Dugan, Michelle; Sheridan, Charles (1976). Effects of instructed imagery on temperature of hands. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 42, 14.

Sixteen college student volunteers were involved in the research. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, either to warm or to cool their hands. All 10 subjects attempting to cool their hands were able to cool at least one hand, and six people cooled both hands. For those trying to warm their hands, five warmed at least one hand and one was able to warm both hands. Four people were able to cool their hands without hypnosis, conditioning, or feedback.

Galin, David (1974). Implications for psychiatry of left and right cerebral specialization: A neurophysiological context for unconscious processes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31 (4), 572-583.

A brief review is presented of hemispheric specialization for different cognitive modes, and of the symptoms that follow disconnection of the two hemispheres by commissurotomy. Our present knowledge of the hemispheres’ cognitive specialization and potential for independent functioning provides a framework for thinking about the interaction of cognitive structures, defensive maneuvers, and variations in awareness. Parallels are noted between some aspects of the mental processes of the disconnected right hemisphere and some aspects of primary process thinking and repression. The hypothesis is proposed that in normal intact people mental events in the right hemisphere can become disconnected functionally from the left hemisphere (by inhibition of neuronal transmission across the cerebral commissures), and can continue a life of their own. This hypothesis suggests a neurophysiological mechanisms for at least some instances of repression and an anatomical locus for the unconscious mental contents.

Hilgard, Ernest R. (1974, October). Visceral control through hypnosis. [Paper] Presented at the International Congress of Physiological Sciences, New Delhi.

The author reviews evidence of hypnosis and/or suggestion effects on skin: removal of warts, raising blisters, controlling chemically induced inflammation, modifying temperature. He concludes that although there may be dramatic results, the contributions of suggestion and hypnosis ‘remain ambiguous.’

Roberts, Alan H.; Kewman, Donald G.; Macdonald, Hugh (1973). Voluntary control of skin temperature: Unilateral changes using hypnosis and feedback. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82 (1), 163-168

To demonstrate the ability of human Ss to achieve control over specific autonomic functions, hypnosis and auditory feedback were used to train a select group of hypnotically talented subjects to produce a difference in skin temperature in one hand relative to the other in a direction specified by the experimenter. Large and reliable effects were shown demonstrating that some individuals are capable of achieving a high degree of voluntary control over the autonomic processes involved in peripheral skin temperature regulation. Individual differences between subjects were noted, and variables that might account for these are discussed.

All Ss felt hypnosis helped (p. 167). However there were no waking control subjects. The study confounds hypnosis with auditory feedback (p. 168). They observed a relationship between hypnotic depth and physiological control.

Bowers, Kenneth S.; Kelly, P. (1970). Stress, disease, psychotherapy, and hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 490-505.

Presents evidence for the importance of suggestion and hypnotic ability in the healing or amelioration of various somatic disorders. It is argued that even in some treatment interventions that are not explicitly hypnotic, suggestion and hypnotic ability may be hidden factors that help to promote successful healing. Consequently, hypnotic ability may be an individual difference variable that influences treatment outcome in a manner not heretofore recognized by many investigators and clinicians involved in helping the psychologically and physically ill.

Black, Stephen (1964). Mind and body. London: Kimber

Defines psychosomatic disease as one that responds to psychotherapy. Believes only 5% are highly hypnotizable, that hypnosis is learnable in 1/2 hour, that hypnosis is not a useful treatment for psychosomatic disorders because you can’t use interpretation [of unconscious]. The ‘unconscious’ is “… a complex of informational systems derived from such primaeval mechanisms” (p. 133). “Primaeval mind is involved in these mechanisms of genetics and immunology” (p. 133). “There is thus a ‘somatic mind’ which is unconscious and presumably without any means of verbalization of experience–and a ‘cerebral mind’ which is conscious” (p. 133). The dividing line is not clear.

“There is thus a ‘somatic mind’ which is unconscious and presumably without any means of verbalization of experience–and a ‘cerebral mind’ which is conscious” (p. 133). The dividing line is not clear.
Rapport is discussed on pp. 160, 169 as one of the spontaneous characteristics of hypnosis, in the absence of suggestion. The same for posthypnotic suggestion (rapport and amnesia). Spontaneous _physiological_ changes in hypnosis relate to mind-body relationships (p. 169)
Conditioned reflex is discussed on p. 161
“…the subjective evidence indicates that a perceptual change involving any sensory modality can be produced by DSUH” [direct suggestion under hypnosis] p. 178. Suggestion can selectively affect different parts of the body p. 197.
Research: “Hypnosis is not only the most important and practical way of _proving_ the existence of the unconscious–which is still in doubt in some circles–but is in fact the only way in which unconscious mechanisms can be manipulated under repeatable experimental conditions for purposes of investigation” (p. 152).
Mind-body is “amenability to control” Catatonia, which characterizes both animal and human hypnosis, seen in hypnosis, is induced by constriction (i.e. disorientation). The Cartesian concept of mind and body tends to confuse the issue p. 157.
Rapport is discussed (p. 157).
Suggestion (p. 159) “It was this concept of ‘suggestion’–which so obviously parallels ‘amenability to control’ in animals–that eventually established hypnosis in the French schools of psychiatry as a state of increased suggestibility. … still the standard definition of hypnosis in most medical psychiatric textbooks and in lay dictionaries” (p. 159).
Black (1969) did some biochemical sleuthing to learn how information transmitted by words becomes information encoded somatically, as when psychosomatic allergies flare and recede or disappear. What accounts for suggestion “curing” an allergic skin reaction in one part of the body while another part not included in the suggestion remains reactive? What accounts for the instantaneous skin allergy cure which sometimes occurs with suggestion (in 24 hours)?
Skin sensitivity tests in highly hypnotizable Ss who were also very allergic were inhibited by direct suggestion under hypnosis under highly controlled experimental conditions–and in one subject the effect (inhibition) was relatively permanent–ruling out (he suggests) a neurological mechanism. He did further experiments to examine whether the result was due to an instant neurological mechanism and a long-term endocrinal mechanism.
p. 212 He ruled out peripheral blood flow as the cause of diminished skin sensitivity (there was no change in blood flow with suggestions of heat or cold). Therefore decrease in blood flow couldn’t explain in neurovascular terms the ‘instant’ inhibition of skin sensitivity (allergy) tests. Was it due to systemic–especially adrenal– changes? He demonstrated increases in plasma cortisol under hypnosis with suggestions of fear. On p. 230 he summarizes the facts he established by skin sensitivity tests, plasma- cortisol studies, and histology – endocrinological.

Black, Stephen; Edholm, O. G.; Fox, R. H.; Kidd, D. J. (1963). The effect of suggestion under hypnosis on the peripheral circulation in man. Clinical Science, 26, 223-230.

“Summary. 1. The effects on the circulation in the forearm and hand of both direct and indirect suggestion under hypnosis of thermal stimuli have been studied. 2. The induction of hypnosis did not significantly alter the forearm blood flow, but a small reduction in hand blood flow was usually observed. Pulse rate in general slowed slightly as did respiration rate. 3. The effect of body heating on forearm and hand blood flow was not modified by hypnosis. 4. Direct suggestion under

not modified by hypnosis. 4. Direct suggestion under hypnosis of body heating or body cooling, with and without body heating, produced only small changes. 5. The changes associated with suggestion were not related to the thermal suggestion. Whatever the suggestion, the usual response was a reduction in hand blood flow and an increase in forearm blood flow. 6. The rise of body temperature with heating was not modified by direct suggestion, under hypnosis, of body cooling. 7. No change in body temperature could be elicited by suggestion. 8. In a few experiments marked changes in forearm blood flow occurred. These appeared to resemble the changes in the circulation produced by emotional stimuli. 9. The smaller changes more frequently observed were also similar to those produced by mild emotional stimuli” (p. 229). [N.B. The Subjects were normal, healthy adults, N = 9, between 21-45 years old; highly hypnotizable, amnesic for trance.]

Paul, Gordon L. (1963). The production of blisters by hypnotic suggestion: Another look. Psychosomatic Medicine, 25 (3), 233-244.

Presents a critical evaluation of reported attempts to produce nonherpetic skin blisters through hypnotic suggestion. Even though the majority of these reports are grossly lacking in controls, experimental design, etc., and are subject to alternative explanations, the author concludes that skin anomalies have been produced by suggestion in some instances. Additional studies of psychogenic vascular changes add credence to the possibility of central control of these phenomena. It is also concluded that these reactions do not appear to be limited only to hypnotized Ss.

Howarth, Edgar (1954). Postscript to a new theory of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 91-92.

Referring to a theory of internal and external signalling systems, the author describes situations in which an individual’s behavior comes under other than willed control by virtue of external circumstances. “In normal behavior the individual provides his own ‘will’ and may, to some extent, choose among a variety of alternative action sequences on the basis of guiding integrations between the second (externally directed) signalling system and the primary (internally directed) signalling system. … it appears that a considerable degree of control may be obtained by the ‘top’ semantic command system over internal process, particularly those ‘inhibited’ by the cranial and sacral subdivisions of the ‘autonomic’ nervous system. .. [In anecdotal case reports] control was gained over breathing, heart rate and bladder and the person may feign death for several days. In such cases surface wounds do not exude other than lymph. The method for such control remains for experimental examination, but a necessary part of the procedure seems to be the use of mild occasional reward during a prolonged period of fasting. Solitary confinement is also necessary and both deserts and prison cells are reported … to have been used” (pp. 91-92).


Gorassini, Donald R.; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1986). A social-cognitive skills approach to the successful modification of hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1004-1012.

Subjects low and medium in hypnotic susceptibility were administered cognitive strategy and instructional set information and also practiced responding to test suggestions in order to enhance susceptibility. Those in one modification treatment received this information both from the experimenter and by observing a videotaped female model who responded successfully to suggestions and reported on the cognitive strategies she used to do so. Those in a second modification treatment received the information and practice but were not exposed to the model. Low and medium susceptibles in a third condition (practice alone) received a hypnotic induction procedure and practice suggestions but neither modification information nor modeling. No-treatment controls performed a filler task. All subjects were posttested on two different susceptibility scales. Information plus modeling produced significantly greater increments on all objective and subjective indices of susceptibility on both posttests than did practice- alone or control treatments. Susceptibility increments in the information without model treatment always fell between those of the model and practice-alone treatments. In the modeling treatment, over half of the initial low susceptibles and over two thirds of the initial medium susceptibles scored as high susceptibles on both posttests. These findings provide strong support for a social-cognitive skill formulation of hypnotic susceptibility.

Spanos, Nicholas P.; Cross, Wendi P.; Lepage, Mark; Coristine, Marjorie (1986). Glossolalia as learned behavior: An experimental demonstration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 21-23.

60 Ss listened to a 60-s sample of glossolalia (defined to them as pseudolanguage) and then attempted to produce glossolalia on a 30-s baseline trial. Afterward, half of the Ss received two training sessions that included audio- and videotaped samples of glossolalia interspersed with opportunities to practice glossolalia. Also, live modeling of glossolalia, direct instruction, and encouragement were provided by an experimenter. Both the trained subjects and untreated controls attempted to produce glossolalia on a 30-s posttest trial. About 20% of subjects exhibited fluent glossolalia on the baseline trial, and training significantly enhanced fluency. Seventy percent of trained subjects spoke fluent glossolalia on the posttest. Our findings are more consistent with social learning than with altered state conceptions of glossolalia.

Council, James R.; Kirsch, Irving; Vickery, Anne R.; Carlson, Dawn (1983). ‘Trance’ versus ‘skill’ hypnotic inductions: The effects of credibility, expectancy, and experimenter modeling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 31 (3), 432-440.

A hypnotic induction procedure based on social learning principles (skill induction) was compared with a traditional eye-fixation/relaxation trance induction, a highly credible placebo induction, and a no-induction base-rate control

The trance induction surpassed the skill induction only on the Field Inventory, a measure of hypnotic depth that contains items corresponding to suggestions contained in the trance induction. Experimenter modeling was not found to enhance the effectiveness of the skill induction. Skill and trance inductions elicited slightly higher behavioral scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C than did the placebo induction. However, this difference was not obtained on other measures of hypnotic responsibility and depth. Significant correlations were found between expectancy, absorption, and responsiveness on all dependent measures. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the relationship between absorption and responsivity was mediated by expectancy. The results are interpreted as supporting the hypotheses that hypnotic responses are elicited by the expectancy for their occurrence and that induction procedures are a means of increasing subjects’ expectancies for hypnotic responses.

1) Trance induction resulted in a higher score on subjective experiences (cognitive & perceptual distortions) but not higher suggestibility scores than cognitive- behavioral skill induction. 2) Trance and cognitive-behavioral inductions got slightly higher scores in suggestibility than placebo biofeedback induction. 3) All inductions did better than a “no induction” control group on subjective and behavioral indices of hypnosis.
One of the goals of this research was to examine the contribution of experimenter modeling to the behavioral skill induction that “trains the subject in hypnosis skills and requires the subject’s conscious cooperation in learning cognitive strategies that will enhance hypnotic responsivity” (p. 432). Another goal was to assess the contribution of “a subject’s expectancies for the occurrence of behaviors perceived as being involuntary” (p. 433). A third goal was to determine whether congruence between a subject’s beliefs about hypnosis and the rationale for a particular induction would increase expectancy. Two different skill inductions were employed (one with, one without a model). Subjects were asked to predict their performance, based on a description of the induction that they would receive. The contributions of credibility and expectancy were assessed using a highly credible placebo (pseudo biofeedback of EEG theta rhythm).
The investigation used only subjects who had never experienced hypnosis.
Independent variables included Rotter’s (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Rotter’s (1967) Interpersonal Trust Scale, and Tellegen’s Absorption Scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974). Mediating variables included a measure of induction credibility based on Borkovec and Nau (1972), and a 20-item inventory measuring expectancies for hypnotic performance. Dependent variables included 20 standard hypnotic suggestions taken from the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C; the Creative Imagination Scale; ratings of the ‘realness’ or experienced intensity of each suggestion; and the Field Inventory of Hypnotic Depth (Field, 1965).
The authors conclusion reads as follows: “The results of this study may be summarized as follows: (a) Traditional trance hypnotic inductions and cognitive- behavioral skill inductions were shown to be equally effective in eliciting experiential and behavioral responses to hypnotic suggestions, although trance subjects reported a somewhat greater alteration in conscious experience. (b) Experimenter modeling was not found to be an effective component of the skill induction package. (c) Subjects’ expectancies for hypnotic responses, reported prior to hypnotic induction, bore a very strong relationship to hypnotic responsivity. (d) A highly credible placebo induction resulted in levels of expectancy and hypnotic responsivity generally comparable to those produced by trance and skill hypnotic inductions. (e) Absorption was significantly correlated with expectancy, but was not found to be significantly related to responsiveness once variance due to expectancy was taken into account. Thus the relationship between absorption and hypnotic responsiveness appears to be mediated by expectancies.
“In sum, these results suggest that various hypnotic inductions elicit expectancies for responding to hypnotic suggestions and that these expectancies are sufficient to elicit hypnotic responses. Further studies are needed to determine the nature of the relationship between absorption and hypnotic response expectancies” (p. 439).

hypnotic response expectancies” (p. 439).

Harris, Gina M.; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett (1983). Coping imagery and relaxation instructions in a covert modeling treatment for test anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 14, 144-157.

The present study compared the efficacy of instructing test anxious subjects to use personalized coping imagery based on nonacademic experiences of competence with coping imagery based on academic experiences of competence. The effect of relaxation was also examined and the relationship of imagery elaborateness and content to treatment effectiveness was assessed. Sixty-three subjects were randomly assigned to one of four treatments or a waiting list control group. Test anxiety as measured by a self-report instrument significantly decreased in all treatment groups. Improvement in grade point average occurred for all treatment groups except for academic coping imagery without relaxation which was also the least efficient treatment. The waiting list control group significantly deteriorated in academic performance. Relaxation training did not appear to enhance treatment effectiveness or influence the elaborateness or content of the imagery used. Test anxiety scenes elicited highly response- oriented images by all subjects. However, the stimulus/response content of the subjects’ images was not influenced by treatment outcome. In contrast, successful treatment was primarily associated with reduction in negative coping imagery descriptions, although an increase in positive coping statements cured as well.

Bornstein, Philip H.; Devine, David A. (1980). Covert modeling-hypnosis in the treatment of obesity. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 17 (3), 272-276.

Investigated the efficacy of a covert modeling/hypnosis treatment package in the control of obesity. 48 overweight female volunteers (who had been administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Eating Patterns Questionnaire, and Rotter’s Internal-External Locus of Control Scale) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following groups: (a) covert modeling/hypnosis, (b) covert modeling, (c) no-model scene control, and (d) minimal treatment (where Ss received a shortened version of the covert modeling/hypnosis procedure following an 8-wk no-treatment period.) Results indicate a significant effect for weight loss from pretreatment to follow-up across all groups combined. Proportion weight loss measures indicated significantly greater weight loss only for the covert modeling/hypnosis group as compared to the no-model controls. Implications for combining behavior therapy and hypnotic techniques are discussed. (30 ref).

Diamond, Michael Jay (1980). The client-as-hypnotist: Furthering hypnotherapeutic change. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 197-207.

A novel hypnotic induction technique is described wherein the client reverses roles and serves as hypnotist for the therapist. Relevant theoretical processes are discussed as are mutual hypnosis, modeling, and the uncommon techniques of Erickson (1964). 3 case illustrations are presented and implications discussed. It is hypothesized that the ‘client-as-hypnotist’ may in certain special situations further hypnotherapy by: (a) increasing client motivation; (b) enhancing therapeutic rapport; (c) increasing both client trust and skills in utilizing unconscious processes; (d) overcoming resistance and increasing hypnotizability; (e) providing a useful psychodiagnostic and behavior assessment index; (f) presenting a role ‘model’ for dealing with feelings, alterations in consciousness, and self-control; (g) providing a client-centered framework for subsequent therapeutic interventions; (h) increasing client self-esteem, mastery, and ego strength; and (i) increasing client self-control skills. Potential risks and contraindications for use of the technique are also discussed.

and behavior assessment index; (f) presenting a role ‘model’ for dealing with feelings, alterations in consciousness, and self-control; (g) providing a client-centered framework for subsequent therapeutic interventions; (h) increasing client self-esteem, mastery, and ego strength; and (i) increasing client self-control skills. Potential risks and contraindications for use of the technique are also discussed.

Botto, R. W.; Fisher, S.; Soucy, G. P. (1977). The effect of a good and a poor model on hypnotic susceptibility in a low demand situation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 175-183.

A review of recent studies reveals that there has yet to be a clear demonstration of a behavioral model affecting hypnotic levels. Two studies were conducted to test whether a peer model who portrayed deep or light hypnosis could affect S hypnotizability under minimal demand conditions. Using a low demand version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962), the first study showed a difference (Good Model scoring higher than Poor Model) that only approached significance. A replication on a larger sample, however, showed significantly higher scores for those Ss observing a good model rather than a poor model. Although base scores were not obtained on these Ss, norms frmo comparable populations suggest that the poor model seems more effective than the good model; but this difference does not appear attributable to differential attitudes created by the models.

Havens, Ronald A. (1977). Using modeling and information to modify hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 167-174.

Ss were 117 college students divided into 3 groups. 1 group observed a model being reinforced for hypnotizable behavior, 1 observed a model being punished for hypnotizable behavior, and the third did not observe a model. Previously, each S had completed 1 of 3 randomly-distributed programmed learning texts containing facilitative information about hypnosis, non-facilitative information, or information unrelated to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was subsequently determined by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962). Significantly higher HGSHS:A scores were obtained from Ss exposed to the reinforced model than from Ss exposed to the punished model. Facilitative information yielded higher HGSHS:A scores than non-facilitative or unrelated information. No interaction effects were obtained. In order for individuals to obtain maximum hypnotic responsiveness, it is desirable that members of the general population not be exposed either to hypnotic Ss being punished or ridiculed and that non-facilitative statements be avoided. Facilitative information presented in a programmed-learning-text format may be a useful technique for enhancing hypnotizability.

Chaves, John F.; Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1974). Cognitive strategies, experimenter modeling, and expectation in attenuation of pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83 (4), 356-363.

Verbal reports of pain were obtained from 120 subjects during a base-level pretest and also during a posttest conducted under one of several experimental treatments. The pain stimulus was a heavy weight applied to a finger for two minutes. During the posttest, subjects who had been asked to utilize cognitive strategies for reducing pain (to imagine pleasant events or to imagine the finger as insensitive) showed a reduction in pain as compared to uninstructed control subjects. Subjects led to expect a reduction in pain, but not provided with cognitive strategies, also showed reduced pain during the posttest as compared to control subjects, but the reduction was smaller than for subjects using cognitive strategies. An experimenter modeling procedure, used with one half of the subjects under each experimental treatment, was effective in reducing verbal reports of pain only for subjects with high pretest levels who were asked to imagine pleasant events.


Eimer, Bruce. N. (2000). Clinical applications of hypnosis for brief and efficient pain management psychotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43 (1), 17-40. (July)

This paper describes four specific clinical applications of hypnosis that can make psychotherapy for pain management briefer, more goal-oriented, and more efficient: (1) the assessment of hypnotizability; (2) the induction of hypnotic analgesia and development of individualized pain coping strategies;
(3) direct suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and pain relief imagery; and (4) brief psychodynamic reprocessing during the trance state of emtoional factors in the patient”s experience of chonic pain. Important theoretical and clinical issues regarding the relationship between hypnotizability to the induction of hypnotic analgesia are presented, and attempts to individualize pain treatment strategies on the basis of assessed differences in hypnotizability and patients” preferred coping strategies are described. Some ways are also presented of integrating direct hypnotic suggestion, COGNITIVE-EVALUATIVE reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and imagery for alleviating the SENSORY and AFFECTIVE-MOTIVATIONAL components of pain, with an exploratory, insight-oriented, and brief psychodynamic reprocessing approach during trance for resolving unconscious sources of resistance to treatment, and reducing the emotional overlay associated with chronic pain. Some basic assumptions underlying the use of this approach are discussed, and a brief step-by-step protocol is outlined.

Bargh, John A.; Chartrand, Tanya L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54 (7), 462-479.

What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did E.J. Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one’s experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion’s share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment.

Wegner, Daniel M.; Wheatley, Thalia (1999). Apparent mental causation: Sources of the experience of will. American Psychologist, 54 (7), 480-492.

The experience of willing an act arises from interpreting one’s thought as the cause of the act. Conscious will is thus experienced as a function of the priority, consistency, and exclusivity of the thought about the action. The thought must occur before the action, be consistent with the action, and not be accompanied by other causes. An experiment illustrating the role of priority found that people can arrive at the mistaken belief that they have intentionally caused an action that in fact they were forced to perform when they are simply led to think about the action just before its occurrence.

In the section on the principle of consistency (“the thought should be compatible with the action”), the authors discuss motor automatisms, including the Chevreul pendulum. “The perceived involuntariness of the movement seems to derive from thought-action inconsistency arising in the sheer unwieldiness of the pendulum. Moving the hand in one direction produces an impulse to the pendulum in the opposite direction, so the control of the movement is like trying to write while looking at one’s hand in a mirror. … The involuntariness of a variety of the motor automatisms appears traceable to movement confusion that interferes with perceptions of consistency (Wegner, in press)” (p. 485). The authors go on to discuss how people in hypnosis come to think that they are automatically doing what the hypnotist suggests. “The development of involuntariness in hypnosis may occur, then, through the learning of a causal interpretation for one’s action that leaves out any role for one’s own thoughts. This view is consistent with the longstanding notion that hypnosis is an interpretive exercise in which people are encouraged to view their actions as events caused by the hypnotist rather than by their own thoughts (Bowers, 1992; Kihlstrom, 1985; Kirsch & Lynn, 1997). As suggested by Spanos (1982), ‘Interpreting behavior as an action involves attributing causality to the self (e.g., I did it), while interpreting it as a happening requires that causality be attributed to sources other than the self (e.g., It happened to me)’ (p. 200)” (p. 487).

Barsby, Michael (1997). Hypnosis in the management of denture intolerance. In Mehrstedt, Mats ; Wikstrom, Per-Olof, (Eds.) (Ed.), Hypnosis international monographs : Number 3 : Hypnosis in dentistry (pp. 71-78). Munich Germany: M.E.G.-Stiftung.

Intolerance of dentures may have dental or psychological causes. It is within the latter group of patients, provided that they are genuinely motivated to wear a denture, that the use of hypnosis may be helpful. The importance of careful patient assessment and exploration of appropriate treatment strategies with the patient is emphasised. Principles of treatment including relaxation, controlled breathing, visual imagery and reframing are described. All of these techniques may be used in conjunction with conditioning / desensitisation and a gradual progression to denture wearing.

Council, James R. (1997). Context and consistency: The Canadian connection. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (3), 204-211.

Issues related to context effects in hypnosis research are briefly reviewed. The contributions of Canadian hypnosis researchers to current theory and research on context effects are acknowledged. Bowers and colleagues at the University of Waterloo emphasized the scope and subtlety of contextual influences on correlates of hypnotic suggestibility, and they promoted the development of a consistency motivation theory of context effects. Spanos and colleagues at Carleton

development of a consistency motivation theory of context effects. Spanos and colleagues at Carleton University generalized context effects within the domain of hypnosis, prompting extension of this work to general personality measurement. Implications of findings on consistency motivation for hypnosis research are discussed in terms of person-by-situation interactions. — Journal Abstract

Patterson, David R.; Adcock, Rebecca J.; Bombardier, Charles H. (1997). Factors predicting hypnotic analgesia in clinical burn pain. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (4), 377-395.

The use of hypnosis for treating pain from severe burn injuries has received strong anecdotal support from case reports. Controlled studies provide less dramatic but empirically sound support for the use of hypnosis with this problem. The mechanisms behind hypnotic analgesia for burn pain are poorly understood with this patient population, as they are with pain in general. It is likely that, whatever the mechanisms are behind hypnotic pain analgesia, patients with burn injuries are more receptive to hypnosis than the general population. This article postulates some variables that may account for this enhanced receptivity, including motivation, hypnotizability, dissociation, and regression.

Ready, David J.; Bothwell, Robert K.; Brigham, John C. (1997). The effects of hypnosis, context reinstatement, and anxiety on eyewitness memory. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (1), 55-68.

The effects of hypnosis, context reinstatement, and motivational instructions on accuracy of recall for factual information and facial recognition accuracy following a stressful event were assessed. None of the three techniques had a significant effect on factual memory or susceptibility to suggestion as assessed by true-false and multiple-choice tests. However, participants high in hypnotic susceptibility showed somewhat better memory on the true-false test, and hypnosis affected performance on the two photograph line-ups. In addition, hypnosis appeared to enhance facial recognition accuracy for participants who were low in anxiety, but not for those high in anxiety. Finally, there was evidence of a curvilinear relationship between self-reported anxiety at time of retrieval and facial recognition accuracy. — Journal Abstract

Ruehle, Beth L.; Zamansky, Harold S. (1997). The experience of effortlessness in hypnosis: Perceived or real. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (2), 144-157

Hypnotized individuals who successfully respond to a suggestion typically report that the response requires little or no cognitive effort. It is important, however, to distinguish between whether this effect occurs in actual effort or is only perceived. In addition, the authors distinguish between cognitive effort expended to initiate a response and that required to maintain it. The authors examine the different predictions of four theories-compliance theory, sociocognitive theory (Lynn & Rhue, 1991), Hilgard’s (1986) neodissociation theory, and Bowers’s (1992) theory of dissociated control-regarding both of these distinctions. Experimental evidence bearing on the various predictions is examined. Additionally, the authors propose a number of design modifications that may help sort out the variables contributing to the effortlessness of the hypnotic response. — Journal Abstract

Barsby, Michael (1994). The use of hypnosis in the management of ‘gagging’ and intolerance to dentures. British Dental Journal, 176, 97-102.

Hypnosis is not a therapy but can provide the clinician with a set of techniques which may be used to augment or facilitate a particular course of treatment. The importance of the patient”s history and clinical findings in the diagnosis of intolerance to dentures and the selection of patients for hypnosis is discussed. Principles of treatment using relaxation, anxiety control, conditioning / desensitisation and confidence boosting techniques are described. Some examples of typical case histories are used to illustrate the application of a variety of techniques that have been found to be successful.

Wagstaff, Graham F.; Royce, C. (1994). Hypnosis and the treatment of nail biting: A preliminary trial. Contemporary Hypnosis, 11, 9-13.

A clinical trial was conducted examining the relative efficacy of therapeutic suggestions preceded by and without a hypnotic induction in the treatment of nail biting in 17 students. Outcomes showed a hypnotic induction added significantly to therapeutic benefits and was the only condition that resulted in symptom improvement. Results from only one session showed that 7 of 11 hypnosis subjects stopped nail biting compared to only 1 of 6 control subjects. Reports of “believed in efficacy” predicted treatment success better than ratings of motivation, hypnotic induction per se, or scores on the Creative Imagination Scale. However, within the group receiving hypnotic induction, hypnotic- depth scores significantly correlated with treatment success, suggesting that state factors such as dissociation might be involved.

The hypnotized Ss were given the T. X. Barber (1969) induction, a request for their depth estimate on a scale of 0-10, and then a set of suggestions to discourage nail biting. The suggestions were of four types: (1) to have a positive attitude, that nail biting is a habit that can be broken and that stopping will enhance attractiveness and self esteem; e.g., ‘With just a little self control you will stop biting your nails and feel better about yourself.’ (2) to stop the habit; e.g. to say to themselves, ‘I will not bite my nails today/tomorrow,’ five times each morning and at night, and whenever the temptation arose. (3) to improve feelings of self-efficacy; e.g., ‘If you ever feel the urge to bite your nails tell yourself that you want to break the habit and that you are perfectly capable of doing so. You are not weak.’ (4) that the results would be outstanding; e.g. ‘After only ten days or so … you will have no desire to bite your nails, indeed the very thought of doing so will repulse you.’

Control subjects received the same instructions, without a hypnotic induction; the procedure was labeled a ‘positive attitude for self discipline’ technique

Judges rated improvement without being aware of the Ss’ self-report on whether they had stopped biting their nails. Judges’ ratings correlated r = .94 with Ss’ statements about whether they had stopped the habit. Improvement scores also correlated significantly with belief the treatment would be effective (r = .60) and Creative Imagination Scale scores (r = .53), but not with motivation. The hypnosis group had significantly higher belief scores than the control group. Within the hypnosis group itself, hypnotic depth was the only variable to correlate significantly with improvement.

-nificantly with improvement.
The Discussion stated, “However, taken together, the findings indicate that hypnotic induction added significantly to the therapeutic benefits of suggestions for the cessation of nail biting, and that Johnson and Barber’s (1978) concept of ‘believed-in efficacy’ was more important in accounting for therapeutic success than motivation (at least as measured here), hypnotic induction per se, or the subject’s proclivity for imaginative involvement. Nevertheless, belief still accounted for less than 40% of the variance in improvement. This may have been due to measurement error or insensitivity in the measures. Alternatively, or additionally, other factors may have been influential. For example, if CIS scores are considered to be indirect measures of hypnotic susceptibility, then belief was more influential than hypnotic susceptibility; however, from a hypnotic state theory perspective, the significant correlation between hypnotic depth (LSS scores) and improvement within the hypnosis group might suggest that some further feature of the ‘hypnotic state’ could still have been at work, such as a dissociative process (Hilgard, 1986). On the other hand, from a non-state perspective, perhaps subjects receiving hypnotic induction and reporting high depth scores might have felt more obliged to respond to the demand characteristics of the study, and tried harder to please the experimenter (Wagstaff, 1981); the general motivation questions used here could have been insensitive to such an effect” (p. 12).

Page, Roger A.; Handley, George W. (1993). The use of hypnosis in cocaine addiction. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36, 120-123.

An unusual case is presented in which hypnosis was successfully used to overcome a $50-0 (five grams) per day cocaine addiction. The subject was a female in her twenties. Six months into her addiction, she acquired a commercial weight-control tape that she used successfully to stop smoking cigarettes (mentally substituting the word “smoking”), as well as to bring her down from her cocaine high and allow her to fall asleep. After approximately 8 months of addiction, she decided to use the tape in an attempt to overcome the addiction itself. Over the next 4 months, she listened to the tape three times a day, mentally substituting the word “coke.” At the end of this period, her addiction was broken, and she has been drug free for the past 9 years. Her withdrawal and recovery were extraordinary because hypnosis was the only intervention, and no support network of any kind was available.

Spiegel, David; Frischholz, Edward J.; Fleiss, Joseph L.; Spiegel, Herbert (1993). Predictors of smoking abstinence following a single-session restructuring intervention with self hypnosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1090-1097.

Examined the relation of smoking and medical history, social support, and hypnotizability to outcome with Spiegel’s smoking-cessation program. A consecutive series of 226 smokers were treated with the single-session approach and followed up for 2 years. With a total abstinence criterion, 52% success was found after 1 week, and 23% abstinence at 2 years. Hypnotizability and having been previously able to quit smoking for at least a month significantly predicted the initiation of abstinence. Hypnotizability and living with a significant other person predicted 2-year maintenance. The results are superior to those of spontaneous efforts to stop smoking and suggest it is possible to predict which patients are most likely to respond and which patients are least likely to respond to such a brief intervention.

Kunzendorf, Robert; Carrabino, Carlene; Capone, Daniel (1992-93). ‘Safe’ fantasy: The self-conscious boundary between wishing and willing. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 12, 177-188.

This experiment tested the hypothesis that a fantasy will impel people to ‘act out’ only if they fail to distinguish the fantasy from the anticipated reality. In the experiment, one task obtained a baseline measure of how long subjects could resist eating popcorn, then measured how long subjects could resist popcorn while fantasizing its taste. Another task instructed subjects to merge three circular images with three circular percepts of equal vividness, then presented subjects unexpectedly with only two of the three circular percepts. Some subjects thought that there were three circular percepts during the merger, and for these subjects, the length of resistance to popcorn was significantly shorter during the popcorn fantasy. But for subjects who self-consciously differentiated the two real circles from the three merging images, the normal ‘boundary’ between wishful fantasy and willful eating was intact.

This research investigated whether people can fantasize without acting out. The authors place the study in the context of theories proposed by Freud and William James. Kunzendorf’s source monitoring theory of self-consciousness suggests that “self- consciousness _that one is imaging_ is the phenomenal consequence of neurally monitoring the central source of one’s imaged sensations, and self-consciousness _that one is perceiving_ is the subjective quality of neurally monitoring the peripheral source of one’s perceived sensations” (p. 178).
The ability to carry out source monitoring varies. Those who have difficulty monitoring whether they are imaging or perceiving may also have trouble distinguishing wishful fantasy from anticipatory imagery, and therefore they might act on it.
This research “identified subjects with poor source monitoring–nondiscerners of reality–and investigated the effect of fantasy on their impulse control” (p. 179).