed under hypnosis. An experiment which contained no explicit verbal posthypnotic suggestion was conducted. The study was designed to expose the presence of characteristic features of an explicit posthypnotic act in hypnotically induced ‘conditioned responses’; two responses, an olfactory hallucination and a coughing reaction, were induced under hypnosis by a conditioning procedure, and were examined under various experimental conditions in the subsequent waking state.
“Although the results are based upon a relatively small sample of Ss, the overall data seem to warrant the following principal conclusions:
“(1) Responses induced under hypnosis by means of a conditioning procedure do not conform to some of the expected principles of contemporary conditioning theory.
“(2) These responses do, however, show a marked similarity to behavior induced by explicit posthypnotic suggestion. Inasmuch as no significant discrepancies between these two classes of phenomena (posthypnotic behavior and the responses induced by a conditioning procedure) were observed, the results are interpreted as supporting the dual hypothesis that (a) evocation of the cough and olfactory hallucination by their respective stimuli is a function of hypnotically determined suggestive factors, and (b) aside from the omission of an explicit verbal suggestion, these responses differ in no essential way from a typical posthypnotic act.
“(3) As a corollary to the preceding conclusion, it follows that some deeply hypnotized Ss are capable of performing posthypnotic behavior solely on the basis of implicit hypnotic suggestion. Hence, the frequently accepted assumption that explicit verbal instructions are required to effect posthypnotic behavior seems untenable.
“(4) To the extent that these conclusions are valid, it seems doubtful whether the concept of ‘conditioned response’ is any more appropriate when applied to these hypnotically determined responses than when applied to typical posthypnotic behavior. It would appear, rather, that the only fundamental difference beween these two forms of behavior lies in the degree to which E explicitly communicates his suggestions.
“The major implications oof the results are discussed, and several secondary conclusions are suggested:
“(5) The results are interpreted to support the possible existence of ‘operator attitude’ as a significant variable in research with hypnosis.
“(6) The results seem best understood within a framework of role-taking theory which takes into consideration both S’s expectations _and_ the hypnotist’s expectations.
“(7) Recognition of the active participation of hypnotic Ss prescribes extreme caution in the interpetation of results whenever hypnosis is utilized as a technique for controlling psychological variables” (p. 101).

Erickson, Milton H. (1954). A clinical note on indirect hypnotic therapy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 171-174. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 55: 4292)

Author describes treatment of a young married couple who presented with the problem of life-long enuresis. The treatment involved a prescription: “Each evening you are to take fluids freely. Two hours before you go to bed, lock the bathroom door after drinking a glass of water. At bedtime, get into your pajamas, and then kneel side by side on the bed, facing your pillows and deliberately, intentionally and jointly wet the bed” (p. 172). (Hypnotic induction was not used.)
The author opines that the procedure was based upon an indirect use of hypnosis. “The instructions were so worded as to compel without demanding the inntent attention of the unconscious” (p. 173).

Erickson, Milton H. (1954). Special techniques of brief hypnotherapy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 109-129. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 55: 2508)

Author describes techniques used with patients who aren’t able, for internal or environmental reasons, to undertake comprehensive therapy, “Intentionally utilizing neurotic symptomatology to meet the unique needs of the patient” (p. 109). He provides 8 case reports.
Patient 1 was reassured, in hypnosis, that his arm paralysis was due to “inertia syndrome” which he would continue to have, but it wouldn’t interfere with his work.
Patient 2, also with arm paralysis had another comparable, non-incapacitating, symptom substituted.
Patients 3 and 4, for whome restrictions on therapy were the limits of time and situational realities, had their symptoms transformed (e.g. by introducing in hypnosis the obsessional thought or worry that he would NOT have the symptom for which he sought help).
Patients 5 and 6 were helped, through hypnosis, to symptom amelioration. (Patient 5 had an IQ of 65.)
Patient 7 “Therapy was achieved … by a deliberate correction of immediate emotional responses without rejecting them and the utilization of time to palliate and to force a correction of the problem by the intensity of the emotional reaction to its definition” (p. 121)
Patient 8 “the procedure was the deliberate development, at a near conscious level, of an immediately stronger emotion in a situation compelling an emotional response corrective, in turn, upon the actual problem” (p. 121).

Kline, Milton V.; Guze, Henry (1954). The alteration of oral temperature through hypnotic techniques: I. Pilot experimentation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2 (3), 233-237.

The authors used a variety of hypnotic techniques to attempt to modify the oral temperature of a normal 30 year old male who was capable of both positive and negative hypnotic hallucinations and of reaching a somnambulistic level with spontaneous, complete, post-hypnotic amnesia. Techniques included direct suggestions (general for temperature rising as when ill, and specific, i.e. his oral area was getting hot), time regression to when he had experienced a fever, age regression to age 10 when he had a high fever, direct suggestion of temperature drop, and positive hallucination of extreme elevation in a plane. A waking simulation control was run for each condition.
Although the subject appeared uncomfortable and showed behavioral changes, the mean oral temperatures did not differ from the baseline mean significantly for either hypnosis or simulation conditions, except for the hallucinated experience of flying in a plane at an altitude of 100,000 feet. That condition lowered the temperature an average of 3 degrees Fahrenheit. In that experimental condition there was no mention of temperature alteration per se, “thus indirect mechanism rather than direct mechanism appears to be more effective in the hypnotic control of temperature” (p. 237).


Willmarth, Eric K. (2000, August). Modification of experienced pain with hypnotically induced positive mood. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D. C..

This study investigated the relationship between chronic pain and depressed mood within the context of Associative Network Theory and the High Risk Model of Threat Perception. A bi-directional relationship was hypothesized and tested by comparing pain ratings before and after the hypnotic induction of positive mood by suggestion of positive memories. These results were compared to the pain ratings of two control groups: participants who received hypnotic suggestion for relaxation only and participants who received non-hypnotic suggestion for relaxation and enhanced mood. Participants were 96 patients of a hospital-based Pain Management Center. Following assessment of hypnotic ability using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A, and the Subjective Experiences Scale, participants recorded levels of depressed mood, sensory pain, affective pain, global pain and self control of pain before and after listening to an audio-taped treatment session. Results show that the inducton of a positive mood did influence a decrease in self-reports of pain. In addition, the level of the participants’ hypnotic ability was also found to be a significant factor, suggesting that screening for predisposing factors, such as hypnotic ability, and the clinical use of hypnosis for mood enhancement are warranted in a chronic pain population. – Abstract taken from Psychological Hypnosis: A Bulletin of [Amer Psychol Assn] Division 30, Fall 2000.

Harris, Ruth M.; Porges, Stephen W.; Carpenter, Myrna E. Clemenson; Vincenz, Lilli M. (1993). Hypnotic susceptibility, mood state, and cardiovascular reactivity. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36 (1), 15-25.

In this study we explored the relationship between hypnotic susceptibility measured with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS) and cardiovascular parameters. After assessing their degree of hypnotic susceptibility, we induced 21 female students into happy mood states and into sad mood states. During the mood state induction we monitored blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac vagal tone continuously. The study demonstrated a strong relationship between hypnotic susceptibility and both cardiac vagal tone and heart rate reactivity. Subjects with lower heart rate and greater vagal tone during baseline and greater heart rate increases during mood induction were more susceptible to hypnosis. Multiple regression analyses indicated that approximately 40% of the individual difference variance of hypnotic susceptibility was accounted for by baseline cardiac vagal tone and heart rate reactivity during mood state. The data demonstrate that autonomic tone, assessed by cardiac vagal tone and heart rate reactivity, are related to hypnotic susceptibility as measured by the HGSHS. – Journal Abstract

Crowson, J. Jeffrey, Jr.; Conroy Aileen M.; Chester, Traci D. (1991). Hypnotizability as related to visually induced affective reactivity: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39 (3), 140-144.

Numerous studies have explored the relationship between hypnotizability and individual differences in imaginative involvement and creativity. Most have assessed imaginative or affective involvement by involving Ss in a variety of imaging tasks. Unlike these earlier studies, however, the present study made no attempt to actively involve Ss in the film viewing task. Rather, individuals assessed as high, medium, or low in hypnotizability were exposed to either a violent film, a neutral film, or no film. Results provided tentative evidence to indicate that the level of negative affect reported was significantly greater for highly hypnotizable Ss. Results were discussed in terms of the limitations of the present study and implications for future studies.

Zachariae, Robert; Bjerring, P.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, T.; Gotliebsen, K. (1991). The effect of hypnotically induced emotional states on brain potentials by painful argon laser stimulation. Clinical Journal of Pain, 7, 130-138.

The relationship between pain perception and emotional states is well known. However, the nature of this relationship and how different emotional states affect sensory and cognitive dimensions of pain remains uncertain. Results from experimental investigations are often contradictory, which may be due to methodological difficulties in inducing pain and monitoring physiological responses. In addition, most studies have focused on a single emotion, and data on the relative effects of different emotional states are lacking. In the present study we attempted to eliminate some of these methodological problems. Laser evoked potentials were used as a quantitative correlate to pain perception and were measured in 12 highly hypnotically susceptible subjects during seven conditions: (a) a prehypnotic baseline condition; (b) a neutral hypnotic control condition; (c-e) hypnotically recalled anger, fear, and depression in randomized order; (f) a hypnotically recalled happy condition, and (g) a posthypnotic awake control condition. The pain evoked potentials were significantly decreased in the angry condition and significantly increased in the depressed condition compared with baseline. No differences could be detected for either the happy or the fear-related condition compared with the baseline or neutral hypnotic condition. A significant positive correlation between the subjective intensity of depression and the increase in evoked potentials was found, but none for the other three emotions. The results support earlier findings that clinical depression is related to increased pain perception, and findings that the expression of anger can inhibit the experience of pain. The lack of changes in pain-related potentials during the neutral and happy condition may indicate that effects of psychological interventions such as hypnotic analgesia may be due to specific cognitive processes rather than a relaxed or pleasant state in itself.

Hypnosis was used as an experimental condition because the recall of emotion may be more intense and vivid than in nonhypnotized conditions. Pulse was measured as an indicator of arousal. Subjects (9 women, 3 men) scored at least 10 or 11 on the Danish version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Each S was interviewed to determine early life experiences associated with the emotions under study, and the Experimenter noted key words regarding the emotion-arousing situation (time, place, persons involved) to assist in evoking the emotional state.
Pain was evoked with laser stimulus (100 ms) in a 1 x 3 cm. target area, avoiding repeated stimulation at identical points within the area. Pain threshold (prehypnotic) was defined as ‘a distinct sharp pin prick without any burning aftersensation.’ During the baseline and experimental conditions, evoked potentials were elicited using a stimulus 1.5 times threshold.
Following a standardized 15 minute hypnotic induction, the four emotional states were induced (randomized across Subjects). Each emotion was the focus for 10 minutes, and evoked potentials were recorded during the last five minutes of each. Subjects were instructed to relax and clear their minds of images or emotions in between each emotion condition. No suggestions were given regarding pain or pain perception.
After the hypnosis conditions, Subjects were asked to rate the intensity of each emotion on an analogue scale, and to rate their experience of pain on an analogue scale. (As it turned out, most of the Subjects were not able to recall the intensity of pain during all four emotional states.)
The size of the evoked potentials to painful stimuli increased during depression 35.8% over prehypnosis baseline, but decreased during anger 46.8% below prehypnosis baseline. The difference between prehypnosis baseline and neutral hypnosis was not significant statistically. Also, the differences between the happy condition, the fearful condition, or the posthypnotic condition, and prehypnosis were not significantly different. Pulse increased 6.5% over baseline during anger, decreased 4.1% under baseline in depression, and evidenced no difference from baseline for the other two emotions.
“A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation (r = +.60) was found between the subjective intensity of the depressed emotional state as measured on the visual analogue scale and the increase in power of the evoked potentials in the depressed condition compared to the prehypnotic baseline condition. There was a small (r = +0.35) nonsignificant positive correlation between the subjective intensity of fear and the increase in power of the evoked potentials in this emotional state compared with baseline. No correlations between the increase in evoked potentials and the condition of happiness (r = +0.05) and the condition of anger (r = -0.07) could be detected. ... There was a positive correlation between the subjective intensity of happiness and anger (r = +0.70, p <0.02). A positive correlation (r = +0.56, p <0.05) between the intensity of happiness and the intensity of depression was found. No other correlations between intensity ratings reached significance level" (p. 134). In their Discussion, the authors present the possibility that the differences in evoked potentials observed between different emotional states might be due to differences in attention/distraction, or differences in arousal/inhibition. They reject the attention/distraction hypothesis because evoked potentials increase more in the depression state than in the anger state, though anger was more intense than depression. "There are, however, several findings that point toward support for a hypothesis that specific affects, and not attention in itself, may account for the opposite changes in evoked potentials. ... Subjects rated fear as even more intense (87.5%) than anger, but with no similar effects on evoked potentials. ... We also found a significant positive correlation between increase in evoked potentials and intensity of experienced depression; a finding opposite of what could be expected from an attention/distraction hypothesis. "A simple attention/distraction hypothesis, therefore, cannot explain the opposite directions of evoked potentials in the two emotional states. ... "The differences in pain evoked potentials therefore could be hypothesized to be more related to mechanisms of arousal and inhibition than attention in itself. ... "Modulation of pain evoked potentials is most likely not due to the state of hypnosis in itself, but to the specific suggestions given under hypnosis, which may be the reason that previous studies of hypnotic modulation of event-related potentials have been inconsistent.... One must be careful not to assume a direct relationship between pain and evoked potentials. ... "Based on earlier findings (6-10) one could have hypothesized that an increase in pain perception would be found during the condition of hypnotically induced fear. However our results did not show any significant difference in pain evoked potentials when the emotion of fear was induced. This may be due to the fact that the fear or anxiety did not relate to the painful stimulus in itself, but involved an earlier experienced anxiety or a phobic fear (i.e., of snakes or flying). ... "Although the state of hypnosis itself does not seem to affect sensory pain perception, the hypnotic state might facilitate the effect of specific suggestions given under hypnosis by affecting cognitive processing. Chapman (44) has suggested that hypnotic analgesia is due to the control of the figure-ground transitions associated with the experience of pain. Likewise, different emotional states may affect figure-ground transitions differently. Whereas outwardly directed anger might prevent inner sensations of pain from emerging as figure, the emotion of depression and helplessness might force the surroundings in the background, letting inner sensations emerge as figure" (pp. 136- 137). 1990 Martin, Maryanne (1990). On the induction of mood. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 669-697. NOTES Increasing interest in the relation between emotion and cognition has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. Sixteen such techniques are reviewed and compared on a range of factors including success rate, the possibility of demand effects, the intensity of the induced mood, and the range of different moods that can be induced. Three different cognitive models (self- schema theory, semantic network theory, and fragmentation theory) which have been successfully used to describe long-term mood states, such as clinical depression, are elaborated to describe the process of temporary mood induction. Finally, the use of mood induction is contrasted with alternative methods (such as the study of patients suffering from depression) for investigating emotion. 1989 Friswell, Rena; McConkey, Kevin M. (1989). Hypnotically induced mood. Cognition and Emotion, 3 (1), 1-26. This article addresses theoretical and methodological issues that are central to an understanding of hypnotically induced mood. Initially, the hypnotic procedures that are typically used to induce moods are examined. Then the empirical research that has employed hypnotic moods is reviewed; specifically, the impact of hypnotic moods on physiological responses, behavioural performance, perceptual and cognitive responses, and personality, and clinical processes is examined. Finally, major theoretical and methodological issues are highlighted, and the research directions that will lead to a greater understanding of hypnotic mood are specified. Samsom, Deborah; Rachman, S. (1989). The effect of induced mood on fear reduction. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28 (3), 227-238. Investigated the effect on fear reduction in a laboratory study of fearful people. A musical mood-induction technique was utilized to induce either a happy mood or a sad mood in 84 female undergraduates who were fearful of spiders or snakes. Following the mood induction, Ss' fears were reduced by participant modeling. Measures of subjective fear and self-efficacy were taken before and after mood induction, after modeling, and 4 weeks later. Compared to the induced sad-mood condition, induced happiness was followed by a decrease in subjective fear and greater self-efficacy. No difference was found in the length of time taken to reduce fear for happy and sad Ss. Fear reduction during a sad mood was associated with greater return of fear than fear reduction during a happy mood. 1988 Robins, Clive J. (1988). Development of experimental mood induction procedures for testing personality-event interaction models of depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44 (6), 958-963. Developed 2 mood induction procedures for use in testing personality- event interaction hypotheses with regard to the onset of depressed mood of clinical depression. In these inductions, Ss listened to audiotapes depicting either a series of social rejections or achievement failures and were instructed to imagine themselves as the main character. Both tapes were found to produce a strong increase in reported depressed affect in 119 normal undergraduates. These effects were large in comparison to those elicited by commonly used mood induction procedures. Women reported greater mood shifts than men in response to both tapes. It is concluded that the present procedures have the advantage of content specificity, which permits test of personality-event interaction hypotheses. 1987 Weiss, F.; Blum, G. S.; Gleberman, L. (1987). Anatomically based measurement of facial expressions in simulated versus hypnotically induced affect. Motivation and Emotion, 11, 67-81. NOTES Cited by Bryant R. A. & McConkey, K. M. (1989) Hypnotic emotions and physical sensations: A real-simulating analysis, IJCEH, 37, 305-319, who state, "Finally, future research could usefully focus on aspects of experiencing emotions that are not obvious to simulators. Recent research by Weiss et al. (1987), for instance, that focused on the onset latency and the fluctuation of muscular contraction associated with facial expression indicated a difference between posthypnotically cued and simulated emotions of anxiety and pleasure, and this points to the potential value of investigating specific aspects of emotional experience. Thus, future investigations of real and simulated emotions and physical sensations could usefully employ more subtle and unobtrusive measures of the specific emotional responses of subjects" (p. 316). 1986 Madigan, R. J.; Bollenbach, A. K. (1986). The effects of induced mood on irrational thoughts and views of the world. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10 (5), 547-562. Sixty college students participated in an experiment concerning the influence of somatic mood induction statements on measurements of irrationality as defined by Ellis. Subjects were randomly assigned to depression, elation, and neutral mood induction groups. There were significant differences between groups on mood and irrationality. Results are discussed in terms of the Ellis and Beck cognitive models of depression, the Isen cognitive loop model, and the relationship between irrationality and depression. This study added irrational thinking as defined by Ellis to the growing list of cognitions that have been manipulated by mood, and it supports a body of findings that demonstrate the reciprocal influence of cognition and mood in depression. The study also has implications for the Beck and Ellis hypothesis that cognitions are the dominant causes of depression. 1985 Lundy, R. M.; Geselowitz, L.; Shertzer, C. L. (1985). Role-played and hypnotically induced simulation of psychopathology on the MMPI: A partial replication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33 (4), 302-309. In Wilcox and Dawson (1977) hypnotized Ss who were simulating paranoia while taking the MMPI (Dahlstrom & Welsh, 1960) were not detected as simulators by 2 MMPI validity measures, the F scale and the Gough F minus K index (Gough, 1950). The present study found that hypnotized Ss were detected by the same measures, thus failing to replicate Wilcox and Dawson (1977). Hypnotized Ss in the present study, however, were different from a comparison group in not appearing to overplay psychopathology to the same degree. 1984 Stava, L. (1984). The use of hypnotic uncovering techniques in the treatment of pedophilia: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32 (4), 350-355. This case study describes the use of the hypnotic uncovering techniques of induced dreams (Sacerdote, 1967) and the affect bridge (Watkins, 1971) in reducing inappropriate sexual arousal in a male pedophile. Treatment effects were examined through the use of both psychophysiological measures of penile tumescence and psychological tests. The hypnotherapeutic treatment regime consisted of 25 sessions over approximately 9 months. At the end of treatment, psychophysiological measures revealed a definite reduction of sexual excitation to slides of prepubescent children. Psychological testing indicated reduced defensiveness as well as reduced sexual anxiety to adult women. Various hypnotherapeutic experiences which may have contributed to the treatment effects are discussed. 1974 Bloom, Richard F. (1974). Validation of suggestion-induced stress. NOTES Technical Memorandum 23-74 (October 1974), US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005, AMCMS Code 5910.21.68629, Contract No. DAAD05-73-C-0243, Dunlap and Associates, Inc. (now Stamford, CT), AD002557. Sixty college men, divided into three equal groups, each attended two induced stress sessions in which their physiological, psychological and performance reactions were measured. Their responses were compared to determine if valid stress reactions could be induced through suggestion in an altered state (in this case, hypnosis), and also to determine the validity of such reactions if the subject had never before experienced that stress situation. It was demonstrated that valid stress reactions can be induced in an individual with the aid of suggestions, especially if the real stress situation has been experienced before. If no previous experience with that real situation exists, the subject still exhibits stressful reactions; however, the closest resemblance to real stress is found in the subjective or psychological measures, less similarity is found in the physiological measures, and the least similarity is found in the performance measures. 1973 Crystal, Thomas H.; Gish, Herbert; Bloom, Richard F. (1973, June). Psychophysiological factors affecting speaker authentication and identification. (See Notes field for additional reference information and information about ordering.) NOTES Research and Development Technical Report ECOM-0161-F; AD-913 696L; Contract DAAB07-71-C-0161 with Signatron, Inc. (Lexington, MA). Distribution limited to U.S. Government agencies only; Other requests for this document must be referred to Commanding General, U.S. Army Electronics Command, ATTN: AMSEL-PP-CM-CR4, Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703. NOTES 2: This document reports on a U.S. Army research project using hypnosis to collect high fidelity samples of the voice under "combat stress" conditions in the laboratory. Using hypnotic regression, combat veterans "re-experienced" their own, actual high stress combat situations. Besides subjective reports of stress levels by subjects, physiological stress measures were obtained from polygraph recordings of heart, respiration and GSR activity. The voice samples were later analyzed by spectrographic techniques to determine which factors remain invariant to identify and authenticate the speaker in a military communications situation. Hypnotic techniques were shown to be useful in establishing controlled emotional states for laboratory research purposes. (Richard Bloom) 1966 Vandenbergh, R. L. (1966). Effects of hypnotically induced emotional stress on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus. Psychosomatic Medicine, 28, 382-390. Effects of hypnotically induced emotional stress on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus 1962 Das, J. P. (1962). Learning under conditions of hypnotically induced anxiety and nonanxiety. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10 (3), 163-168. The hypothesis that anxiety may serve as a drive in learning situations was tested. Easy and difficult lists of trisyllabic nonsense syllables were learned by 6 somnambulistic Ss under conditions of hypnotically induced high and low anxiety. Level of hypnotically induced anxiety was not found to affect either recall scores nor number of trials to criterion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) NOTES Healthy and psychosomatic patients participated in a series of experiments in which reactions were elicited by discussion of emotionally charged issues (discovered through interview and psychological tests) in hypnosis and in waking conditions. The experiments concerned the following: 1. The influence of emotions induced by hypnotic suggestions upon gastric secretion. 2. The influence of emotions induced by hypnotic suggestions upon gastric motility. 3. The influence of emotions induced by hypnotic suggestions upon colonic motility. 4. The influence of hyperventilation induced by emotional stress upon gastrointestinal function. 5. The influence of emotions induced by hypnotic suggestion upon the antibacterial activity of human blood. In the fifth investigation, Colonies of E. Coli cultured in whole blood before and after a suggestion of fear were reduced in diameter following the suggestion; the same tendency was found in Staphylococcus Aureus. Albumin decreased and globulin increased after the suggestion of fear. The authors interpret this as antibacterial activity of human blood that is part of an "Alarm Reaction" of emotional stress. 1954 Kesner, Lawrence S. (1954). A comparison of the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic techniques in the resolution of a post-hypnotic conflict. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 55-75. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 54: 7601) NOTES The author developed two experimental psychotherapies, based on Rogerian (emotion-focused) and psychoanalytic (emotional reaction + factual data) principles, and investigated their effectiveness in resolving hypnosis-induced psychological conflict. The experimental design was: "1. The subject was given a posthypnotic suggestion of an embarrassing situation of deriding a friend who later proved to have overheard the conversation, putting the subject in conflict. The situation was recalled intellectually and affectively upon awakening. 2. Upon awakening from hypnosis the subject was given a word association test consisting of 30 words related to the posthypnotic conflict and 30 neutral words. The words were presented alternately in groups of five Non-charged words and five Charged words. 3. One of the two therapy techniques was applied for a single session. The length of therapy was determined by the subject's desire. That is, the subject indicated that he had solved the conflict or that he did not wish to discuss it further after an attempt was made to handle the resistance. It may be noted that in the present experiment both therapy techniques required a similar amount of time. The experimental therapy sessions ranged form nine to 30 minutes. A fairly typical session required about 20 minutes. 4. The word association list was repeated. 5. The subject was rehypnotized. He was told that the conflict was not real and no longer troubled him. Then amnesia was suggested for the conflict situaton and the previous therapy session. 6. The word association list was administered again. 7. Steps one through four were repeated except that the alternate therapy technique was used after the second induction of the conflict. 8. To insure the subject's peace of mind, rather than for experimental purposes, after conclusion of the experiment the subject was rehypnotized, the fictional nature of the conflict was explained, and the residuals of the conflict were removed" (pp. 72-73). Subjects averaged 23.6 years in age (range 17-42) and were screened from approximately 1,000 people. Psychological conflict was inferred from a significant difference in reaction time between Charged and Non-charged words. "The Emotional therapy technique resolved the experimental conflict for more than three times as many subjects as did the Factual therapy technique" [but] "neither technique resolved the experimental conflict" [although] "both techniques caused some degree of resolution" (p. 74). INDUCTION 1994 Barabasz, Arreed F.; Barabasz, Marianne (1994, October). EEG responses to a reading comprehension task during active alert hypnosis and waking states. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Francisco. NOTES Evoked potentials differ between High & Low hypnotizables during hypnosis but not during waking (Barabasz & Lonsdale, 1983; Spiegel et al, 1985; Spiegel & Barabasz, 1988). Showed critical importance of instructions. We may not be aware of the suggestions that subjects are giving themselves. Or experimental cues may lead to de facto instructions. Freeman, M. Barabasz & I found differences in high theta during cold pressor pain (reported elsewhere in this conference).