Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1996). Catalepsy tests: What do they tell us?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44 (4), 307-323.

In a survey of 200 clinicians regarding their use of catalepsy tests, three fourths of the respondents indicated that they used these tests. In light of this response, and considering both the scientific importance of being able to identify the presence of hypnosis and the fact that catalepsy may account for up to eight of the other indications of hypnosis in use, it is relevant to inquire into the reliability and validity of catalepsy tests. It was found that of the three tests of catalepsy currently in use, only one has the potential for being a test of hypnosis proper and can also justifiably be said to be “of catalepsy.” This one test, however, has many serious weaknesses that need to be eliminated if it is to be truly useful. – Journal Abstract

Gruzelier, John; Warren, Kristen (1993). Neuropsychological evidence of reductions on left frontal tests with hypnosis. Psychological Medicine, 23, 93-101.

Individuals with high and low susceptibility to hypnosis were compared in a baseline condition and after instructions of hypnosis on tests of anterior left and right hemispheric functions of word fluency to letter categories, word fluency to semantic categories, design fluency and bilateral finger tapping dexterity. With hypnosis high susceptibles showed a reduction in word generation to letter categories, no significant change in word generation to semantic categories, an improvement in design fluency, and bilateral reductions in finger tapping dexterity. Low susceptibles showed the opposite changes except for the improvement in design fluency. These results, together with correlational results, were interpreted as evidence of central inhibitory processes, particularly of the left hemisphere, in response to instructions of hypnosis in high susceptibles.

The authors discussion of their study includes the following statements. “The main result of the study was the differential influence of instructions of hypnosis on high and low susceptibles for word fluency to letter designated categories, as distinct from semantic categories, and design fluency” (p. 98).
“The absence of effects of hypnosis on word generation to semantic categories (left fronto-temporoparietal) versus letter categories (left frontal) has a bearing on evoked potential evidence (Gruzelier et al. 1987). Bilateral comparisons at temporal lobe and central locations showed that high susceptibles were characterized by asymmetric changes in evoked

potential amplitude (N116 component) with hypnosis. Activity at the central electrodes was compatible with a left-to-right hemispheric shift of function, but this was not the case at the temporal electrodes. Instead of an inhibition of left temporal activity with hypnosis activation was maintained. Maintenance of activity in the left temporal lobe follows consideration of the fact that hypnosis requires sustained attention to the voice of the hypnotist, which is predominantly a left temporal function” (p. 99).
“The absence of differences in the pre-hypnotic condition between high and low susceptibles indicates that hemisphericity _per se_ may not be a factor that characterizes susceptibility. The fact that lateral differences were found in some experiments (e.g. Gruzelier et al. 1984; Gruzelier & Brow, 1985) but not others (e.g. Cikurel & Gruzelier, 1990; McCormack & Gruzelier, 1993) may indicate that such effects, when apparent, were secondary to another factor such as cognitive flexibility as conceptualized by Crawford (1989)” (p. 99).

Lyskov, E.; Juutilainen, J.; Jousmaki, V.; Hanninen, O.; Medvedev, S.; Partanen, J. (1993). Influence of short-term exposure of magnetic field on the bioelectrical processes of the brain and performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 14, 227-231.

The influence of an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field on the bioelectrical processes of brain and performance was studied by EEG spectral analysis, auditory-evoked potentials (AEP), reaction time (Roletaking) and target-deletion test (TDT). Fourteen volunteers were exposed for 15 min to an intermittent (1 s on/off) 45- Hz magnetic field at 1000 A/m (1.26 mT). Each person received one real and one sham exposure. Statistically significant increases in spectral power through alpha- and beta- bands, as well as in mean frequency of the EEG spectrum were observed after magnetic field exposure. Field-dependent changes of N1OO were also revealed. No changes in the amplitudes or latencies of the earlier peaks were observed. No direct effects on Roletaking, nor on TDT performance were seen. However, practice effects on Roletaking (decrease of Roletaking in the course of the test-sessions) seemed to be interrupted by exposure to the magnetic field.

Morgan, William P. (1993, October). Use of hypnosis in exercise and sport psychology. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington Heights, IL.

Performance of exercise is rated as equal effort with hypnosis and waking conditions; but with hypnotic suggestion they will perceive it as more or less effortful (uphill exercise vs going down the hill). When they think they are going up hill both cardiac and respiratory response increase physiologically, with catecholamine differences.
Mitchell (1981) suggests that respiration changes with exercise do not result from muscle feedback, but that central motor brain signals go to both the cardiovascular centers and to exercising muscle. Actually, it appears that both muscle and cortex give signals, and their synergy governs whether ventilation or heart rate increase.
Wang & Morgan, Psychophysiological responses to imagined exercise, Sport Psychology Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Reported that both external (watching someone else) and internal (imagining oneself) visualizing give responses similar to actual exercise.
We have done research on the prediction of respiratory distress (dyspnea) – work we have done with fire fighters. The best predictor of this on treadmill with air supply is trait anxiety. Sometimes the firefighters who took off face mask even though they had air did not know why they did. It is an opportunity to use hypnotic age regression. SCUBA divers described in Lynn & Rhue also were age regressed to obtain information that was repressed. They have demonstrated stress responses like panic in a 12 foot tank also.

Sometimes the firefighters who took off face mask even though they had air did not know why they did. It is an opportunity to use hypnotic age regression. SCUBA divers described in Lynn & Rhue also were age regressed to obtain information that was repressed. They have demonstrated stress responses like panic in a 12 foot tank also.
For active people and athletes there is an “iceberg” profile on the POMS, below average on tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion, but higher on vigor. But the divers who panic have a flat profile, around the 50th percentile on all POMS scales.
Middleman et al used Navy divers in 25 degree C. water and used hypnosis to increase and decrease their body temperature–one of the best papers on the topic. Ss who were best able to use imagery, to think of a beach, had the poorest responses; the ones who could relax did poorest, because shivering produces heat and keeps you warm. It is opposite of what is needed.
In our work, we took 5 highest and 5 lowest anxiety Ss; the latter had higher rates of respiration than the former.
All Ss are similar in oxygen use whether volunteers or not. When people volunteer for research before they know hypnosis will be used, the males are lower than females [on hypnotizability?] when they finally volunteer. [He presents a lot of different tests on which volunteers do not differ from nonvolunteers personality wise.]
Ikai & Steinhaus is a classic study of Disinhibition of Inhibitory Mechanisms. Taking Ss up to their maximum (in weight training) to a plateau, Ikai & Steinhaus said this is a pseudomaximum. They showed that strength increases if – you fire a starter pistol behind them – you ask them to shout just as they do it – they have alcohol – they have amphetamine sulfate – they have hypnosis It is disinhibition of the inhibitory mechanisms.
[He referred to the book Mind of the Marathoner.]
In Tibet an anthropologist was amazed to see a man running into their camp, and he ran straight through–a monk carrying messages. He created a non-cultic form of meditation in the laboratory (trained to visually “fix” on mountaintop, to have respiration in synchrony with locomotion, and to use a pseudo mantra “down” each time they put their foot down). Placebo condition was used also. Ss were tested by blinded lab assistants. Endurance time increased from 16 minutes to 20, while controls decreased a minute.
Now we can predict who will win a race. Elite runners do not dissociate; they use association strategy. They pay close attention to race strategy, they monitor themselves constantly (they slow down when they feel bad), and attempt informally to stay loose, not get tight, and relax. Dissociation has, however, been used for the last 300 meters of a marathon (New Zealander Dixon).

Appel, Philip R. (1992). Performance enhancement in physical medicine and rehabilitation. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 35, 11-19.

Performance enhancement or mental practice is the “symbolic rehearsal of a physical activity without any gross muscular movements” to facilitate skill acquisition and to increase performance in the production of that physical activity. Performance- enhancement interventions have been well known in the area of sports psychology and medicine. However, clinical applications in physical medicine and rehabilitation have not flourished to the same extent, though the demand for improved physical performance and the acquisition of various motor skills are as important. In this paper I will describe how hypnosis can potentiate mental practice, present a model of mental practice to enhance performance, and describe how to help patients access an ideal performance state of consciousness.

a model of mental practice to enhance performance, and describe how to help patients access an ideal performance state of consciousness.

Goodman, Linda; Holroyd, Jean (1992). Ego receptivity and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40 (2), 63-67.

Ego receptivity has been described as important for the psychotherapy process and as a characteristic of hypnosis (Deikman, 1974; Dosamantes-Alperson, 1979; Fromm, 1979). Receptivity also has been associated with a measure of absorption (Tellegen, 1981). In the first pilot study with 6 dance/movement therapy students, higher observer ratings of receptivity were associated with greater hypnotizability (r = .79, df = 4, p<.05, 2-tailed test). In the second pilot study, the correlation was replicated (r = .51, df = 12, p = .06, 2-tailed test) with 14 dance/movement therapy students. In the second pilot study, receptivity did not correlate with absorption. Receptivity and absorption, however, accounted for 54% of hypnotizability population variance in a step-wise multiple regression. Receptivity accounted for a unique part of the variance after the effects of absorption were removed. It was concluded that receptivity should be explored as a potential predictor of hypnotizability, and that a reliable scaled measure of receptivity should be developed. Receptivity was rated by dance instructor on the following scale. "TABLE 1 Criteria for Ranking Ss on Receptivity A. Individuals were rated high if they could consistently do the following most of the time: 1. If they moved with emotional involvement. 2. If they could readily verbally describe their movement experience in terms of sensations or feelings. 3. If they were able to image while moving. That is, their movement experience could be transformed into representational visual images. 4. In their describing their movement experience verbally, if they readily alluded to the images which were generated from their body movement. 5. If they could relate their movement experiences to other contexts outside of the therapeutic one. 6. If they could develop a working alliance with the therapist (based on students' capacity to risk experiencing self with increased emotional depth). B. Individuals were rated low, if they were not able to do the above most of the time. C. Individuals were rated in the mid-range if they were able to do the above some of the time" (p. 65). Herbert, James D.; Mueser, Kim T. (1992). Eye movement desensitization: A critique of the evidence. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. The scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of eye movement desensitization (EMD), a novel intervention for traumatic memories and related conditions, is reviewed. The sparse research conducted in this area has serious methodological flaws, precluding definite conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the procedure. Clinicians are cautioned against uncritically accepting the clinical efficacy of EMD. Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Kleinknecht, Ronald A.; Conley, Althea T.; Dal Cerro, Steven; Schmidt, Joel; Sonntag, Michael E. (1992). A methodological critique of the current status of eye movement desensitization (EMD). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) has been recently advocated as a rapid treatment for the elimination of traumatic memories responsible for the maintenance of a number of anxiety disorders and their clinical correlates. Despite a limited conceptual framework, EMD has attracted considerable interest among clinicians and researchers. The popularity and interest generated by EMD will likely result in wide usage. We present a methodological critique of it with reference to assessment, treatment outcome, and treatment process. We also provide guidelines for judging the methodological adequacy of research on EMD and suggest intensive research to assess effectiveness, treatment components, and comparisons with other procedures. 1991 Brown, Jason W. (1991). Self and process: Brain states and the conscious present. New York: Springer-Verlag. Author, from the Department of Neurology at New York University Medical School, presents a theory about the genetic unfolding of mental content (mind) through stages, from mental state into consciousness or into behavior. He relates the genesis of mind to brain development but avoids assuming that there is a straightforward correlation between brain development (e.g. myelination) and cognitive development or perception. To some degree, the theory is based on subjective report data and psychological symptoms. The author discusses issues that bear on the phenomena of nonvoluntary responding and dissociation that are reported or described by hypnotized persons. "The nature of the mental state will determine the relation between self and world, and thus the interpretation given to agency and choice. ... The crossing of the boundary from self to world is a shift from one level in mind to another" (pp. 10-11). "... if we begin with mind as primary and seek to explain objects from inner states and private experience, the discontinuity between inner and outer evaporates: mind is everywhere, a universe. ... Whereas before we thought to perceive objects, now we understand that we think them" (p. 19). "The concept of a stratified cognition is central to the notion of a mental state .... This entails an unfolding from depth to surface, not from one surface to the next, a direction crucial to agency and the causal or decisional properties of consciousness" (p. 52). By unfolding from depth to surface, he means from Core, through Subconscious, then Conscious Private Events, and finally Extra-Personal Space. He goes on to provide a definition of mental states. "A mental state is the minimal state of a mind, an absolute unit from the standpoint of its spatial and temporal structure. ... The state also has to include the prehistory of the organism. ... The concept of a mental state implies a fundamental unit that has gestalt-like properties, in that specific contents-- words, thoughts, percepts--appear in the context of mind as a whole (p. 53). "The entire multitiered system arborizes like a tree, with levels in each component linked to corresponding levels in other components. For example, an early (e.g., limbic) state in language (e.g., word meaning) is linked to an early stage in action (e.g., drive, proximal motility) and perception (e.g., hallucination, personal memory) .... In sum, a description of the spatial and temporal features of a _single_ unfolding series amounts to a description of the minimal unit of mind, the _absolute_ mental state" (p. 54). The author's discussion of an individual's physical movement relates to the concept of nonvoluntary movement (or movement without awareness of volition) in hypnosis. "More precisely, levels in the brain state constitute the action structure. As it unfolds, this structure generates the conviction that a self-initiated act has occurred. This structure--the action representation--does not elaborate content in consciousness. ... As with the sensory-perceptual interface, the transition to movement occurs across an abrupt boundary. In some manner, perhaps through a translation of cognitive rhythms in the action to kinetic patterns in the movement, levels in the emerging act discharge into motor (physical) events" (p. 57). The author's discussion of an individual's physical movement relates to the concept of nonvoluntary movement (or movement without awareness of volition) in hypnosis. "More precisely, levels in the brain state constitute the action structure. As it unfolds, this structure generates the conviction that a self-initiated act has occurred. This structure--the action representation--does not elaborate content in consciousness. ... As with the sensory-perceptual interface, the transition to movement occurs across an abrupt boundary. In some manner, perhaps through a translation of cognitive rhythms in the action to kinetic patterns in the movement, levels in the emerging act discharge into motor (physical) events" (p. 57). "The self has the nature of a global image or early representation within which objects-to-be are embedded. ... The self is the accumulation of all the momentary cognitions developing in a brain configured by heredity and experience in a particular way (p. 70). "The deposition of a holistic representation ... creates the deception of a self that stands behind and propagates events. The feeling of the self as an agent is reinforced by the forward thrust of the process and the deeper locus of the self in relation to surface objects. The self appears to be an instigator of acts and images when in fact it is given up in their formation. The self does not cause or initiate, it only anticipates (p. 70). The foregoing notes cover only the first five chapters, less than half the book. Other chapters relevant to hypnosis would be those titled 'The Nature of Voluntary Action,' 'Psychology of Time Awareness,' 'From Will to Compassion,' and 'Mind and Brain.' Hinshaw, Karin E. (1991). The effects of mental practice on motor skill performance: Critical evaluation and meta-analysis. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 11, 3-35. 21 studies that met the criteria of having both an adequate control and a mental practice alone group were included. The 44 separate effect sizes resulted in an overall average effect size of .68 (SD = .11) indicating that there is a significant benefit to performance of using mental practice over no practice. A series of General Linear Models revealed that the use of "internal" imagery produced a larger average effect size than the use of "external" imagery, and that mental practice sessions of less than one minute or between ten and fifteen minutes in length produced a larger average effect size than sessions of three to five minutes in length. These findings suggest the complexity of the relationship between variables that influence mental practice Lucic, Karen S.; Steffen, John J.; Harrigan, Jinni A.; Stuebing, Roger C. (1991). Progressive relaxation training: Muscle contraction before relaxation?. Behavior Therapy, 22 (2), 249-256. Demonstrated support for E. Jacobson's (1938) position that tensing muscle groups prior to relaxation is physiologically detrimental to the relaxation process. 48 undergraduates participated in 1 of 3 conditions: muscle contraction (MC) relaxation, relaxation without muscle contraction (WMC), and self-induced relaxation control. Ss participated in a single session of progressive relaxation. Ss had no previous relaxation training and had moderate trait anxiety scores. A significant main effect for group resulted for the electromyograph (EMGH) measures. The mean EMGH measures identified the WMC group as most relaxed (i.e., experiencing the least amount of muscle tension), followed by the control group and then the MC group. Marzi, C. A.; Bisiacchi, P.; Nicoletti, R. (1991). Is interhemispheric transfer of visuomotor information asymmetric? Evidence from a meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia, 29, 1163-1177. Using a meta-analytic procedure we have analysed 16 studies employing a simple unimanual reaction time (RT) paradigm and lateralized visual stimuli to provide an estimate of interhemispheric transfer time in normal right-handed subjects. We found a significant overall RT advantage of the left visual field over the right and of the right hand over the left. These asymmetries can be explained by a superiority of the right hemisphere for the detection of simple visual stimuli and by a corresponding superiority of the left hemisphere for the execution of the manual response, respectively. Alternatively, they may be interpreted as related to an asymmetry of interhemispheric transmission of visuomotor information, with transfer from the right hemisphere (side of stimulus entry) to the left (side of response generation) faster than in the reverse direction. Although a direct test of these hypotheses is still lacking, we think that the evidence available is more in keeping with the latter possibility. This research relates to issues of hemispheric dominance during hypnosis, for high hypnotizable subjects 1990 McAleney, Patrick J.; Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne (1990). Effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation on intercollegiate tennis performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 1023-1028. The study investigated the effects of flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation (REST) with an imagery message on the competitive performance of intercollegiate tennis players (10 men, 10 women). Pre- and posttreatment athletic performance was measured during intercollegiate competition. Posttreatment results indicated that subjects exposed to flotation REST with an imagery message performed significantly better than subjects exposed to imagery only on a measure of first service accuracy. Findings suggest that flotation REST can be used to enhance the performance of a well learned skill by athletes of high ability Wain, Harold J.; Amen, Daniel G.; Jabbari, Bahmann (1990). The effects of hypnosis on a Parkinsonian tremor: Case report with polygraph/EEG recordings. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 33, 94-98. Although Parkinsonian tremors typically disappear during sleep and are reduced during relaxation periods, the effects of hypnosis on this type of movement disorder have been generally ignored. We observed a patient's severe Parkinsonian tremor under hypnosis and monitored it with EEG and EMG studies. The patient was taught self- hypnosis and performed it three to four times daily in conjunction with taking medication. The results suggest that daily sessions of self-hypnosis can be a useful therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of Parkinsonian tremors. The patient scored low on the Hypnotic Induction Profile scale of hypnotizability and was unable to experience any classical hypnotic phenomena, but was motivated to learn self-hypnosis. For self hypnosis he visualized a relaxing scene. 1989 Snodgrass, M.; Lynn, Steven Jay (1989). Music absorption and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 41-54. The present study investigated differences between high (N = 15), medium (N = 20), and low (N = 16) hypnotizable Ss' involvement in imaginative versus nonimaginative music. Ss were first screened for hypnotizability with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962). In a second session presented as a study of music appreciation, Ss listened to classical music of high- and low-rated music imaginativeness. Ss' involvement was indexed by absorption, imagery elaboration reported in open-ended essays, and reaction time to a pure tone. High hypnotizable Ss reported more absorption than low hypnotizable Ss, regardless of the imaginativeness level of the music. Ss reported more imagery elaboration in the imaginative than in the low-imaginative passages. High hypnotizable Ss tended to differ in their imagery elaboration in response to the imaginative passages but not in response to the nonimaginative passages. Reaction time results were nonsignificant. No sex differences were found. Medium hypnotizable Ss were indistinguishable from both high- and low-hypnotizable Ss. The findings are generally compatible with J. R. Hilgard's (1970, 1974) construct of imaginative involvement. Yousufzai, N. M. (1989). Rheumatoid arthritis and hypnosis: Case report. British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, 6 (3), 178-181. http://www.imp-muenchen.de/The_effect_of_hypnos.698.1.html From: Psychology and Health, 2000, vol 14, p. 1089. Horton-Hausknecht J, Mitzdorf U, Melchart D: The effect of hypnosis therapy on the symptoms and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis . In this study we aimed to assess the effectiveness of clinical hypnosis on the symptoms and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 66 RA patients participated in a controlled group design. 26 patients learnt the hypnosis intervention, 20 patients were in a relaxation control group, and 20 patients were in a waiting-list control group. During hypnosis , patients developed individual visual imagery aimed at reducing the autoimmune activity underlying the RA and at reducing the symptoms of joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Subjective assessments of symptom severity and body and joint function, using standardized questionnaires and visual analogue scales, were obtained. Objective measures of disease activity via multiple blood samples during the therapy period and at the two follow-ups were also taken. These measurements were of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, and leukocyte total numbers. Results indicate that the hypnosis therapy produced more significant improvements in both the subjective and objective measurements, above relaxation and medication. Improvements were also found to be of clinical significance and became even more significant when patients practiced the hypnosis regularly during the follow-up periods. "The effect of hypnotic suggestion on pain and mobility of joints was remarkable. On the fifth session there was hardly any pain, and shoulder movements were almost normal" (p. 179). 1988 Houge, Donald R.; Hunter, Robert E. (1988). The use of hypnosis in orthopaedic surgery. Contemporary Orthopaedics, 16, 65-68. Some patients postpone or refuse indicated orthopaedic surgery because of fear or a medical contraindication to anesthesia. Clinical hypnosis previously has been used mainly as an adjunct to chemical anesthesia. However, hypnosis was shown to be entirely effective when used as the sole anesthesia in three of four orthopaedic cases. These four procedures included a radical head resection, the removal of a sideplate and Richard's screw from the hip, and two cases of arthroscopic knee surgery. The preparation required for the surgery and the experiences of the patients during these procedures are described, and the kinds of patients most likely to benefit from the use of hypnosis in orthopaedic surgery are reviewed. Jones, Lynette A. (1988). Motor illusions: What do they reveal about proprioception. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (1), 72-86. Five illusions involving distortions in the perception of limb position, movement, and weight are described in the context of their contribution to understanding the sensory processes involved in proprioception. In particular, these illusions demonstrate that the position sense representation of the body and the awareness of limb movement results from the cross-calibration of visual and proprioceptive signals. Studies of the vibration illusion and phantom-limb phenomenon indicate that the perception of limb movement and position are encoded independently and can be dissociated. Postural aftereffects and the illusions of movement induced by vibration highlight the remarkable lability of this sense of limb position, which is a necessary feature for congruence between the spatial senses. Finally, I discuss the role of corollary discharges in the central processing of afferent information with respect to the size-weight and vibration illusions. Neiss, Rob (1988). Reconceptualizing arousal: Psychobiological states in motor performance. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3), 345-366 This review of research dealing with psychologically induced arousal and motor performance focuses on the hypothesized inverted-U function relating arousal to performance. The inverted-U hypothesis is supported only in a weak and psychologically trivial fashion. More useful research in human motor performance would investigate discrete psychobiological states, which include affect and cognition as well as physiology. Examination of profound individual differences in response to incentive and threat suggests that psychobiological states have their genesis in response expectancies and hypnotic-like self-inductions. The cognitive and affective components of these states are highly interactive and perhaps not profitably separated. Because performance anxiety is a central problem in the motor realm, it is carefully delineated and the test anxiety literature is scrutinized. Psychophysiological test batteries and other investigations in the area are described, and guidelines for future research are provided. Neiss, Rob (1988). Reconceptualizing relaxation treatments: Psychobiological states in sports. Clinical Psychology Review, 8 (2), 139-159. Reviews studies relating relaxation treatments to motor performance and attempts to explain these treatments from a psychological perspective. The inverted-U hypothesis is based on arousal, which has construct validation problems and is a physiological, rather than a psychological, construct. Arousal cannot distinguish among fear, anger, sexuality, and other psychobiological states; predictive validity is low in the area of motor performance. The inverted-U hypothesis is effectively refutable in current usage, and empirically weakly supported. Relaxation treatments are reconceptualized as relatively nonspecific psychological therapies, potentially useful in alleviating dysphoric, debilitating psychobiological states. These treatments are particularly apt for athletics, where performance anxiety is a pervasive problem. 1987 Jacobs, Sharon B.; Salzberg, Herman C. (1987). The effects of posthypnotic performance-enhancing instructions on cognitive-motor performance. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35, 41-50. The effects of performance-enhancing instructions on a cognitive-motor task (typing) was assessed using 3 groups: hypnosis and control groups with performance-enhancing instructions, and a control group without instructions. Unlike previous hypnosis research, the performance-enhancing instructions were given after substantial learning had occurred. Results indicated that posthypnotic performance- enhancing instructions, or performance-enhancing instructions alone, did not have a facilitative effect on performance. The results also suggested potential negative performance effects following hypnotic induction, depending on Ss' initial typing ability. The implications of these findings are discussed. The research investigated whether hypnotic suggestions could influence various factors thought to inhibit peak performance by increasing confidence, increasing motivation, and decreasing performance anxiety. 84 undergraduates of varying levels of typing ability were recruited, not mentioning in advance that the research involved hypnosis (in order to avoid selection bias). The experimental materials included a modified version of the Apple Typing Tutor program, which measures words per minute (WPM), key strokes missed (KM), and net words per minute (NWPM, which was obtained by subtracting 2 (KM) from WPM). These measures were obtained for the average of every 9 paragraphs. Subjects received nine practice sessions and then were assigned to Experimental or Control group based on NWPM and sex. The hypnosis group received the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, minus suggestions for drowsiness, sleepiness, or posthypnotic amnesia. Additional suggestions for performance enhancement were introduced. The control group watched a film. The average of every nine paragraphs was used. The analyses of variance for dependent measures revealed no significant effects except for one interaction effect that actually was in the unexpected or wrong direction. That effect appeared to be spurious as it was due to extreme errors produced by one subject. "Only speed of typing (WPM) changed from pre to posttreatment, and this effect interacted with ability level. Post hoc analyses (Scheffe) indicated that beginner typists became less proficient, intermediate typists did not change, and advanced typists became more proficient" (p. 46). Hypnotizability on SHSS:C did not correlate with change on NWPM. A 3 x 3 x 2 ANOVA indicated a significant change over time on KM. "Although no change occurred from pretreatment to posttreatment, there was a decrease in errors at follow-up. There was also a significant Group x Level x Time interaction for KM (F = 2.57, p < .05). This was accounted for by post hoc analyses showing that hypnotized beginner Ss changed over time, while control beginner Ss did not. Hypnotized Ss made significantly more errors following hypnosis than at pretreatment or follow-up" (p. 46). "There was a significant main effect for time on NWPM. ... The Ss' overall typing performance decreased from pretreatment to posttreatment, but increased at follow-up. Only the advanced Ss demonstrated significant improvement between pretreatment and follow-up. "There was also a significant interaction between time and ability level on WPM. ... beginner Ss typed significantly slower at posttreatment than at pretreatment or follow- up" (p. 47). In their Discussion, the authors note that the outcomes of their investigation are consonant with results obtained by other investigators studying hypnosis effects on skills (Arnold, 1971; Edmonston & Marks, 1967). In contrast, earlier studies on reaction time demonstrated that either motivational instructions and/or alert hypnotic inductions improved performance (e.g. Ham & Edmonston, 1971; Rader, 1972). They raise the question whether Ss' relaxation following hypnosis may have slowed response time and canceled the effects of motivating instructions. "When looking at all groups combined, Ss did not improve between pretreatment and posttreatment. At follow-up, however, Ss showed significant improvement on two out of the three measures. This suggests that learning had occurred, but that temporary inhibitory factors such as S restlessness and indifference observed by Es may have affected performance at posttreatment. The length of the task (90 minutes in one sitting) may have been responsible for the fatigue and boredom that seemed to set in. It is probable that the performance-enhancing instructions were not potent enough to counteract these effects. At follow-up (which took much less time) fatigue and boredom were apparently absent, hence typing improved. In addition, other factors may have affected performance (e.g., anxiety, lack of motivation). The data indicate that Ss of different ability levels responded differently over time. "The results of the present study cast doubt on the utility of hypnosis in improving performance on a cognitive-motor task. Although there are many anecdotal reports of hypnosis improving performance, research studies indicate that hypnosis, with motivational instructions, is effective only in improving reaction time and not more complex measures of performance. This apparent inconsistency may be explained by considering the level of motivation of participants. It is likely that a person requesting hypnosis to help improve performance is more motivated than experimental Ss" (p. 48). 1985 Pajntar, M.; Roskar, E.; Vodovnik, L. (1985). Some neuromuscular phenomena in hypnosis. In Waxman, D.; Misra, P.C.; Gibson, M.; Basker, M.A. (Ed.), Modern trends in hypnosis (pp. 181-206). New York: Plenum Press. The phenomena presented here allow us to conclude that with hypnosis, the functioning of the neuromuscular system may be significantly influenced, either by increasing or decreasing the functioning of voluntary or electrically stimulated contractions, and that the function of movements may be improved. Two suggestions proved to be most efficient: 1) physical and mental relaxation, and 2) age regression. In age regression the patient recalls the ideomotor system, which is likely to result in a reconstruction of the forgotten motor contractions or in a strong intensification of these contractions under additional suggestions. With regard to relaxation, on one hand it intensifies the functioning of the voluntarily stimulated neuro-muscular systems, and on the other hand it prevents an excessive functioning of the involuntarily reflex stimulated anagonistic systems" (pp 202; 204). 1983 Thakur, Kripa; Thakur, Aruna (1983, November). Hypnotherapy for dysphagia. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Clinical Hypnosis, Dallas, TX. The authors present six cases. They describe the act of swallowing as a complex neuromuscular activity involving a series of conditioned reflexes that get mingled with the voluntary act of swallowing, resulting in an automatic functioning of the mouth, pharynx, and the esophagus. 1982 Finkelstein, S. (1982). Re-establishment of traumatically disrupted finger flexor function: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30 (1), 1-3. Age regression during hypnosis and mental rehearsal while in trance, using a cassette tape for induction, enabled a patient, with disruption of flexor function of the fifth finger of her right hand, to restore full function, even though she did not have a strong belief system in hypnosis. 1981 Dosamantes-Alperson, Erma (1981). Experiencing in movement psychotherapy. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 4, 33-44. Experiencing is a process variable in psychotherapy which deals with the manner with which individuals use their internal, ongoing bodily-felt flow of experience to gain self-awareness and to communicate about themselves. A consistent finding across research process studies in psychotherapy is that successful clients start, continue, and end therapy at higher experiencing levels than do less successful clients. The implication of this finding for all therapists, irrespective of their theoretical framework, is that they need to help their clients process the content they raise in therapy at a high level of experiencing throughout the course of therapy. This paper discusses and demonstrates several body movement based procedures that enhance clients' experiencing level while working within the context of experiential movement psychotherapy, a form of psychotherapy which emphasizes the acquisition of personal meanings by clients from any of the following three experiential and expressive modalities: body movement, kinetic imagery, or verbal communication. Wallace, Benjamin; Hoyenga, Katharine Blick (1981). Performance of fine motor coordination activities with an hypnotically anesthetized limb. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 54-65. 3 experiments were conducted to determine the effects of induced hypnotic anesthesia in S's dominant arm upon the performance of various motor coordination tasks. Experiment 1 assessed the ability of Ss to tap a pencil within a 20 mm diameter circle while the limb performing the task was or was not anesthetized. Experiment 2 determined the effect of hypnotic anesthesia upon the ability to perform a hand-turn task. Experience 3 considered the effects of hypnotic anesthesia on the ability to draw and duplicate a sine- wave pattern. IN all 3 experiments, hypnotic anesthesia adversely affected task performance. Their results were interpreted as indicating a possible relationship between induced hypnotic anesthesia and mimicked cerebellar dysfunction. -thesia on the ability to draw and duplicate a sine- wave pattern. IN all 3 experiments, hypnotic anesthesia adversely affected task performance. Their results were interpreted as indicating a possible relationship between induced hypnotic anesthesia and mimicked cerebellar dysfunction. "Although the induction of hypnotic anesthesia in a limb appears to mimic cerebellar dysfunction or damage, the present authors are not implying that this is actually happening. In fact, there are few physiological correlates of hypnosis or hypnotic anesthesia (Evans, 1979; Sarbin & Slagle, 1979) and, to date at least, cerebellar involvement does not appear to be one of them. There appears to be a curious relationship, however, between performance on a motor task as a function of induced hypnotic anesthesia in a limb and as a function of cerebellar damage. This relationship may simply be coincidental at best but before it can be dismissed as such, further experimentation should take place to study this interesting phenomenon" (p. 61). 1980 Pajntar, Marjan; Jeglic, Anton; Stefancic, Martin; Vodovnik, Lojze (1980). Improvements of motor response by means of hypnosis in patients with peripheral nerve lesions. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (1), 16-26. In order to accelerate rehabilitation of patients with peripheral nerve lesions, hypnosis was employed to encourage them voluntarily to move those muscles with weak re-innervation and to achieve the best possible activity of the affected muscle groups. By measuring muscle force and endurance and by observing the electrical activity of the affected muscles, it was found that the activity of the affected muscles was much better while patients were in hypnosis than when they were in the waking state. The patients were able to contract even paretic muscles having only weak re-innervation with such strength, that clinically perceptible contraction of the muscles and movement of paretic extremities occurred. Such early and improved activation is very important for prevention of much permanent damage. Wallace, Benjamin; Hoyenga, K. B. (1980). Production of proprioceptive errors with induced hypnotic anesthesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (2), 140-147. The present study assessed the ability of Ss to localize their noses with the forefinger of their dominant hands. This was accomplished while S had his eyes closed and while the limb performing the task was or was not hypnotically anesthetized. In performing this task with an anesthetized limb, 2 error types were observed. The first involved a localization error of missing the nose location. A second error involved an increased amount of time required to find the nose location. An inverse relationship was found to exist between these error types such that a large localization error was associated with a short latency period while a small localization error was associated with a long latency period. Neither error type was evident when hypnotic anesthesia was absent Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1980). Hypnotic susceptibility revisited. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22, 130-146.