Subjects sat in front of a computer monitor for all tests; they completed Eysenck’s seventh impulsivity questionnaire for measures of impulsivity, venturesomeness, and empathy, Marks’ Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ).
The study used a test in which subjects maintained in mental imagery a red, green, and yellow filled circle that had been on screen, with eyes closed; were instructed to open eyes and merge their 3 imaginary circles with the 3 on the screen (but when they opened eyes only 2 were there), and they were then asked questions about how many circles they saw when they opened their eyes.
Then they were given a taste of popcorn, told to resist eating any more (but could press a key to receive a little if they couldn’t resist), and then were told to resist by imagining that they were eating popcorn.

Those who discerned the two real circles while imaging a third circle of equal vividness (the Discerners), could resist eating popcorn for 137 sec in the baseline condition and 132 sec in the fantasy condition. Those who could not discern two real circles while imagining a third (Nondiscerners) could resist eating popcorn for 127 sec in the baseline treatment but only 95 sec in the fantasy treatment.
Discerners could identify the missing circle as the red one, whereas nondiscerners could not do so with any certainty; there was no effect of “image vividness”.
“Vivid imagers” whose imagery matched real yellow circles of greater illuminance, exhibited more vivid imagery on the VVIQ as well.

more vivid imagery on the VVIQ as well.
In their Discussion, the authors suggest that “fantasy impels people to ‘act out’ only if they fail to distinguish fantasized sensations from perceived sensations. … [the theory] is applicable to sexual fantasy and aggressive fantasy as well. This theory– Kunzendorf’s ‘source monitoring’ theory of self-consciousness–implies that fantasies of the sensory consequences of a behavior should not lead to the behavior, so long as the fantasies are self-consciously known to be imaginal and are not expected to be perceptual… But for people who cannot self-consciously distinguish between wishful images of pure fantasy and anticipatory images of perceptual reality, between wishing and willing, fantasies of gastronomical, sexual, or aggressive sensations are implicitly unsafe.
“Indeed, as Baars notes, ‘the issue of voluntary control is at the very core of human psychopathology’ [31, p. 254]. But recently, Baars’ and others’ theories of volition have emphasized the computer-metaphoric distinction between conscious ‘willful’ behavior and unconscious ‘automatic’ action [31, 39-40], and have neglected James’ distinction between conscious willing and conscious wishing. Decades ago, when pre- computational theorists like Janet used the term ‘automatism’ to describe psychopathological behavior, they meant that an abnormally behaving patient was _consciously ‘possessed’ by a fantasy_–a wishful image, a hypnotic suggestion, or a fantasized personality [41]. In reemphasizing the phenomena of wishing, willing, and possession by fantasies, the present article redefines the latter phenomenon as possession by ‘unmonitored’ fantasies, which are distinguishable from anticipatory images impelling action” (pp. 184-185).

Spanos, Nicholas P.; Simulates, Ann; de Faye, Barbara; Mondoux, Thomas J.; Gabora, Natalie J. (1992-93). A comparison of hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments for smoking. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 12, 23-43.

Three experiments administered variants of Spiegel’s (1970) smoking cessation procedure to smokers in hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Follow-up periods were from twelve to twenty-four weeks depending on the experiment. Complete abstinence was an infrequent outcome in all three experiments. Greater-than-control reductions in smoking for treated subjects were obtained in two of the experiments but, in both cases treatment and control subjects failed to differ significantly before the end of the follow-up period. Hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments produced equivalent smoking reductions in all studies, and neither hypnotizability nor questionnaire assessments of motivation to quit correlated significantly with treatment outcome. Implications are discussed.
When the experimenters compared number of treatments they simply compared two sessions of Spiegel’s one-session treatment with four sessions of it. The authors make the point that perhaps they should vary the four sessions.
“In all three of the present experiments the abstinence rates associated with the Spiegel treatment were very low. Our abstinence rates were similar to those reported in one earlier study [4 – Perry et al.], but substantially lower than those reported in three other studies [2, 22, 25]. The reasons for these discrepancies between studies remains unclear, but experiment 3 suggests that these discrepancies cannot be accounted for simply in terms of whether the subjects were drawn from a university or nonuniversity population, and experiment 2 suggests that the discrepancies are unrelated to the number of treatment sessions administered to subjects.
“The finding that hypnotic and nonhypnotic subjects in all three experiments attained equivalent reductions in smoking is consistent with other comparison studies in this area which indicate that hypnotic treatments are no more effective than various nonhypnotic procedures at inducing reductions in smoking [22, 25, 30]. More generally, these findings are consistent with comparison studies on a wide variety of clinical disorders (headache pain, warts, phobias, obesity) which indicate that hypnotic treatments are no more effective than nonhypnotic ones at producing therapeutic change (see [3] for a review).

Sheehan, Peter W. (1991). Hypnosis, context, and commitment. In Lynn, S. J.; Rhue, J. W. (Ed.), Theories of hypnosis: Current models and perspectives (pp. 520-541). New York: Guilford Press.

“There are several different ways to classify the model that is expounded in this chapter. One may view it … as an individual-differences model of hypnosis, because it emphasizes the significance of intragroup differences in the pattern of hypnotic performance. Alternatively, one may view it as a phenomenologically based model…. Invariably, however, single categories fail to do justice to the nature of theories, and hence it is perhaps wisest to view this theory as a means of exploring particular hypotheses about hypnotic phenomena that focus primarily on the meaning of suggestion as perceived by susceptible subjects. This model focuses, in a way that most other theories do not, on the motivational implications of the cognitive involvement of the susceptible subject in the events of the hypnotic setting. It offers a variant of contextual theories of psychological functioning, but is experiential in its emphasis rather than simply behavioral” (p. 537).

Pavia, M.; Stanley, R. O. (1988). Effect of defining induction as hypnosis or relaxation. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 11-21.

Previous studies have shown that the perceived definition of an induction may sometimes affect the subject’s responses to the induction. These variations in the effect of induction definition may be due to interactions between a subject’s motivations and expectations of the induction technique and the way the induction is defined. These authors explored this interaction with groups of clinical and student subjects. Differing definitions of induction as ‘hypnosis’ or ‘relaxation’ did not result in significant differences in response among either group, though subjects in neither group were found to have high expectations of motivation (sic).

Markus, Hazel; Nurius, Paula (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41 (9), 954-969.

The concept of possible selves is introduced to complement current conceptions of self-knowledge. Possible selves represent individuals’ ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming, and thus provide a conceptual link between cognition and motivation. Possible selves are the cognitive components of hopes, fears, goals, and threats, and they give the specific self- relevant form, meaning, organization, and direction to these dynamics. Possible selves are important, first, because they function as incentives for future behavior (i.e., they are selves to be approached or avoided) and second, because they provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self. A discussion of the nature and function of possible selves is followed by an exploration of their role in addressing several persistent problems, including the stability and malleability of the self, the unity of the self, self- distortion, and the relationship between the self-concept and behavior

Bolocofsky, David N.; Spinler, Dwayne; Coulthard-Morris, Linda (1985). Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioral weight management. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41 (1), 35-41.

109 17-67 year olds completed a behavioral treatment for weight management either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Results show that, at the end of the 9-week program, both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. However, at 8-month and 2-year follow-ups, the hypnosis Ss showed significant additional weight loss, while those in the behavioral-treatment-only group exhibited little further change. More Ss who used hypnosis also achieved and maintained their personal weight goals. It is suggested that hypnosis may have been an effective motivator for Ss to continue practicing the more adaptive eating behaviors acquired during treatment. Findings support the utility of employing hypnosis as an adjunct to a behavioral weight management program. (25 ref)

Pajntar, Marjan; Jeglic, Anton; Stefancic, Martin; Vodovnik, Lojze (1980). Improvements of motor response by means of hypnosis in patients with peripheral nerve lesions. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (1), 16-26.

In order to accelerate rehabilitation of patients with peripheral nerve lesions, hypnosis was employed to encourage them voluntarily to move those muscles with weak re-innervation and to achieve the best possible activity of the affected muscle groups. By measuring muscle force and endurance and by observing the electrical activity of the affected muscles, it was found that the activity of the affected muscles was much better while patients were in hypnosis than when they were in the waking state. The patients were able to contract even paretic muscles having only weak re-innervation with such strength, that clinically perceptible contraction of the muscles and movement of paretic extremities occurred. Such early and improved activation is very important for prevention of much permanent damage.

Jackson, J. Arthur; Gass, Gregory C.; Camp, Elizabeth M. (1979). The relationship between posthypnotic suggestion and endurance in physically trained subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 278-293.

55 male Ss were assigned to 5 groups: control, hypnosis alone, motivation alone, low susceptible hypnosis with motivation, or high susceptible hypnosis with motivation. Ss performed 2 runs on a treadmill to their maximum capacity, as measured by oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, and respiratory quotient. Groups involving hypnosis performed in the posthypnotic state. A significant increase in endurance performance was revealed in the motivation alone Ss and in high susceptible hypnosis Ss who were given motivational suggestions. Maximum ventilation was significantly increased in high susceptible hypnosis Ss when compared with control Ss and significant increases in blood lactate concentrations were revealed when the high susceptible hypnosis Ss were compared with low susceptible hypnosis and motivation alone Ss. The reasons for the changes in metabolic variables are discussed. Findings demonstrated that in achieving greater endurance performance, motivational suggestions alone are as effective as identical suggestions given to high susceptible Ss.

identical suggestions given to high susceptible Ss.

Perry, Campbell; Gelfand, Robert; Marcovitch, Phillip (1979). The relevance of hypnotic susceptibility in the clinical context. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (5), 592-603.

Despite experimental evidence that hypnotic susceptibility is a relatively stable characteristic of the individual, and one that is very difficult to modify, clinical investigators tend to see susceptibility as irrelevant to therapeutic outcome. Such investigators view motivational and interpersonal variables as more essential to the therapeutic change. The evidence for the clinical relevance of hypnotizability is sparse and contradictory. Most existing studies stem from medical hypnosis and indicate that susceptibility plays an important role in the successful treatment of such conditions as clinical pain, warts, and asthma. Two studies are reported that seek to pursue a contrary finding reported by Perry and Mullen, who found that susceptibility was unrelated to the successful treatment of a socially learned behavior (cigarette smoking). Both studies confirmed the earlier finding of a lack of relation. In Study 1, however, stepwise multiple regression analysis located three inventory items concerning the motivation of cigarette smokers. The combination of items was found to predict outcome for 67.39% of 46 clients treated either by hypnosis or by rapid smoking. The finding was replicated in Study 2, which utilized a combined hypnosis – rapid smoking technique and employed a different therapist. The outcome for 9 of the 13 quitters and 37 of the 62 nonquitters across the two studies could be predicted by the three motivational questionnaire variables.

Jackson, T. L.; Barkley, R. A.; Pashko, S. M. (1976). The effects of hypnotic induction versus high motivation on oral temperature. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 22-28.

The hypothesis that changes in oral temperature are associated with neutral hypnotic induction was investigated using neutral hypnosis and a high motivation condition as controls. 33 Ss were assigned to 3 experimental conditions: (1) neutral hypnotic induction, (2) high motivation control, and (3) no treatment control. Ss in all 3 conditions received pre- and post-treatment oral temperature measurements after a 20-minute temperature stabilization showed a significantly greater increase in oral temperature as compared to Ss in both the high motivation and no treatment control conditions. Ss in the latter 2 conditions did not differ from each other in this regard. The methodological considerations of future research in this area are also discussed.

London, Perry (1976). Kidding around with hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24 (2), 105-121.

This paper reviews a long term research project relating hypnotic susceptibility to performance and personality variables. Several experiments indicated that people who are low in hypnotic susceptibility try harder than high susceptibles for maximum performances on strength, endurance, psychomotor coordination, and cognitive tests, though high susceptibles are generally more pleased with their own performances. Other experiments indicated that people of high hypnotic susceptibility have slower brain- wave patterns under relaxed, nonhypnotic conditions, than do low susceptibles. These findings, together with a third set of findings on the developmental character of hypnotic susceptibility, led to the theory that

-mental character of hypnotic susceptibility, led to the theory that hypnotic susceptibility and brain-wave patterns are both inversely correlated with achievement motivation and with its developmental roots in childhood independence training. An elaborate research program was initiated to investigate the hypothesized relationships.

Aletky, Patricia J.; Carlin, Albert S. (1975). Sex differences and placebo effects: Motivation as an intervening variable. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43 (2), 278.

” … the present findings would suggest that future studies of placebo effects should take into account the nature of the dependent variable and the pertinent differential sex-role expectations” (p. 278). The performance measure was a dynamometer pull task. The placebo was a jelly applied to the forearm “and alleged to relieve muscular fatigue” (p. 278). The motivational instructions were telling Subjects that “individuals in good health and with normal muscle tonus would be expected to show improved performance on the posttreatment trial” (p. 278).

Lick, John R. (1975). Expectancy, false galvanic skin response feedback, and systematic desensitization in the modification of phobic behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43 (4), 557-567.

This study compared systematic desensitization and two pseudotherapy manipulations with and without false galvanic skin response feedback after every session suggesting improvement in the modification of intense snake and spider fear. The results indicated no consistent differences between the three treatment groups, although all treatments were significantly more effective than no treatment in modifying physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of fear. A 4-month follow-up showed stability in fear reduction on self-report measures for the three treatment groups. Overall, the results of this experiment were interpreted as contradicting a traditional conditioning explanation of systematic desensitization. An alternate explanation for the operation of systematic desensitization emphasizing the motivational as opposed to conditioning aspects of the procedure is discussed.

Crasilneck, Harold B.; Hall, James A. (1970). The use of hypnosis in the rehabilitation of complicated vascular and post-traumatic neurological patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18 (3), 152-158.

Hypnotherapy has been found of value in rehabilitation of many patients experiencing difficulty in the usual procedures which follow cerebrovascular or traumatic brain injury. 3 cases are reported to illustrate the approach taken. Of 25 similar cases seen over a 9-year period, 4 were unresponsive to hypnosis. Although an increase in motivation for recovery seemed to be the major change elicited by hypnotherapy, other theoretical possibilities are mentioned. Hypnosis may be a useful way of approaching motivational problems in rehabilitating patients who manifest negativism toward conventional treatment.

Secter, Irving I.; Tremaine, Donahue L. (1969). The psychology of learning applied to hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 11, 191-194.

Some generally held principles of learning have been stated. The statements hold even when the word ‘hypnosis’ is substituted for the word ‘learning.’ Teaching does not guarantee learning. A hypnotic induction verbalization does not guarantee the development of hypnotic states. The process and the learner would seem to be of greater importance than the teacher or hypnotist. The latter’s main function should be to create a favorable environment for learning and to help remove the obstacles to learning. When the resistances to learning are inoperative, induction of hypnosis takes place rapidly

Thorne, D. Eugene (1969). Amnesia and hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 225-241.

Explored the relative effects of 2 factors on short-term memory for a paired-associate learning task. 36 undergraduate and graduate paid volunteers were stratified, according to their Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A scores, into 3 groups of 12 Ss each. The Ss within each of the 3 groups were then evenly but randomly assigned to 3 treatment conditions, which differed in terms of the kind of motivational procedure in which suggestions of amnesia for a recently learned paired-associate task were given. Results did not directly support or were sometimes contrary to predictions derived from popular hypnosis theories, which assert that posthypnotic amnesia is a reliable behavioral criterion for the “hypnotic state.” (Spanish & German summaries) (32 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Hartman, B. J. (1967). Hypnotizability as affected by attitudinal and motivational variables. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 86-90.


Evans, Frederick J.; Orne, Martin T. (1965). Motivation, performance, and susceptibility to hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (2), 103-116.

Earlier reports found that the waking base level performance of Ss who are relatively insusceptible to hypnosis is higher than the waking base level of highly susceptible Ss on tasks of muscular strength, endurance, coordination, and verbal learning and that any increment in performance under hypnosis tends to be at least as great with insusceptible Ss as with highly susceptible Ss. These previous studies were carefully replicated, but the results were not confirmed. No differences in base level or hypnosis performance were found, except for poorer hypnosis performance of Ss of medium susceptibility to hypnosis, arising in part from the emphasis on relaxation in the induction procedure, and in part because of subtle demand characteristics present in the counterbalanced experimental design. (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Levitt, Eugene E.; Brady, J. P. (1964). Muscular endurance under hypnosis and in the motivated waking state. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 21-27.

8 female Ss scoring at least 10 on the Standford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale were required to hold a weight in the outstretched hand in 3 states: (a) under hypnosis, (b) under hypnosis with the upper arm and shoulder anesthetized hypnotically, and (c) in the waking state with motivation provided by a verbal exhortation and monetary payment. Order of performance in the 3 states was varied. No significant differences among states were found. The interaction between states and orders was significant, but it appears more likely to be the result of intersubject variability rather than of position or fatigue effects. Ss” expectancies and estimates of performance time, obtained postexperimentally, did not appear to be related to performance itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Furneaux, W. D. (1963). Neuroticism, Extraversion, answer suggestibility: A comment. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 201-202.

Author develops hypotheses about the relationships between scores on the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and suggestibility.
“(a) The effective-drive experienced by a S in a suggestibility test, or hypnosis situation, is positively correlated with both neuroticism and with extraversion, as measured by the MPI.
(b) Effective-drive is also a function of the ”press” of the test situation, and of the S”s previous experience.
(c) Within the range of values of effective-drive lower than the Yerkes-Dodson optimum for the test being studied, the magnitude of response to a suggestibility test (or hypnosis) is a positive function of drive.
(d) For values of effective-drive greater than the Yerkes-Dodson optimum, response is a negative function of drive” (p. 201).

Levitt, Eugene E.; Lubin, B.; Zuckermann, M. (1962). The effect of incentives on volunteering for an hypnosis experiment. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10 (1), 39-42.

The data indicated that neither education about hypnosis nor payment for participating in an experiment are likely to bias a student volunteer group for an hypnotic experiment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Fowler, William L. (1961). Hypnosis and learning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 223-232.

3 studies are reported in which hypnotic suggestion was used for the purpose of increasing the motivation and self-confidence of college students suffering reading difficulties. While the subjects reported a variety of benefits, objective tests provided no evidence that hypnosis did improve reading performance. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II23F. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Furneaux, W. D. (1961). Neuroticism, extroversion, drive, and suggestibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 195-214. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 62: 4 II 95F)

In the group studied, the body-sway scores of stable extraverts and neurotic introverts tended to be large, whereas they were smaller for stable introverts and neurotic extraverts. This result was explained in terms of a theoretical model in which the effective drive produced in a S by a test-situation is a function of both his neuroticism and his extraversion. The author believes that the theoretical model generates a number of predictions and suggestions which can serve to guide future experimental work in this field. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II95F. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Pearson, R. E. (1961). Response to suggestion given under general anesthesia. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 4, 106-114.

Employed a double-blind design with placebo control. Audio tapes containing therapeutic suggestions were played to 43 experimental patients during anesthesia. The main theme of the suggestions was that the patient would cope better and recover faster if he could become relaxed. Placebo tapes (music or blank tapes) were played to the 38 control patients. Only E, who had no contact with the patients, knew which tape was played to a given patient. Three postoperative variables were studied: (a) number of doses of narcotics in the first 5 postoperative days; (b) a numerical rating by the surgeon of the postoperative course; and (c) number of postoperative days until release. Although no significant differences were found between the suggestion group and placebo group on need for narcotics or rated course of recovery, patients receiving suggestions were discharged an average of 2.42 days sooner (p < .05). Schneck, Jerome M. (1961). Hidden determinants in deceptive requests for hypnoanalysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 261-267. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 62: 4 II 61S) Evaluation of the motives underlying the request for hypnoanalysis leads to the conclusion that often these patients do not wish for this form of treatment at all. Thus, requests for hypnoanalysis are often deceptive (a method of changing therapists during a period of negative transference). The implications of these hidden determinants are discussed and brief case references are given. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II61S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1960 Salzberg, Herman Carl (1960). The effects of hypnotic, posthypnotic, and waking suggestion on performance using tasks varied in complexity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8, 251-258. This article probably is based on the dissertation, reported as follows in the PsychInfo database: An experimental investigation of the differential effects of hypnotic, post-hypnotic and waking suggestion on learning, with tasks varied in complexity AU: Salzberg, Herman Carl SO: Dissertation Abstracts. 21, 1961, pp. 2017-2018 AB: 5 Ss were instructed to respond with a reaction time key to colors and figures presented tachistoscopically. In the 1st series of experiments a steady reaction to figures (with the right hand) and to colors (with the left hand) was established. In the 2nd series figures and colors were presented 1 by 1 at random, and the Ss had to react according to the previously established habit. In the 3rd series combinations of figures and colors were shown and the Ss had to react with both hands at the same time. 4 different types of reactions were observed in the last series depending upon the shifting or the distribution of attention. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CE87P. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CF06N. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CF14L. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CF17S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1958 Conn, Jacob H. (1958). Meanings and motivations associated with spontaneous hypnotic regression. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 6 (1), 21-44. "The motivational influences and meanings associated with spontaneous regression have been discussed. It is postulated that when a patient spontaneously regresses he has the wish to recreate a previous life situation --one in which he was completely helpless. The clinical material indictes that the patient can be brought out of regression without any attempt being made to re-orient him to the present, and during spontaneous regression the patient can discuss topics which are subsequent to the regressed age level. The patient does not revive old memories but 'memory romances' which are rationalizations and wish fulfilling fantasies. "The patient in the hypnotic trance is not passive, but is an active agent, who uses the therapist as a means of restoring the patient's feeling of mastery and control. A painful, baffling life situation which formerly had been the source of conflict, guilt or self-depreciation is in this manner mastered, so that the patient can start all over again as if he were 'reborn,' and can go on to a normal, healthy way of life. "This is in keeping with Whitehorn's view (16) that 'symptoms have meaning in a motivational sense, that morbid patterns of reaction are part of an adaptational struggle, that one of the main tasks in psychiatric work is to conduct an individualized study of each patient to point up the main recurrent theme of dissatisfaction and conflict and to assess the individual's currently unused potentialities for dealing with this issue ...'" (p. 42). 1958 Rosenberg, M. J.; Gardner, C. W. (1958). Some dynamic aspects of posthypnotic compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 57, 351-366. Within the context of a general, psychoanalytically-oriented theory of hypnosis there were presented two hypotheses on the nature of compliance with posthypnotic suggestions. According to the first, such compliance is viewed as facilitated by the subjects being able to interpret the posthypnotic suggestion in a manner consistent with the mechanisms and affective reactions that, for him, characterize and maintain the hypnotic relationship. In the second, compliance with a posthypnotic suggestion is viewed as facilitated if that suggestion permits the subject safely to express and indulge a previously warded-off and conflicted drive. Case record data drawn from a recent experimental study were presented which tend to confirm these two hypotheses. 1955 Meares, Ainslie (1955). A note on the motivation for hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 222-228. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 57: 1129) "Summary. The logical reasons of the patient for desiring hypnosis, and of the therapist in advising it, operate on a background of unconscious mechanims. These mechanisms are important factors in determining whether or not the logical reasons become effective. An understanding of such motivation helps the therapist in the selection of cases and the choice of the particular form of hypnotherapy to be used" (p. 228). Patient motivations for hypnosis include magical expectations, paranoid belief that one is under the control of a malevolent influence, a (paradoxical) belief that hypnosis will be ineffective with neurotic symptoms and therefore justify continuation of the symptoms, latent aggression ("hypnotize me if you can" attitude) or an excess of passivity ("humiliate me"), erotic motivation or a wish for a more intimate relationship with the therapist, search for new or unusual experiences in life, a last ditch effort to cope with chronic pain and illness, etc. Patient motivations against hypnosis include fear of being overpowered or the threat of authority, aggressive feelings that would be motivated if the hypnotist seems to be an authority, or association of hypnosis with the erotic. The author has observed "a surprising number of people" with the latter association. "With these people, it is more of an attitude of mind in which any close or intimate relationship is regarded as erotic. They see in hypnosis an intimate relationship with the therapist, and they avoid it without being aware of their reasons for doing so" (p. 226). Therapist motivations for hypnosis include unconscious mechanisms as well, such as a drive for power (sometimes manifested in desire to demonstrate the technique to a wider audience than simply colleagues in a workshop). When tinged with eroticism the drive can become sadistic. Also, erotic drives can find vicarious expression as "The intensity of the rapport between patient and psychotherapist in waking psychotherapy, is increased many times in hypnosis" (p. 227). Therapist motivations against hypnosis include fear of failure (which is more obvious when a patient doesn't follow a suggestion than in lack of response to medicine), fear of erotic involvement, fear of one's own aggression, etc. 1953 Kirkner, Frank J.; Dorcus, R. M.; Seacat, Gloria (1953). Hypnotic motivation of vocalization in an organic motor aphasic case. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (3), 47-49. Authors' Summary - A 41 year old male patient with a history of mutism on an organic basis for a year and a half failed to respond to speech retraining efforts. Comprehension was good and motivation poor. With the aid of hypnosis, he was induced to vocalize. Following vocalization, oral speech retraining progress was steady. Retraining efforts in writing met with repeated failure. The patient had suffered a cerebral vascular accident, attributed at the time to an embolism. Movement 1997 Jasiukaitis, Paul; Nouriani, Bita; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Spiegel, David (1997). Relateralizing hypnosis: Or, have we been barking up the wrong hemisphere?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (2), 158-177. Research and theory over the past couple decades have suggested that the right cerebral hemisphere might be the focus of brain activity during hypnosis. Recent evidence from electrodermal responding, visual event-related potentials, and Stroop interference, however, can make a case for a role of the left hemisphere in some hypnotic phenomena. Although hemispheric activation on hypnotic challenge may depend in large part on the kind of task the challenge might involve, several general aspects of hypnosis might be more appropriately seen as left-rather than right-hemisphere brain functions. Among these are concentrated attentional focus and the role of language in the establishment of hypnotic reality. A left-hemisphere theory of hypnosis is discussed in light of recent findings and theories about a left-hemisphere basis for synthetic or generational capabilities (Corballis, 1991) and a neuro-evolutionary model of a left-hemisphere dopaminergic activation system for the implementation of predetermined motor programs (Tucker & Williamson, 1984). -- Journal Abstract 1996 Dane, Joseph R. (1996). Hypnosis for pain and neuromuscular rehabilitation with multiple sclerosis: Case summary, literature review, and analysis of outcomes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44 (3), 208-231. Videotaped treatment sessions in conjunction with 1-month, 1-year, and 8-year follow-up allow a unique level of analysis in a case study of hypnotic treatment for pain and neuromuscular rehabilitation with multiple sclerosis (MS). Preparatory psychotherapy was necessary to reduce the patient's massive denial before she could actively participate in hypnosis. Subsequent hypnotic imagery and posthypnotic suggestion were accompanied by significantly improved control of pain, sitting balance, and diplopia (double vision), and a return to ambulatory capacity within 2 weeks of beginning treatment with hypnosis. Evidence regarding efficacy of hypnotic strategies included (a) direct temporal correlations between varying levels of pain relief and ambulatory capacity and the use versus nonuse of hypnotic strategies, (b) the absence of pharmacological explanations, and (c) the ongoing presence of other MS-related symptoms that remained unaltered. In conjunction with existing literature on hypnosis and neuromuscular conditions, results of this case study strongly suggest the need for more detailed and more physiologically based studies of the phenomena involved. - Journal Abstract Montgomery, Guy; Kirsch, Irving (1996). The effects of subject arm position and initial experience on Chevreul pendulum responses. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 38 (3), 185-190. Some clinicians maintain that responses to the Chevreul pendulum illusion are facilitated by resting one's elbow on a table. Others claim the reverse. We compared these two methods in a counterbalanced crossover design by having 32 counterbalanced crossover design by having 32 university students perform the Chevreul pendulum illusion with their elbows supported on a table and with their elbows unsupported. Although there was no main effect for method (elbow supported versus elbow unsupported), subjects who rested their elbows on a table on the first trial were more successful in responding on both trials. This suggests that supporting the elbow does facilitate responding, but only on the initial trial. Performance on subsequent trials is determined by degree of success on the first trial. Similar data from a previous study comparing different hypnotic inductions suggests that this phenomenon is generalizable beyond the Chevreul pendulum illusion and supports the hypothesis that the test-retest reliability of suggestibility scales may be due to a stabilization of response expectancy by a person's first experience of imaginative suggestions.