The present study examined the effects of: 1) breathing air versus breathing 5% CO2; 2) waking versus self-hypnotic conditions; and 3) neutral versus reduced respiratory rate instructions on four measures of ventilatory functioning (respiratory rate, tidal volume, expired minute ventilation, and end-tidal Pco2). Twelve high-hypnotizable normal volunteer subjects were studied in a repeated- measures, multivariate analysis of variance design; Significant main effects were observed for each experimental condition, whereas none of the two or three way interactions proved noteworthy. Breathing 5% CO2 produced increased ventilatory functions (e.g., increased respiratory rate, tidal volume, expired minute ventilation, and end-tidal Pco2). Being in a state of self-hypnosis is associated with reduced respiratory rate, with a significant increase in expired minute ventilation and end-tidal Pco2, but with no significant increase in tidal volume. Finally, reduced respiratory rate instructions were effective in significantly reducing respiratory rate and expired minute ventilation when breathing 5% CO2 as evidenced by increases in end-tidal Pco2 levels that were used to monitor ventilation outcomes.

Azuma, Nagato; Stevenson, Ian (1988). ‘Psychic surgery’ in the Philippines as a form of group hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 61-67.

Psychic surgeons and their patients were observed in the Philippines during a variety of procedures of ‘minor surgery.’ In six cases, subcutaneous tissues (cysts and benign tumors) were removed. Histological examination confirmed the gross diagnoses and left no doubt that the skin had been penetrated. Although the psychic surgeons used no analgesics or anesthetics, the patients appeared to experience little or no pain and only slight bleeding. The authors believe that a supportive group ‘atmosphere’ enables the patients to enter a quasi-hypnotic state that reduces pain and facilitates healing.

Evans, C.; Richardson, P. H. (1988). Improved recovery and reduced postoperative stay after therapeutic suggestions during general anesthesia. Lancet, 2 (8609), 491-493.

The clinical value of suggestions during general anesthesia was assessed in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. 39 unselected patients were allocated to suggestion (N = 19) or control (N = 20) groups who were played either recorded suggestions or a blank tape, respectively, during hysterectomy. The patients in the suggestion group spent significantly less time in the hospital after surgery, suffered from a significantly shorter period of pyrexia, and were generally rated by nurses as having made a better-than-expected recovery. Patients in the suggestion group, unlike the control group, guessed accurately that they had been played an instruction tape.

Goldmann, Les; Ogg, T. W.; Levey, A. B. (1988). Hypnosis and daycase anaesthesia. A study to reduce preoperative anxiety and intraoperative anesthesia requirements. Anesthesia, 43, 466-469.

52 female patients having gynecological surgery as day cases received either a short preoperative hypnotic induction or a brief discussion of equal length. Hypnotized patients who underwent vaginal termination of pregnancy required significantly less methohexitone for induction of anesthesia and were significantly more relaxed as judged by their visual analogue scores for anxiety. Less than half the patients were satisfied with their knowledge about the operative procedure even after discussions with the surgeon and anesthetist. A significant correlation was found between anxiety and perceived knowledge of procedures. Results suggest that preoperative hypnosis can provide a quick and effective way to reduce preoperative patient anxiety and anesthetic requirements for gynecological daycase surgery.

Morrison, J. B. (1988). Chronic asthma and improvement with relaxation induced by hypnotherapy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 81, 701-704.

After one year of hypnotherapy, 16 chronic asthmatic patients inadequately controlled by drugs had a fall in admissions from 44 in the year before starting therapy to 13 in the year after. Duration of stay was reduced for 13 patients by 249 days; prednisone was withdrawn in 6, reduced in 8, and increased in none. Side effects of drugs were reduced. Although 62% reported improvement on a visual analogue scale, observations of air flow gave variable results.

Frankel, Fred H. (1987). Significant developments in medical hypnosis during the past 25 years. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35, 231-247.

Selected significant investigative studies on the use of hypnosis in the medical context over the past 25 years are discussed. The topics covered include anxiety and pain, asthma, migraine, skin disease, burns, nausea and vomiting, surgery, haemorrhagic disorders, and cancer and immunity. The importance of hypnotizability ratings in the methodology is emphasized.

Holroyd, Jean (1987). How hypnosis may potentiate psychotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 29, 194-200.

Hypnotherapy is defined as doing psychotherapy in the hypnotic state. This article reviews cognitive, affective, and motivational changes associated with hypnotic trance, attempting to demonstrate how the hypnotic state might influence ordinary psychotherapy processes. Nine characteristics of trance probably potentiate psychotherapy: (1) changes in attention and awareness, (2) imagery enhancement, (3) increase in dissociation, (4) decrease of reality orientation, (5) increase in suggestibility, (6) increased accessibility of mind-body interactions, (7) diminution of initiative resulting in a sense of nonvoluntariness, (8) increased availability or manipulability of affect, and (9) development of a fusional relationship (rapport). This article touches upon the psychotherapeutic implications of these hypnosis attributes.

Kotses, H.; Rawson, J. C.; Wigal, J. IK.; Creer, T. L. (1987). Respiratory airway changes in response to suggestion in normal individuals. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 536-541.

Thirty normal individuals were told they were inhaling a substance that would either cause breathing difficulty (N – 15) or not affect breathing (N – 15). Total respiratory resistance was measured prior to and during inhalation. In reality, the subjects inhaled no substances; inhalation consisted of breathing normally into a respiratory resistance recorder. Individuals who received the former suggestion exhibited increased total respiratory resistance, whereas individuals who received the latter suggestion did not. These observations demonstrated that the ability of suggestion to affect the respiratory airway is not limited to asthmatic individuals

Locke, Steven E.; Ransil, Bernard J.; Covino, Nicholas A.; Toczydlowski, Janice; Lohse, Christopher M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Arndt, Kenneth A.; Frankel, Fred H. (1987). Failure of hypnotic suggestion to alter immune response to delayed-type hypersensitivity antigens. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 496, 745-749.

The ability to alter delayed-type hypersensitivity via hypnotic suggestion was tested in 12 highly hypnotizable, untrained subjects and 30 non-hypnotized controls. Subjects were skin tested bilaterally with a standardized panel of delayed hypersensitivity antigens and instructed either to enhance or suppress the skin test response (STR) unilaterally. Compared to controls, STR’s showed no effect of hypnotic suggestion with regard to either the area of induration or the degree of inflammation assessed histologically

Makarec, K.; Persinger, M. A. (1987). Electroencephalographic correlates of temporal lobe signs and imaginings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 1124-1126.

Significant correlations (0.50) were observed between scores for the Wilson-Barber Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings and the experiences that are indicative of temporal lobe lability. In addition, positive correlations (0.42) occurred between temporal lobe EEG measures (scalp electrodes) and numbers of temporal lobe signs. The numbers of alpha seconds per minute from the occipital lobes were correlated (0.57) with the Wilson-Barber cluster that indicated interests in ‘altered states’. Scores on the childhood imaginings section of the Wilson-Barber Inventory were correlated (0.44) with the numbers of spikes per minute over the temporal lobes when the eyes were closed.

“Persinger and DeSano (1986) found that people who display temporal lobe signs were also more likely to have more imaginings (as defined by Wilson and Barber’s (1983) Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings) and to be more suggestible as indicated by Spiegel’s Hypnosis Induction Profile” (p. 1124).
Subjects in this investigation were 12 male and 18 female students, ages 18-39 (M = 25 years) Bipolar measures were taken from just above the ears (approximately T3-T4) and the occipital lobe (01-02). Number of alpha seconds per minute and number of spikes per minute from each lobe was taken for 10 minutes (5 successive pairs of 1 minute eyes- open, 1 minute eyes-closed).
“The total Wilson-Barber score was significantly (p <.01) correlated ... with the major (0.46) and minor (0.50) temporal lobe clusters but not with two clusters of control items: normal psychological experiences (0.21) and mundane proprioceptive experiences (0.29). These correlations are similar to those in the Persinger and DeSano study (0.60, 0.50, 0.13, and 0.14, respectively). Like the first study (0.53), the items that were most associated with dissociation (depersonalization) were best correlated with the Wilson- Barber scores (0.60). The Wilson-Barber subcluster: adults' extreme experiences (Items 44 through 52, that indicate physiological changes associated with thinking) was again most strongly correlated with the major (0.55) and minor (0.65) temporal lobe clusters; these values were 0.42 and 0.52 in the first study" (p. 1125). "The only statistically significant (p < .01) correlations between the Wilson-Barber scales and the EEG measures were between the number of alpha seconds from the occipital lobe (with the eyes closed) and the [Wilson-Barber] 'altered state' cluster (r = 0.57; Items 33, 41, 42, 43). A weaker correlation (0.36) occurred between the number of alpha seconds per min. (eyes closed condition) and childhood vestibular experiences (items 1, 2, 3, 10, 24)" (p. 1126). Pastorello, E. A. (1987). The role of suggestion in asthma. I. Effects of inactive solution on bronchial reactivity under bronchoconstrictor or bronchodilator suggestion. Annals of Allergy, 59, 336-338. Twenty-eight Ss affected by perennial asthma were selected in order to investigate the possibility of inducing or relieving an asthmatic attack by means of suggestion. 25 were positive to a methacholine challenge test, and among them, 11 reacted to an ultrasonic nebulized distilled water test. The effect of suggestion on airway response was assessed by 8 inhalations of normal saline at 32 degrees Centigrade alternately presented as a bronchoconstrictor or as a bronchodilator drug. 8 inhalations of the same diluent without any psychic stimulus were used as a control test. 7 patients reacted with bronchoconstriction to both positive and negative suggestion and to the control test. Further, this group of patients showed a lower methacholine PD10 when compared with the other Ss. In this study, the effects of suggestion on bronchial reactivity were not observed and bronchoconstriction belonged to an individual hyperactivity of the airways. Pastorello, E. A.; Codecasa, L. R.; Gerosa, A.; Buonocore, E.; Sillano, V.; Zanussi, C. (1987). The role of suggestion in asthma. II. Effects of a bronchoconstrictor drug on bronchial reactivity under bronchoconstrictor or bronchodilator suggestion. Annals of Allergy, 59, 339-340. Previous studies have shown that suggestion may modify bronchial reactivity to both inactive diluents and pharmacologically bronchoconstrictor or dilator substances. In our study, 14 patients were subjected to 2 methacholine -tients were subjected to 2 methacholine challenge tests presented, respectively, as a bronchoconstrictor or as a bronchodilator drug. Forced expiratory volumes in one second were recorded and a PD20 was determined. No significant differences were reported in PD20 values of each patient after the 2 kinds of suggestion. Patterson, David R.; Questad, Kent A.; Boltwood, Michael D. (1987). Hypnotherapy as a treatment for pain in patients with burns: Research and clinical considerations. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 8 (3), 263-268. Hypnotherapy has increasingly been included in the management of burn patients, particularly in the area of acute pain. To better understand such issues as (1) overall efficacy of hypnotherapy to alleviate acute burn pain, (2) instances in which hypnotherapy is contraindicated, (3) interaction of hypnotherapy with medication, (4) standard induction techniques to use with various age groups, (5) role of nursing and other staff in facilitating hypnotic effects, and (6) future methodological directions, they examined the clinical and methodological merits of recent studies of hypnoanalgesia. A literature search found 17 studies in which hypnotherapy was applied to the management of burns. The literature generally supports the efficacy of this approach to reduce burn pain; however, little else can be concluded from these studies. Several recent studies have applied hypnotherapy to aspects of burn care other than pain using excellent experimental designs. It is suggested that future studies of acute pain management follow suit. Brink, Nicholas E. (1986-87). Three stages of hypno-family therapy for psychosomatic problems. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 6, 263-270. In dealing with psychosomatic complaints it has been found useful and necessary to bring together three stages or techniques of psychotherapy. First, along with teaching relaxation, the therapist directs the client to define the symptom in a symbolic or figurative way describing size, shape, color, consistency, smell, and sound. These descriptors assess intensity and, over time, change in intensity of the symptom. Second, several hypnotic techniques are used to determine the dynamic pattern that has created the symptom. Such uncovered patterns have been found to invariably involve family dynamics. Third, hypnotic and family therapy techniques assist the client in changing the pattern. Examples are presented. Cerny, M. (1986). Hypnosuggestive interventions in emotional stress and in stress disorders. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 2, 141-143. This paper represents a review of results using the PSA technique (Posthypnotic Suggestion evoked by Autostimulation) as a means of protection against stress. The best results were obtained in Ss with high susceptibility. This fact limits the practical use of the PSA method. However, this method can serve as a model approach in another more exact study of psychophysiological self-regulatory mechanisms in relation to coping with stress. Olness, Karen N. (1986, March). Hypnotherapy in children: New approach to solving common pediatric problems. Postgraduate Medicine, 79 (4), 95-105. Hypnotherapy, once thought of as magical and mysterious, is rapidly becoming accepted as an appropriate form of treatment for a wide range of disorders. Some primary care physicians are beginning to discover the value of hypnotherapy in controlling chronic disease and pain, in changing negative behavior, and in facilitating self- regulation of autonomic responses. Dr. Olness explores such use of hypnotherapy in children, the age-group that most readily acquires self-hypnosis skills and in which this technique has had dramatic results. 1986 Omer, Haim; Friedlander, Dov; Palti, Zvi (1986). Hypnotic relaxation in the treatment of premature labor. Psychosomatic Medicine, 48, 351-361. Hypnotic relaxation was used as an adjunct to pharmacologic treatment with 39 women hospitalized for premature contractions in pregnancy. The control group received medication alone and consisted of 70 women. Treatment was started at the time of hospitalization and lasted for 3 hr on the average. patients were also given cassettes with a hypnotic - relaxation exercise for daily practice. The rate of pregnancy prolongation was significantly higher for the hypnotic - relaxation than for the medication- alone group. Infant weight also showed the advantage of the hypnotic - relaxation treatment. Background variables of the two groups were compared and it was shown that they could not have explained the treatment effect obtained 1985 Bolocofsky, David N.; Spinler, Dwayne; Coulthard-Morris, Linda (1985). Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioral weight management. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41 (1), 35-41. 109 17-67 year olds completed a behavioral treatment for weight management either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Results show that, at the end of the 9-week program, both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. However, at 8-month and 2-year follow-ups, the hypnosis Ss showed significant additional weight loss, while those in the behavioral-treatment-only group exhibited little further change. More Ss who used hypnosis also achieved and maintained their personal weight goals. It is suggested that hypnosis may have been an effective motivator for Ss to continue practicing the more adaptive eating behaviors acquired during treatment. Findings support the utility of employing hypnosis as an adjunct to a behavioral weight management program. (25 ref) Finer, B. (1985, August). Altered substance P concentrations in CSF during hypnotic analgesia. [Paper] Presented at the 10th International Congress of Hypnosis and Psychosomatic Medicine, Toronto, Canada. Substance P is present at many sites of endorphins or enkephalons. Sometimes a strange sleepiness follows triggerpoint stimulation. Acupuncture also may lead to similar changes (e.g. feeling groggy; having difficulty standing - lasts 1-4 hours). If you inject 4 mgms (10 times the ordinary dose) of Naloxone into Ss it leads to groggy sleepiness, for Naloxone-reversed hypnotic analgesia. Olness, Karen N.; Conroy, Mary Margaret (1985). A pilot study of voluntary control of transcutaneous PO 2 by children: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 1-5. This pilot study took place to determine whether or not children could voluntarily change tissue oxygen as measured by a transcutaneous oxygen monitor. It tested 2 hypotheses: (a) children can voluntarily change tissue oxygen as reflected by a transcutaneous oxygen monitor and (b) children, experienced in use of self-hypnosis exercises, will be able to change tissue oxygen to a greater degree than children unfamiliar with such exercises. 11 children between the ages of 7 and 17 year were studied. 8 children were previously experienced in the use of self-hypnosis; 3 were not. A Novametrix transcutaneous O 2/CO 2 monitoring system provided a constant read-out of PO 1, PCO 1 and local perfusion. After stabilization, children were asked to attempt increases of oxygen. 9 children increased tissue oxygen significantly. Of those, 8 children had previous self-hypnosis training. 1 had not. Only 2 children with no previous self- hypnosis training were unable to change oxygen values. This pilot study upholds both hypotheses; however, it does not conclude that self-hypnosis mediated the changes noted or that self-hypnosis would be essential to success in voluntary control of tissue oxygen. 1984 Achterberg, J. (1984, October). Cancer, immunology, psychological factors, and imagery. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX. Author developed a way of scoring imagery (which will be published in Imagery and Disease.). In terms of predicting who will die and who will survive, the content of the images doesn't seem to be as important as the quality (strength, vividness, etc.), which supports Bernauer Newton's (1984) findings. "The image seems to be a basic pre-verbal component of our species that has survival value." Bishay, Emil; Stevens, Grant; Lee, Chingmuh (1984). Hypnotic control of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 22-25. The use of hypnosis for control of bleeding during and after surgical procedures is common practice. It has also been a useful tool for control of bleeding in hemophiliac children, especially during dental procedures, and in traffic accidents. This paper presents the successful treatment with hypnosis of a patient with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. After treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital without the need for surgical intervention. The physician explained to the patient that nothing would hurt her and that nobody would do anything against her will, that if she could "relax," then her unconscious mind would help her control her bleeding. [Gives script used in the hypnosis.] Trance terminated after 20 minutes. "One hour later, endoscopy performed under local anesthesia revealed 'non-bleeding gastritis, no ulcers seen.' She had no bleeding following the hypnotherapy" (p. 23). Brown, Erick L.; Kinsman, Robert A. (1984). Resolving intractable medical problems through psychological intervention: A clinical report. Psychotherapy, 21, 452-455. Treatment of chronic physical illness is often complicated by psychological factors that maintain and exacerbate the illness. Hypnotic techniques, coupled with insight-oriented psychotherapy comprised an effective strategy for favorably influencing medical outcome. A clinical report illustrates how psychological intervention initiated the resolution of severe medical problems in an asthmatic patient. Conn, Lois; Mott, Thurman, Jr. (1984). Plethysmographic demonstration of rapid vasodilation by direct suggestions: A case of Raynaud's Disease treated by hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26, 166-170. Raynaud's Disease is a painful vasospastic disorder of the fingers and toes precipitated by cold or emotional stimuli. Treatment has usually included protection from cold stimuli and vasodilators. Biofeedback, imagery, relaxation, and hypnosis have also been used. The relationship between response to treatment and hypnotizability has been inconclusive. A case of Raynaud's Disease was treated using hypnosis. The patient was highly hypnotizable and responded rapidly to direct suggestion with a fourfold increase in her blood volume. The implications of this rapid response and its relationship to hypnotizability are discussed with suggestions for further studies. The authors review experimental literature on the usefulness of hypnosis in modifying peripheral circulation, finding both positive (Barabasz and McGeorge, 1978, Roberts, Kewman, and MacDonald, 1973) and negative (Peters, Lundy, and Stern, 1973; Black, Edholm, Fox, and Kidd, 1963) outcomes. Experiments relating outcome to hypnotizability also have positive (Block, Levitsky, Teitelbaum, and Valletta, 1977) and negative (Crosson, 1980; Roberts et al, 1973) results. Clinical literature found that peripheral circulation could be influenced (Crasilneck & Hall, 1975; Norris & Huston, 1956; Jacobson et al., 1973) but none of those studies reported the hypnotizability of the patients. In the Crasilneck and Hall (1975) investigation, 60% of their 48 Raynaud's patients experienced marked improvement in symptoms or remission. Hypnotizability has been investigated with respect to biofeedback results, finding both no relationship (Holroyd et al., 1982) and a positive relationship (Andreychuk and Skriver, 1975). In this investigation, the highly hypnotizable (Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A, score = 11) female patient was treated with hypnosis when the blood vessels in her hands were constricted. Either she had arrived at the office with poor circulation, or a Raynaud's attack was induced with ice water. Hypnosis involved progressive relaxation followed by suggestions to visualize the blood vessels in her hand opening up, the blood warming and nourishing her hands. "With each beat of your pulse your hand becomes warmer as more blood reaches your fingers. It is as though you are lying in the warm sun. Try to visualize the blood vessels in your hand opening up...." (P. 168). The patient was asked to use self hypnosis and a cassette of the office session twice a week between sessions, but in fact she either failed to practice or did the exercise once between weekly sessions. With neutral hypnosis (no specific suggestions about circulation) there was little change in pulse volume; with suggestions to open up her blood vessels, there was an increase in blood volume that began within 20 seconds, reaching four times the baseline in 45 seconds. This increase was reproduced in later sessions, and a somewhat lesser degree of change could be produced with self hypnosis. In their Discussion, the authors question whether the positive results depend on someone who is high in hypnotizability, and/or on someone with a labile vascular system. They refer to a model of biological information processing to explain how suggestions might have been incorporated by the patient. "Bowers (1977) has speculated that hypnotized patients process information in a way different from when they are not hypnotized. He presents a number of different studies which have shown a significant relationship between hypnotizability and treatment response in patients with illnesses with a clear cut physiological component, including asthma, warts, and icthyosis. He then speculates that 'suggestions delivered to deeply hypnotized subjects can be transduced into information that is somatically encodable, thereby producing a selective and specific impact on body function and structure.' This kind of processing of information could explain the very rapid response described in the patient presented here. "In reviewing the cases in which blistering has been produced by hypnotic suggestion, Chertok (1981) states, 'It therefore clearly emerges that these experiments have all been conducted with _highly hypnotizable_ subjects, including a very large proportion of true somnambulists. Inversely, there is not a single known case where a blister has been produced without the subject having been deeply hypnotized beforehand'" (p. 169). Elkins, Gary R. (1984). Hypnosis in the treatment of myofibrositis and anxiety: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 26-30. A 38-year-old woman with chronic myofibrositis pain was treated by the se of hypnosis and psychotherapy. Hypnotherapeutic techniques, including symptom alteration, relaxation, and insight, are described. This regimen resulted in reduction in pain and emotional distress. which was maintained at three months and one year after treatment. Gould, Sol S.; Tissler, Doreen M. (1984). The use of hypnosis in the treatment of herpes simplex II. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26, 171-174. Hypnosis training was used to treat the painful lesions and emotional symptoms associated with Herpes Simplex II in two females, ages 32 and 26. Three weekly sessions of hypnosis and daily practice sessions were initiated in the first case. During this time, the patient experienced a decline in the subjective level of pain and severity of the lesions, as well as an elevation in mood level. On three-month followup, she reported no pain or skin eruptions and significantly less feelings of stress and anxiety. The second case utilized two sessions of hypnosis and daily practice sessions, and similar results were obtained. A traumatic event caused a relapse in the latter patient, but she was again able to use hypnosis to bring the virus back under control and to experience an elevation in mood level as well. A seven-month follow-up indicated no eruptions and an improvement in self-esteem. In the first case the tape included ego-strengthening suggestions (Hartland, 1971); another tape used the patient's fantasy of water and snow skiing. The patient felt that hypnosis helped her acquire a more positive attitude toward herself and relief of guilt and blame, as well as an improved ability to cope with the unpleasant sensations. In treatment session, ego strengthening suggestions were followed by 2 minutes of quiet for integration of suggestions, then visualization used in cancer therapy (Simonton): suggestions of a strong cell structure, perfect skin, hormonal balance, cleanliness, and a cooling refreshed feeling in the area of the vagina and perineum; imagery of internally controlled friendly white sharks was used to "devour" the virus; of water and snow skiing, imagery of cool breezes, white refreshing snow, clean fresh water; visualized herself forgiving and releasing her previous boyfriend of guilt, thereby allowing her anger to abate. For second patient it was similar, plus visualization of being bathed in white lights and traveling through concentric circles radiating peace and protection, being purified as she traveled through the circles until she emerged as flawless as a diamond, reflecting only clarity and light. Both patients scored 4 on Spiegel's Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP). Hall, Howard R. (1984, October). Hypnosis, imagery, and the immune system. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX. Studied the relationship of hypnosis to immune functions, using imagery methods like the Simontons did with their cancer patients. Twenty normal volunteers were hypnotized and asked to imagine their white blood cells (WBCs) attacking weak germs like strong sharks would attack something, and they were told that the sharks would continue working after they came out of hypnosis (a post-hypnotic suggestion). They were asked to "feel it and experience it any way you can," to avoid emphasizing visual imagery too much. Then they were taught self hypnosis and sent home to practice twice a day for a week. Three blood measures increased after hypnosis: --B-cells increased with pokeweed stimuli (an allergen) for younger Ss, not older Ss --WBC's increased for highly hypnotizable Ss who were young, not for poor hypnotizable Ss or for any older Ss (Age range was 22-80.) --Lymphocyte count increased, approaching significance for highly hypnotizable Ss who were young but not for poor hypnotizable Ss or for older Ss. A personality test administered before the hypnosis, the SLC-90, suggested that the higher the distress level, the lower the lymphocyte count before hypnosis training. Two scores that summed up the distress level correlated -.49 and -.53, respectively. The psychological distress measured by the personality test decreased after the week of self-hypnosis practice. Of the two scores that summed up distress, one decreased for everyone (General Severity Index) and the other decreased only for highly hypnotizable Ss (Positive Symptom Total). Thus, a week of self hypnosis with imagining one's WBC's eating up weak germs in the blood led to both an increase in immune response indicators and a decrease in psychological distress. Psychological distress decreased as lymphocytes increased. Dr. Hall repeated these procedures with a small number of Ss who were told just to "lie down and rest" rather than being hypnotized and given instructions to imagine their WBC's increasing. None of the above changes occurred. However, he cautions that his research doesn't indicate whether the positive effects are due to relaxation, imagery, or hypnosis since all three were involved. Krenz, Eric W. (1984). Improving competitive performance with hypnotic suggestions and modified autogenic training: Case reports. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 58-63. Although traditionally trainers of athletes have emphasized physiological refinements for the optimal performance of complex motor skills, research has revealed that heightened levels of stress and anxiety may adversely affect performance. As a result, many athletic training programs, taking into consideration the complex interrelationship of the mind and the body, include "mental training" in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of excess stress. These programs have incorporated various psychological interventions such as post hypnotic suggestions, sensory conditioning, and mental imagery and rehearsal. Modified Autogenic Training, a teaching model based on Standard Autogenic Training, synthesizes the strengths of hypnotic techniques to achieve optimal athletic performance. Athletes trained in these concepts can manage unexpected incidences during competition. The concepts of Modified Autogenic Training are described and four case studies are reported. Lewith, G. T.; Kenyon, J. N. (1984). Physiological and psychological explanations for the mechanism of acupuncture as a treatment for chronic pain. Social Science & Medicine, 1367-1378. Many suggestions have been made about the possible mechanism of acupuncture as an analgesic therapy. This review provides a comprehensive account of the neurological, neurohumoral and psychologically-based hypotheses put forward. Although the exact mechanism of this treatment remains unclear, it is apparent that reproducible neurological and chemical changes occur in response to acupuncture, and that these changes almost certainly modify the response to, and perception of, pain. The mechanism of chronic pain is incompletely understood, but within this framework we understand acupuncture as completely as most other types of analgesic treatment. Newton, Bernauer (1984, October). The use of imagery in the treatment of cancer patients. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX. Several hundred cancer patients were treated with the Simonton visualization method, with the additional factor that they were hypnotized for the visualization. In a long term follow-up study, those patients who were treated for at least 6 months and are still alive had imagery that was vivid, persistent, positive, and passive ("passive" here meaning an underlying sense of calm). Those who died had the opposite kind of images, and retrospective review of clinical notes indicates their aggressive images reflected desperation. Of the patients who were treated less than six months, a few lived. Their images also were vivid, persistent, and positive. Raynaud, Jeanne; Michaux, Didier; Bleirad, Guilhem; Capderou, Andre; Bordachar, Janine; Durand, Jacques (1984). Changes in rectal and mean skin temperature in response to suggested heat during hypnosis in man. Physiology and Behavior, 33, 221-226. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate were recorded in 7 subjects during hypnosis, induced either alone or while sensations of heat were suggested. During hypnosis alone, a fall in the heart rate of about 10 beat-min-1 was the only autonomic response observed; body temperatures were unaltered. In contrast, during hypnosis with suggestion of heat, the following changes occurred: (1) Mean rectal temperature decreased 0-.20 degrees C. (p<.05) within 50 min. Its mean time course differed significantly from that for hypnosis alone (p<0.001). (2) Comparison of individual rectal temperature time sequences showed that in fact this temperature only declined in 4 subjects out of 7, and tended to form a plateau located 0.35 degrees C below the value of the preceding waking state. Despite reinforcement of heat suggestion, the plateau continued until the end of the hypnotic trance. (3) Mean skin temperature tended to rise. (4) When hypnosis with suggestion ceased, both rectal and skin temperatures very slowly returned to their levels during the preceding waking state. 1981 Chen, Andrew C.; Dworkin, Samual F.; Bloomquist, Dale S. (1981). Cortical power spectrum analysis of hypnotic pain control in surgery. International Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 127-136. Cortical power spectrum (CPS) of brain potentials was recorded from the scalp between prefrontal and parietal regions in both right hemisphere (RH) and left hemisphere (LH). A pattern of laterality shift in CPS occurred at different stages during an extensive oral surgery, performed under hypnosis, in a young female patient. Video and audio recordings as well as psychophysiological recordings were obtained through the following 6 stages: Baseline, Hypnosis, Surgery (1 hr, no cortical recording), Immediate Postsurgery Procedure, Hypnotic Re-experience, Hypnotic Rest, and Posthypnotic Baseline. Indications of anxiety and pain scores were reported in writing by the patient through verbal command by the hypnotist. In each stage, 10 min of CPS (10 spectrum/stage, 8 epochs/spectrum, 6 seconds/epoch) were analyzed by a PDP-11 computer. The results of CPS analysis demonstrated significant large total power reduction at different stages. There was significant correlation between both hemispheres at baseline, but dissociation of hemispheric power output occurred during hypnosis stages. LH was more dominant than RH during baseline and presurgery hypnosis, but both were leveled- off immediately following the surgery procedure. However, RH became more dominant during all postsurgery hypnosis stages. Interestingly, this pattern shifted back to the original relationship during the posthypnotic baseline stage. Specific changes of spectral power in theta and alpha of EEG activities in both hemispheres also occurred in conjunction with hypnosis. Subject was a 25 year old woman, described as only medium in hypnotizability. She scored 3 on the 5-point Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale, 7 on the 12-point Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, and 3 on up-gaze, between 2 and 3 on eye roll, on the Spiegel eye roll test. The principal hypnotic approach was a suggestion of dissociation, i.e. that the patient "experience herself swimming freely and powerfully, in a deep cold mountain lake, pre-occupied with the intensity of the blue-black color of the water, the shimmering of light from above, and the possibilities of exploration of rock formations, caves, etc. It was suggested that while she was experiencing the exhilaration and strenuous stimulation of the cold water and the vigorous exercise, an 'observing-self' would remain on the shore, watching and ensuring that no harm would come to the person. The suggestion was reinforced that any stimulation experienced was experienced in the body, not in the person" (p. 129). harm would come to the person. The suggestion was reinforced that any stimulation experienced was experienced in the body, not in the person" (p. 129). The patient was trained in inductions and dissociation first in the therapist's office, then with two sessions in the research laboratory (where tooth pulp stimulation pain thresholds were measured), and then two sessions in the hospital dental operatory. The results of the computerized CPS were analyzed by hemispheres. "Large reductions in total power occurred at different stages associated with hypnosis and these reductions in power output of the CPS showed significant left-right differences" (p. 130). "The total energy output of LH [left hemisphere] continued to diminish as hypnosis continued by as much as 80% of baseline value, while RH [right hemisphere] power output tended to be stabilized from the initial hypnosis recording stage until the awake baseline stage" (p. 130). "Those stages involving hypnosis were characterized by dominant RH energy output in the alpha spectrum. ... "Alpha output for the LH decreased an average of 65% between awake baseline levels and postsurgery hypnosis stages, while RH alpha only decreased approximately 50% of resting levels. This resulted in a relative shift of alpha output which was approximately equal in both hemispheres prior to surgery, to a 2:1 shift in favor of RH alpha output as hypnosis progressed. This differential shift in laterality of alpha was reversed when the subject awakened from hypnosis. "Of interest was the observation that total power reductions and laterality shifts associated with hypnosis were not altered by the profound instrumentation of surgery and postoperative pain, nor were observed laterality shifts affected by hypnotic suggestions aimed at recreating the surgical experience (see Stage 5)" (p. 130). During the experiment when the investigators used hypnotic suggestion to recreate the surgical experience, LH output continued to diminish while RH output did not change, making the LH-RH contrast highly significant. "This suggests that the RH is active during deep stages of hypnosis and can remain so despite hypnotic suggestions which are presumed to be intensely aversive" (p. 131). In their Discussion, the authors reinforced the conclusion that overall cortical functioning is reduced during hypnosis, and that the left cerebral hemisphere shows a greater reduction than the right. They discuss the increased theta density in RH and LH during the postsurgery hypnosis stage in terms of reports that theta is associated with altered states of consciousness (Tebecis et al., 1975; Ulett et al., 1972; Anad, China, & Singh, 1961; Banquet, 1973; Kasamatsu & Hirai, 1966; Wallace, 1970) and with cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic (Dolce et al., 1974). The authors note that their results are congruent with Hilgard's neodissociation theory of hypnosis, and add that since their suggestions were dissociative in nature rather than of local anesthesia, the EEG may reflect the brain physiology of dissociation. Finally, they comment on the implications for pain neurophysiology. "The total power changes and shifting patterns in laterality of cortical functioning observed more closely tracked the hypnosis experience than the pain experience; this is, in fact, a very puzzling issue. It appears on the face of it that the EEG measurements recorded are not reflective of EEG-related pain phenomenology despite the strenuous and invasive surgical procedures used. The observations that overall power output continued to decrease during the several hypnosis stages after strenuous surgery and then increased as the patient came out of hypnosis makes reasonable the possibility that _hypnosis_ has some functional brain correlates; we cannot conclude from the present cortical power spectrum analysis that any brain correlates of surgical _pain_ were revealed. We are well aware that EEG recordings were not available during actual surgery itself, because of artifacts resulting from head movements, etc. Nevertheless, it can be fairly claimed that recordings obtained immediately after such oral surgery of one hour duration, could reasonably be expected to be associated with a person in pain. But, both by verbal report and available objective data, any surgically induced traumatic pain was of brief duration under hypnosis" (p. 135). well aware that EEG recordings were not available during actual surgery itself, because of artifacts resulting from head movements, etc. Nevertheless, it can be fairly claimed that recordings obtained immediately after such oral surgery of one hour duration, could reasonably be expected to be associated with a person in pain. But, both by verbal report and available objective data, any surgically induced traumatic pain was of brief duration under hypnosis" (p. 135). Elkind, Leonard (1981). Effects of hypnosis on the aging process. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 28 (4), 132-137. (Also presented at the annual meeting of the Am Soc of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine in San Francisco, CA) This study investigated the possibility of altering physiological measures associated with aging through the use of posthypnotic suggestions of increased youthfulness and vitality. Subjects were 20 women ranging in age from 39 to 56 years old. They were tested individually on Morgan's Adult Growth Examination, the AGE. Test-retest scores of the Control group were not significantly different, the median change being zero. The Experimental group, however, showed a decrease in Body Age for all of the subjects, the range of change from -3 to -18 years with a median change of -11 years. 1978 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1978). 'Hypnosis,' suggestions, and psychosomatic phenomena: A new look from the standpoint of recent experimental studies. In Fosshage, J. L.; Olsen, P. (Ed.), Healing: Implications for psychotherapy (pp. 269-297). New York: Human Sciences Press. "The first part of this chapter summarizes recent experiments that indicated that suggestions (1) can prevent the skin reaction (contagious dermatitis) that is produced by plants such as poison ivy, (2) can give rise to a localized inflammation of the skin, (3) can stimulate the remission of warts, (4) can ameliorate congenital ichthyosis (fish skin disease), and (5) can stimulate additional growth of the mammary glands in adult women. The underlying theme throughout the first part of the paper is that "suggestions" (statements that something is occurring or will occur) affect cutaneous and glandular functions when subjects accept the suggestions and incorporate them into their own ongoing cognitions (their ongoing thoughts, images, and feelings). The second part of the paper (1) summarizes recent psychophysiological experiments and biofeedback studies that indicated that our thoughts, images, and feelings affect blood flow to the skin and other organs, and (2) postulates that the aforementioned phenomena produced by suggestions (e.g., the prevention of dermatitis, the production of inflammation, and the remission of warts) may be partly due to the localized alterations in blood flow that occur when the suggestions are accepted and become part of ongoing cognitions" (pp 269-270). 1977 Davidson, R. J.; Goleman, D. J. (1977). The role of attention in meditation and hypnosis: A psychobiological perspective on transformations of consciousness. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 291-308. A temporally based scheme for investigation of changes in consciousness, applicable to areas such as meditation and hypnosis, is proposed and is divided into 3 basic epochs: before -- predispositional variables that affect response to consciousness altering techniques; during -- the state effects of the particular technique; and after -- the trait effects of the practice. Research is surveyed which indicates the role of attentional processes during each of these 3 basic epochs in both meditation and hypnosis. Attentional flexibility is a predispositional variable affecting response to both meditation and hypnosis. The state effects of concentrative meditation involve alterations in stimulus set while the state effects of hypnosis may reflect primarily response set. The trait effects elicited by meditation depend critically on the psychobiological systems which are called into play. Evidence is discussed which suggests that concentrative meditation shares with relaxation an autonomic quiescence, but in addition enhances some attentional skills. A mindfulness technique involving the adoption of a particular attentional stance toward all objects of awareness appears to enhance cortical specificity, but a concentration technique does not. Some implications of attentional self-regulation are discussed. 1976 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1976). Introduction. Self-control: Temperature biofeedback, hypnosis, yoga, and relaxation. In Barber, Theodore Xenophon (Ed.), Biofeedback and self-control: 1975/76 (pp. xiii-xxix). Chicago: Aldine. Discusses control of skin temperature, hypnosis, yoga, relaxation, and biofeedback. Concludes that hypnosis is not unique in producing somatic effects.