Dosamantes-Alperson, Erma (1979). The intrapsychic and the interpersonal in movement psychotherapy. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 3, 20-31.

The adaptive function of two states of consciousness and corollary movement experiences is described. Movement in which a relaxed state of attention is maintained on inner kinesthetic sensations and imagery is contrasted with movement which is characterized by conscious, active interacting with the external world of people and events. Clinical examples from individual and group psychotherapy sessions are cited to demonstrate how meaning and conflict resolution may be achieved by clients while moving in either mode.

King, Dennis R.; McDonald, Roy D. (1976). Hypnotic susceptibility and verbal conditioning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 29-37.

18 Subjects highly susceptible to hypnosis and 18 Subjects refractory to hypnosis were studied in a verbal conditioning task modeled after the one used by Taffel (1955). Results indicated that the highly susceptible group showed significantly greater conditioning than the low group. Awareness of the reinforcement contingency by S was not related to the learning task nor to hypnotic susceptibility. A measure of S’s attitude toward the reinforcement cue during learning showed that the highly susceptible group had a more positive set toward the cue, whereas the low group tended to respond to it in a neutral or negative manner. Results were interpreted in terms of the theoretical nature of hypnotic susceptibility.

They review literature on attempts to correlate hypnotizability with verbal conditioning ability.
Volunteer students participated; screened by HGSHS:A: highs 10-12, lows 0-4.
Verbal conditioning procedure: S viewed 100 3×5 cards on which were a two- syllable, past tense verb, below which typed in upper case letters on one line were the pronouns I, WE, HE, SHE, THEY, and YOU (randomly assigned to different orders). E was blind to hypnotizability. E instructed S to make up a sentence using the verb and a pronoun; gave no response for first 20 trials; said “good” to usage of I or WE during conditioning.
Afterwards, S filled in an Awareness Questionnaire (What was purpose? If E gave cues, what were they? If you noticed cues, what do you think they indicated?) and attitude toward the reinforcement cue (Did you notice that I did anything special? What? Did I say “good” for a special reason? What was the reason for my saying “good”? How did hearing the word “good” affect you during the experiment? IN a positive, negative, or neutral way?
Results. Groups did not differ at baseline but did differ at Blocks 2 (highs 9.7 vs lows 6.3; p<.p<.05) and 3 (highs 10.4 vs lows 6.3; p<.05). Although the High group continued to maintain a somewhat higher level of responding than the Low group during extinction (9.8 vs 7.6), this difference did not reach statistical significance. (The graph shows an increase for Lows during extinction!) Using a liberal definition of awareness and a learning index computed for each S by subtracting his operant level of response from the mean number of correct responses shown during the 3 blocks of acquisition trials, Subjects were ordered and a median test applied; contingency coefficient of .28 not significant (p<.10). Attitude significantly differentiated High and Low hypnotizability groups (see Table 2) with Highs more often responding in positive manner to reinforcement cue and Lows giving a neutral rating. Awareness of reinforcement contingency was equally represented in High and Low groups. The Aware High Positive groups learning index differed significantly from Aware Low Neutral group (p<.01); the Unaware Low Positive group (p<.05); and the Unaware Low Neutral group (p<.001). Thus, the Aware High Positive group's learning index score was significantly higher than that of the 3 Low groups. Also, the Unaware High Positive group differed significantly from the Unaware Low Neutral group (p<.05). No other High groups differed from the Low groups and none of the High groups differed among themselves. Among the Low groups, only the Unaware Low Positive group differed significantly from the Unaware Low Neutral group (p<.05). Discussion. Data show that hypnotizability is important in response to verbal conditioning, extending findings of Das (1958) by showing that primary suggestibility is associated with operant as well as classical conditioning but also those of Weiss et al. (1960) in illustrating that higher hypnotic susceptibility leads to enhanced verbal conditioning, using an improved measure of hypnotic susceptibility. Awareness of reinforcement contingencies is not sufficient to account for subject differences in verbal conditioning; the characteristics tapped by HGSHS:A produce conditioning which cannot be accounted for by awareness alone. The fact that high susceptible Subjects here rated E's cue more positively than low susceptible Subjects is further consistent with some of the personological descriptions associated with hypnotic susceptibility which have been offered by Hilgard (1968). In addition, Cairns and Lewis (1962) and Spielberger et al. (1962) found that persons who assigned more positive value to the kind of reinforcement present in verbal conditioning experiments produced greater conditioning than Subjects whose attitudes were less favorable or non-committal toward the reinforcement. This relationship is not clear-cut in the present data in that although he High groups had an overall more positive attitude regarding reinforcement, only the Aware High Positive group learned better than all the Low groups, while the only other High group learning better than a Low group was the Unaware High Positive which had a significantly better learning index score than the Unaware Low Neutral group. Moreover, positive attitude did not differentiate learning within the High groups or the Low groups. Thus, the present data are unclear regarding the role attitude plays in the acquisition of verbally conditioned responses. The roles of awareness and attitude could probably be better defined in future research using larger experimental groups. The attitude measure employed here was a gross one and a more sophisticated assessment of the valence characteristics of reinforcement cues could reveal more complex relationships in subsequent research. In addition, a more careful assessment than was done here of the role of cooperation and demand characteristics would contribute substantially to understanding more completely the effect of awareness on these phenomena. The general indications regarding attitude may in part account for the increased interest in production of conditioned responses in Figure 1 shown by the Low group (graph) during the extinction phase of this experiment. Although highly susceptible Subjects show a decrease in the correct response with nonreinforcement, low susceptible Subjects begin to evidence an increase in the correct response. The attitude measure indicates that Subjects in the Low group did not respond positively to the reinforcement cue, and one of these Subjects reported in the interview that he did not like being told what to do by the E. It can be speculated that these Subjects were aware of the reinforcement contingency but did not "cooperate" until the reinforcement was absent. This follows the interpretation of Farber (1963) who found that aware Subjects who conformed to the demand characteristics of the experimental situation showed greater verbal conditioning than those who were aware and nonconforming. It thus appears that a willingness to go along with E's expectations and a positive, cooperative attitude are common features in individuals who make good hypnotic Subjects and who evidence an enhanced propensity for verbal conditioning. REFLEX 1998 Danziger, N.; Fournier, E.; Bouhassira, D.; Michaud, D.; De Broucker, T.; Santarcangelo, E.; Carli, G.; Chertock, L.; Willer, J. C. (1998). Different strategies of modulation can be operative during hypnotic analgesia: A neurophysiological study. Pain, 75 (1), 85-92. Nociceptive electrical stimuli were applied to the sural nerve during hypnotically-suggested analgesia in the left lower limb of 18 highly susceptible subjects. During this procedure, the verbally reported pain threshold, the nociceptive flexion (RIII) reflex and late somatosensory evoked potentials were investigated in parallel with autonomic responses and the spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG). The hypnotic suggestion of analgesia induced a significant increase in pain threshold in all the selected subjects. All the subjects showed large changes (i.e., by 20% or more) in the amplitudes of their RIII reflexes during hypnotic analgesia by comparison with control conditions. Although the extent of the increase in pain threshold was similar in all the subjects, two distinct patterns of modulation of the RIII reflex were observed during the hypnotic analgesia: in 11 subjects (subgroup 1), a strong inhibition of the reflex was observed whereas in the other seven subjects (subgroup 2) there was a strong facilitation of the reflex. All the subjects in both subgroups displayed similar decreases in the amplitude of late somatosensory evoked cerebral potentials during the hypnotic analgesia. No modification in the autonomic parameters or the EEG was observed. These data suggest that different strategies of modulation can be operative during effective hypnotic analgesia and that these are subject-dependent. Although all subjects may shift their attention away from the painful stimulus (which could explain the decrease of the late somatosensory evoked potentials), some of them inhibit their motor reaction to the stimulus at the spinal level, while in others, in contrast, this reaction is facilitated. Abstract from National Library of Medicine, PubMed 1998 Schauble, Paul G.; Werner, William E. F.; Rai, Surekha H.; Martin, Alice (1998). Childbirth preparation through hypnosis: The hypnoreflexogenous protocol. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 40 (4), 273-283. A verbatim protocol for the "hypnoreflexogenous" method of preparation for childbirth is presented wherein the patient is taught to enter a hypnotic state and then prepared for labor and delivery. The method provides a "conditioned reflex" effect conducive to a positive outcome for labor and delivery by enhancing the patient's sense of readiness and control. Previous applications of the method demonstrate patients have fewer complications, higher frequency of normal and full-term deliveries, and more positive postpartum adjustment. The benefit and ultimate cost effectiveness of the method are discussed. 1993 Lindsay, Suzanne; Kurtz, Richard M.; Stern, John A. (1993). Hypnotic susceptibility and the endogenous eyeblink: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 41, 92-96. This study investigated the relationship between hypnotic susceptibility, hypnotic state, and the endogenous eyeblink with 36 undergraduates, who were assigned to four independent groups (waking-low, hypnotized-low, waking-high, and hypnotized- high susceptibles) on the basis of combined cutoff scores on both the Creative Imagination Scale and the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults. The auditory vigilance task required subjects to discriminate between 200 ms and 300 ms tones over a 35-minute period. Hypnotic depth was controlled across trials using the Long Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Depth. As predicted, high-susceptible subjects had a significantly lower blink rate than low-susceptible subjects. The predicted interaction between susceptibility and hypnotic state was also confirmed. High-susceptible subjects showed a significant decrease in blinking for the hypnotized condition, whereas low-susceptible subjects did not. The need for replication with more adequate measures of susceptibility is discussed. NOTES 1: "In a preliminary study, Weitzenhoffer (1979) found significant differences between high- and low-susceptible subjects following a hypnotic induction. The highs showed a 66% decrease in blink rate from a baseline reading. More recently, Tada, Yamada, and Hariu (1990) reported a series of studies suggesting that blink rate was dramatically reduced during the hypnotic state, as well as finding a relationship between high susceptibility and decreased blink rate. Although these studies tend to support Weitzenhoffer's (1979) research, they are poorly controlled and report no quantitative data" (p. 93). In the present study, "to assure that subjects kept their eyes open, they were required to maintain their gaze on a dimly lighted box (12" x 12") placed one meter in front of them. Subjects in both conditions were asked to rate their hypnotic depth by using the Long Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Depth (Tart, 1970) before being given a practice trial of 20 tones. Following the practice trial, participants were again asked to rate their hypnotic depth, and the trial period began. Subjects gave subsequent depth ratings every 10 minutes for the remainder of the 35-minute trial. The hypnotic state was maintained across time periods by using deepening instructions when necessary" (p. 94). In their Discussion, the authors noted that "High-susceptible subjects in the hypnotized state have a significantly lower blink rate and presumably greater attentional focus than lows. Although the interaction was significant and in the predicted direction, it accounted for only a small portion of the overall variance, suggesting that trait differences are more robust than those for state" (p. 95). 1992 Gainer, Michael J. (1992). Hypnotherapy for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 34, 227-232. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is an unusual, debilitating, chronic pain syndrome thought to be the result of a continuous excessive discharge of regional sympathetic nerves. Supportive and stress-reduction psychotherapies are commonly recommended as adjunctive treatments. Biofeedback is a more direct symptomatic treatment. Although hypnotherapy is effective in altering sympathetic reflex and pain responses, there are no reports of its use for the treatment of RSD. This article reviews some promising results of hypnotherapy with three RSD sufferers. I discuss the role of hypnotherapy as a supportive adjunct to medical treatment. I also explore the possible role of hypnotherapy as a complementary treatment. NOTES 1: "Hypothetically, RSD represents a continuous excessive discharge of the regional sympathetic nerves. Such discharge normally occurs in response to an injury. In RSD this reflex response is unremitting despite the cessation or absence of an external stimulus" (p. 227). The psychosomatic aspects of RSD are highly disputed. Some studies suggest a relationship between RSD and various psychopathological conditions. Also proposed is a predisposing character type, sometimes termed 'Sudeck personality' ... patients who are generally anxious, inactive, and hypertensive. ... Others cite chronic pain as the cause, not the result, of certain 'typical' behavior patterns and emotional responses (Abram, 1990; Ecker, 1984)" (p. 228). "Reports of four cases described RSD treatment with temperature biofeedback. These studies suggest that the patients learned to warm the affected limb through increasing cutaneous circulation. The temperature change was associated with decreased regional sympathetic activity and decreased pain. Complete remission of symptoms is reported in three of these cases; significant improvement is reported in the fourth" (p. 228). "Abram (1990) reported that in two independent studies the incidence of RSD was 6.3% and 10.7% of patients admitted to pain clinics" (p. 228). "I hypothesized that hypnotic interventions could facilitate a decrease in local sympathetic nervous discharge. This would result in vasodilation and warming of the affected limb, decreased spasticity, and decreased pain. The following is a report of the effective treatment of three RSD cases with hypnotherapy" (p. 228). Case #1. "The eventual resolution of her RSD symptoms was due, in part, to resolution of psychodynamic conflicts. ... She had a grade-four profile on the Hypnotic Induction Profile (Spiegel & Spiegel, 1978). In later sessions she readily demonstrated superior hypnotic capacity, achieving such phenomena as spontaneous amnesia, negative hallucination, and somnambulism" (p. 229). Case #2. ... "She had a grade-three profile on the Hypnotic Induction Profile (Spiegel & Spiegel, 1978) Because of the success with the first patient, I used visualization techniques initially. ... She responded more readily to kinesthetic and tactile suggestions. ... These interventions produced dramatic improvement in the RSD symptoms" (p. 230). Case #3. ... "He had a grade-three profile on the Hypnotic Induction Profile (Spiegel & Spiegel, 1978). He was readily able to use visualization techniques. He was able to affect dramatic temperature changes (8-10 degrees F) by visualizing 'warm' vacation scenes and imagining the feeling of the 'warm sun' on the affected limb" (p. 231). DISCUSSION mentioned, "The patients presented in this report were all highly motivated and demonstrated an above-average to superior hypnotic capacity. Despite the obvious limitations of such a selective sample, the actual treatment results support the initial hypothesis. The treatment results of these three cases indicate that hypnotherapy can be an adjunctive treatment to alleviate pain. Moreover, these results indicate that hypnotherapy can be a complementary treatment in RSD. 1991 Kleinhauz, Moris (1991). Prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39 (2), 82-92. A therapeutic approach is presented which involves the use of prolonged hypnosis for the treatment of diverse medical and/or psychological conditions, including intractable pain. This approach may be indicated either as a complementary tool used in conjunction with other treatment approaches or as the only method of intervention. The technique is based on achieving a prolonged hypnotic response, during which hypno- relaxation serves as the foundation for the delivery of an individualized therapeutic plan which includes self-hypnosis, suggestive procedures, metaphors, and constructive imagery techniques. In debilitated patients, medical supervision and nursing care are essential, and hospitalization is recommended if necessary. Theoretical assumptions underlying this approach are presented, and clinical implications are discussed. The method is illustrated through case presentations. NOTES 1: The general procedure involves: 1. A flexible plan concerning the duration of treatment: days, weeks, or longer. 2. Information is given to the patient, the family and the medical staff if in hospital. Emphasize that while the patient may be in a 'twilight-like' state, most of the time he/she is able to fulfill his or her basic physiological needs, (drinking, eating, taking care of personal cleanliness, etc.). 3. The method of hypnotic induction is individualized. 4. The patient is trained in self- hypnosis, and for using signals for induction and dehypnotization either for self hypnosis or for the hypnotist to use. Thus if there is a physiological or emotional need for self-hypnosis the patient can do it. Suggestions and training are given and reinforced concerning the patient's capability to fulfill his/her basic physiological needs. 5. The family and/or the medical staff are instructed and trained in induction and dehypnotization, until the patient responds to them satisfactorily. 6. At this stage, therapeutic suggestions aimed at ego-boosting and a change of attitudes and meanings towards the symptom and symptom removal/amelioration/substitution are added. 7. Metaphoric constructive imagery is introduced when indicated. 8. If required, other hypnotic phenomena are elicited and used (e.g. dissociation, time distortion, age regression, rehearsal, hypno/analgesia, change of muscular tonus, displacement of emotions, abreaction, etc.). 9. An audio cassette which contains the wording of the therapeutic intervention is used with some patients. 10. The family and/or the medical staff are instructed to supervise the patient properly and to avoid potential complications. 11. Termination of prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy is gradual to permit appropriate re-orientation towards reality. 12. Treatment is evaluated and a posttreatment plan is outlined. They provide case reports and discuss precautions. All the cases reported were treated while the patients were hospitalized for their physical condition (although in Case 3, prolonged hypnosis with individualized therapy was also continued at home after the patient's discharge form the hospital), and the patients were monitored by the medical staff. In very debilitated patients, special care should be taken to avoid potential complications arising from their passivity, mainly the development of decubitus ulcer and of aspiration/choking while drinking or eating. Although precaution is taken routinely with these patients, these measures should be emphasized while the patient is in a state of prolonged hypno-relaxation. 1989 Santarcangelo, E. L.; Busse, K.; Carli, G. (1989). Changes in electromyographically recorded human monosynaptic reflex in relation to hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis. Neuroscience Letter, 104, 157-160. The aim of the present experiment was to study how hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis affect motor neuron excitability. In the first trial, human Ss were selected according to their hypnotic susceptibility. In a second trial, the Hoffman (H) reflex amplitude of the soleus muscle was studied in three groups: (1) highly susceptible subjects during hypnosis with standardized suggestions of simple relaxation, anesthesia, analgesia and paralysis (group I); (2) highly susceptible subjects (group II); and (3) nonsusceptible subjects (group III) during long-lasting control conditions. Surface Ag/AgCl electrodes were used to stimulate the posterior tibial nerve using a constant current stimulator and to record the soleus EMG. The H reflex amplitude decreased significantly during the recording session in groups I and II and there was no change in group III. In group I the effect of the different suggestions could not be distinguished from the effect of hypnotic relaxation. The decrements in H amplitude did not differ between groups I and II, suggesting that the effect was related to personality traits rather than hypnotic induction. 1988 Hawkins, Russell; Le Page, Keith (1988). Hypnotic analgesia and reflex inhibition. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 133-139. The major change in thinking about models of analgesia over the last decade or so may be seen as a shift away from the earlier emphasis on a one-way afferent transmission sequence. Analgesia was effected, according to the older models, by a simple blocking of afferent impulses at some level (as achieved by local anaesthesia). Recent models suggest that there are at least two CNS analgesia control systems, each operating via an active mechanism for the inhibition of nociception which includes reciprocal _efferent_ impulses able to respond to input from lower centres by sending control signals which modify their output. One CNS analgesia system has now been quite well described. This "opiate" analgesia system has proved to be naloxone reversible and seems to be mediated by reciprocal pathways between brain stem structures and the dorsal horn and trigeminal caudalis. This is not likely to be the system responsible for all cases of hypnotic analgesia, since the common experience of continued awareness of some elements of a normally painful stimulus, in spite of a freedom from pain, implicates a higher level involvement such as input from the prefrontal cortex. NOTES The authors present a surgery case (of a cystoscopy and urethrotomy performed under hypnotic analgesia, with a highly hypnotizable patient) as an illustration of their position. The patient grimaced when the urethrotome was inserted into the urethra and dilated, but she denied discomfort and did not exhibit a reflex adduction of the thighs that is often observed even under standard general anaesthesia. She had spontaneous amnesia for the entire surgery. Later, under hypnosis, the patient could remember "discomfort and a sharp pain" which lasted for "seconds, if that" (p. 134). The authors refer to Melzack and Wall's (1965) gate control theory as well as Hilgard's (1973) neodissociation interpretation of pain reduction in hypnosis. They review research by Hardy and Leichnetz (1981) with monkeys, in which they "traced the projections of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) to determine the extent of any possible cortical involvement in the endogenous analgesic system. Their work showed that the prefrontal cortex was the principal source of projections to the PAG" (p. 136). They quote the latter as writing that, "Patients who have had prefrontal lobotomies for relief of chronic pain report that while they still feel the pain they are no longer bothered by it ... the prefrontal cortex by virtue of its projections to the PAG may play a role in modulating nociception at the spinal level" (Hardy & Leichnetz, 1981, p. 99). "Hardy and Leichnetz have also suggested that there may be more than one analgesic system within the CNS. The first system is a naloxone-reversible mechanism which can be activated by opiates (presumably both endogenous and exogenous) and by acupuncture. Since hypnotic analgesia has shown itself not to be naloxone-reversible (Goldstein & Hilgard, 1975) it may have little to do with the opiate reception analgesia system. Instead the mechanism of hypnotic analgesia may lie in Hardy and Leichnetz's second system which is sensitive to affective and cognitive influences" (pp. 136-137). The authors include a review of the work by Mayer and Price (1976) which established the importance of brain stem structures in analgesia, especially for eliciting stimulation-produced analgesia. They cite Mayer and Price as drawing a distinction between "analgesia achieved by incapacitating a component in a pain transmission system or by activating a pain inhibition system" (p. 137). They also report that Mayer and Price conclude that stimulation-produced analgesia does not result from a "functional lesion" in the brain stem, but results from stimulation of a pain-inhibiting mechanism, suggesting the dorsal horn and trigeminal nucleus caudalis may be involved. This would be consistent with the inhibition of spinal reflexes (the adductor reflex) observed in their urethrotomy case, and the spinal reflex to nociception has also been reported by Finer (1974). "The concomitant inhibition of reflexes in humans during hypnotic analgesia can be interpreted as evidence that nociception is probably not ascending to the cerebral cortex and that therefore the source of analgesia can be localized to the brain stem areas. It may be the case, however, that the locus of effect of hypnotic analgesia is not uniform across cases and may be identified by the overall pattern of subjective reports and physiological responses. Hypnotic analgesia may be experienced in more than one way subjectively and these differences may be attributable to differing underlying physiological mechanisms. On some occasions the relevant body part may be experienced as totally anaesthetised and all sensation (not only painful sensation) may be lost. This experience matches well with a brain stem involvement, which presumably inhibits any further afferent action. On other occasions, however, and more commonly, patients are still aware of a variety of sensations, which might include pressure in the case of childbirth or even cutting in the case of surgery, but these sensations are not described as painful. This is reminiscent of the effect of frontal lobotomy and it is tempting to focus on the frontal lobe as the locus of hypnotic analgesia effects in such instances" (p. 138). 1985 Eli, I.; Kleinhauz, M. (1985). Hypnosis: A tool for an integrative approach in the treatment of the gagging reflex. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33 (2), 99-108. The extreme exaggerated gag reflex can be an enormous obstacle to routine dental treatment. In some patients, extreme gagging may be a learned avoidance reaction; in others, it may act as a defense mechanism which inadequately compensates for an internal psychodynamic conflict. The most frequent areas of conflict encountered are those concerning the symbolic meaning of the mouth, fear of loss of control, and problems in the dependence/independence vector. In the Consultative Outpatient Clinic for Behavioral Dysfunctions at the School of Dental Medicine of Tel Aviv University, a multidisciplinary team of dentists, psychiatrists, and psychologists has been working on treatment modalities for such patients including hypnorelaxation and other hypnotic techniques. Hypnosis is incorporated in the framework of psychodynamic, behavioral, relaxation, and suggestive approaches that are integrated in the shaping of the therapeutic strategy. Clinical cases are described and treatment philosophies discussed. 1975 Carli, G. (1975). Some evidence of analgesia during animal hypnosis [Abstract]. Experimental Brain Research, 23, 35. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response to painful stimuli during animal hypnosis. The experiments were performed on unanesthetized, free-moving rabbits carrying implanted electrodes for recording the EEG and EMG activity and nerve stimulation. Injection of formaline into the dorsal region of the foot produced long lasting EEG desynchronization and motor pain reactions. In some rabbits a procedure of habituation was used to reduce hypnosis duration below 45 sec. Hypnosis was induced by inversion. The following results were obtained: 1) Polysynaptic reflexes eliced [sic] by electrical stimulation of cutaneous and muscle afferents were depressed during hypnosis. 2) Hypnosis transitorily suppressed all the painful manifestations due to formaline injection and was characterized by hygh [sic] voltage slow wave activity in the EEG, 3) In habituated rabbits, a significant increase in hypnotic duration and EEG synchronization was observed when hypnosis was preceded by formaline injection. Hypnosis duration was not potentiated by painful stimuli when Naloxone (5mg/Kg i.v.) was injected before hypnosis induction. 4) In habituated rabbits a recovery in hypnotic duration coupled to EEG synchronization was obtained, in absence of painful stimuli, following subanalgesic injection of Morphine (1mg/Kg). It has been previously shown that in the rabbit administration of 5-20 mg/Kg of Morphine produces EEG synchronization and strong reduction of pain reactions. It is suggested that, during animal hypnosis in a condition of continuous nociceptive stimulation, the pain response is blocked by a mechanism which exibit [sic] similar effects of Morphine both at spinal cord (polysynaptic reflexes) and at cortical levels (EEG synchronization). 1969 Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1969). Eye-blink rate and hypnosis: Preliminary findings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28, 671-676. Tests the validity and reliability of certain features of the outer appearance of hypnotized individuals which have long been popularly and clinically considered good indices of "hypnosis." The present report focuses on eye-blink rate. 19 Ss were administered a slight modification of the Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. Samples of their blink rates were obtained prior to the induction of hypnosis and some time after the induction of hypnosis procedure had been terminated, but before the dehypnotization procedures began. The results support the popular and clinical belief that hypnotic-like behavior is accompanied by a decrement in blink rate to the extent that Ss scoring 6 or more points on the Stanford Scale showed a marked and statistically significant mean reduction in blink rate of over 60% following the induction procedure and some testing of their suggestibility. In contrast, Ss scoring 5 or less and presumably not hypnotized but merely suggestible to non-suggestible, did not show a statistically significant decrement. As a possible index of "hypnosis," such a decrease in rate was found to have a test-retest reliability of .86. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1968 Bartlett, Esther E. (1968). A proposed definition of hypnosis with a theory of its mechanism of action. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 11, 69-73. A definition of hypnosis as a control of the normal control of input (information) for the purpose of controlling output (behavior) is proposed. A theory of the mechanism of action of hypnosis as an increasing integration of the neocortex and the subcortical areas of the brain, with the subcortical areas activated to a greater extent than normally, is postulated. 1965 Angyal, L. (1965). Schaffer Karoly munkai a suggestiorol es a reflexekrol. Ideggyogyaszati Szemle, 18, 144-147. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1966, 8 (4), 316.) This article summarizes the works of Charles Schaffer concerning suggestion and reflexology (J.H.) 1961 Mishchenko, M. (1961). The hypnotic condition as a process of nervous excitation. In Proc. Third World Congress of Psychiatry, Montreal, Canada, I. (pp. 704-708). (Abstract in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1964, 7, 101.) Subjects were selected with certain predispositions for the hypnotic state and studied in the waking, hypnotic and experimental sleep states by motor conditioned reflexes modified to a specific function of the frontal system. Excitable, active students of music and literature were found most excitable as subjects, subjects tending to be passive showed no hypnotic responses. Experimental sleep abolished the motor-conditioned reflexes, quite contrary to hypnotic findings. (M.H.E. abstract in AJCH). Stolzenberg, Jacob (1961). Technique in conditioning and hypnosis for control of gagging. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 97-104. (Author''s Conclusion) "The practitioner who is competently trained in hypnosis will find that there is a diminished need for the use of hypnosis per se, with most of his patients. His understanding of the psychodynamics will aid immeasurably in establishing rapport with his patients, and develop an excellent patient-dentist relationship. His semantics will be a vocabulary of positive words which will not trigger off negative reactions in his patients. The dentist as a rule, who has been exposed to hypnosis indoctrination, usually displays kindness and understanding, and treats his patients with tender loving care. "The highest achievement in a dentist-patient relationship is attained when the parent says, ''You know, doctor, I would almost think you had hypnotized my daughter when I see how nicely she cooperates''" (p. 104). 1960 Hernandez-Peon, R.; Dittborn, J.; Borlone, M.; Davidovich, A. (1960). Changes of spinal excitability during hypnotically induced anesthesia and hyperesthesia. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 3, 64. (From 21st International Congress of Physiology, Buenos Aires, 1959, pg. 124, Abstracts) Although hypnosis is well established, the physiological mechanisms of the hypnotic state and their related sensory phenomena are far from clear. Hernandez-Peon and Donoso have found that the magnitude of photic evoked potentials in the optic radiations of awake human subjects changed in response to previous verbal suggestions concerning the intensity of the expected photic stimulus. This striking observation led the cited authors to propose that certain hypnotic sensory phenomena might be explained, at least partially, by changes occurring as far down as second-order sensory neurons by centrifugal mechanisms controlling the sensory input to the brain. In the intact subject it is impossible to record uncontaminated electrical indexes of afferent impulses from those lower sensory neurons. However, it is possible to gain indirect evidence of tactile sensory inflow to the spinal cord by recording cutaneous reflexes. In young males, a forearm skin reflex evoked by a single square pulse of 0-.1 msec. duration was recorded with cathode- ray oscilloscope. The amplitude of the evoked potentials was often reduced during the hypnotic state, and it was further reduced by verbally suggesting to the hypnotized subject complete anesthesia of the forearm. Reciprocally, during hypnotically suggested hyperesthesia the cutaneous reflex was enhanced. It is concluded that during hypnotic anesthesia and hyperesthesia excitability changes occur at the spinal level, and it is suggested that these changes probably involve the spinal internuncial system interposed between the dorsal root ganglion cells and the motoneurons. (From Abstracts, 21st Internat. Cong. Physiol., Buenos Aires, 1959, p. 124.) NOTES 1: Topic headings include: Experimental Techniques (Depth, Type of suggestion, Other variables) Cardiovascular Effects (Clinical reports, Blister formation, Bleeding, Peripheral vasomotion, Heart rate, EKG changes, Blood pressure, Hematological changes) Respiration Urogenital System Gastrointestinal System Metabolism and Temperature Endocrine System Central Nervous System (Electroencephalography, Epilepsy, Age regression, Galvanic skin response, Muscle control, Electromotive changes, Multiple sclerosis, Cold adaptation, Exocrine glands, Reflexes, Russian reports) Special Senses (Hearing, Taste) 1955 Dorcus, Roy M.; Kirkner, Frank J. (1955). The control of hiccoughs by hypnotic therapy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (2), 104-108. NOTES 1: "The present paper is devoted to a discussion of 18 cases ... of hiccoughs that were treated by hypnosis at the Long Beach Veterans Hospital during the course of the past five years. Aomost all of these cases had received some kind of medical therapy before hypnosis was employed. ... "The age range of the patients (27-75 years) indicates that age is not a factor either in the onset of the spasm or in the termination of it by hypnosis. ... While there are some differences in the number of patients in the various [age] decile groups, these differences are in all probability due to sampling. The kinds of physical disorders fit into the table of causes abstracted from Samuels' article and it is evident that hiccough may be associated with a wide variety of physical diseases. With respect to the onset of the hiccoughs, the major number of the spasms seem to be initiated after the central nervous system has been depressed by an anesthetic. When the diaphragm is set in reflex action by some other cause such as vomiting, hiccoughs may be initiated and continue. The hypnotic treatment stressed two points in procedure: (a) an attempt to obtain complete muscular relaxation, and (b) an attempt to relieve the patient of anxiety concerning the spasm and his physical disorder. The number of hypnotic sessions required varied from one session to as many as 8 or 10 sessions. The number of sessions required could not be predicted in advance. No criteria of whether hypnosis would be successful have been evolved other than whether the patient is, generally speaking, a good hypnotic subject. Of the eighteen patients treated by this method fourteen were permanently relieved of their symptoms; three received no benefit and one received temporary benefit. Since other therapies had been tried on most of these patients, it is quite apparent that this form of treatment is very useful and should be applied as soon as possible after the advent of the spasm. This statement is not based on the fact that hiccoughs of shorter duration respond more readily to hypnotic therapy. However, hypnosis should be utilized early to control hiccoughs so that the hiccoughs will not add to the distress of otherwise seriously ill patients" (pp. 107-108). 1954 Koster, S. (1954). Experimental investigation of the character of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 42-54. NOTES 1: In waking, hypnosis, and sleep states 6 subjects were tested for knee-jerk height, key pressing to metronome signal, doing sums, recalling a story, etc. The Summary states: "1. The height of the knee-jerk of all 6 subjects both in T and in "S" was much lower than in (W), the average height of all knee-jerks computed of the 6 subjects was both in T and in "S" only 39% of the average height in (W). 2. The [arm] catalepsy in T and in "S" continually existed. 3. The subjects in T and in "S" could hear well and perform active movements, though they reacted somewhat more slowly, and less forcibly than in (W) and sometimes only after some provocations. 4. The subjects both in T and in "S" could not only hear well, but could also present more or less complicated psychic impressions, reproducing them later again in "S" and also after the end of the experiment" (p. 50). The author concluded, "Hypnosis is a sleeping-condition, but a special one. The specific difference consists of the fact that the subject's many impressions, which he would observe in a waking-condition, he does not observe now, and does not react to, aside from impressions coming to him through the hypnotist. It can then be said that there is not an absence but a decrease of the active relation with the outer world. This is exactly the same state as the one during sleepwalking and the writer must repeat after all his investigations, what has already been stated: Essentially there is no difference between the condition of a hypnotized person and that of a sleepwalker" (p. 51). 1953 Guze, Henry (1953). The phylogeny of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (3), 41-46. NOTES 1: "The continuity of hypnotic phenomena from infrahuman through human organisms has created an array of problems in interpretation" (p. 41). "Unfortunately, most investigators in animal hypnosis have concerned themselves mainly with states of immobility. Because of this, they have neglected to recognize that hierarchical and group reactions of animals are just as fit in the category of hypnotic behavior" (pp. 41-42). "It is postulated in this paper that hypnosis or hypnotizability is a phylogenetically derived characteristic strongly akin to emotional readiness. It differs in expression from organism to organism within a species and from species to species" (p. 45). REGRESSION 2002 Edwards, Lynn; Sapp, Marty (2002). Reoperationalizing adaptive regression during hypnosis. Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, 23 (3), 115-129. Employing a non-randomized two-group pre-test post-test design, this study found that a regression hypnotic transcript produced a greater reduction in conflict responses than a relaxation transcript. Finally, this study re-operationalized the concept of regression. GOW, MICHAEL (2002). Treating dental needle phobia using hypnosis. [Paper] Presented at IFDAS/SAAD 10th International Dental Congress on Modern Pain Control, Edinburgh, June 2003, also at BSMDH (Scot) meeting December 2003. "This case illustrates the effectiveness of short-term hypnosis treatment for a dental needle phobia. What is significant is the dental history of the patient and the longstanding effect of her dental phobias and how quickly hypnosis was able to remove this problem. Aim: To manage dental needle phobia using hypnosis integrated into an anxiety management treatment plan." Case History: Female, 48, had traumatic and painful experience at the dentist when 5, developed phobia of dental injections and treatment. Has had a dozen General Anaesthetics for dental treatment. Experiences psychosomatic pain prior to treatment. Methods: Medical, dental and phobia history explored. Pre-treatment questionnaire assessed dental anxiety, reasons for anxiety, and ascertained management options. Post-treatment questionnaire assessed changes in dental anxiety and attitudes. Anxiety management techniques: Needle Desensitisation, Relaxation, and Hypnosis (Regression, Progressive Muscular Relaxation, Glove Anaesthesia, Future Rehearsal etc.). Results: Pre-treatment questionnaire revealed high level anxiety (26 out of high of 30 modified Corah score; and high anticipation of future pain during dental treatment (10 out of high of 10 on a Visual Analogue Scale. Post-treatment questionnaire revealed low level anxiety (12/30) and low anticipation of future pain (4/10). Conclusion: Hypnosis was an effective adjunct to anxiety management in this case, demonstrating how a non pharmacological approach can find long term solutions by addressing the causes of the anxiety. Previous pharmacological approach had only addressed the symptoms of the immediate anxiety. Successful completion of prescribed dental treatment plan and changes in patient?s attitudes highlight positive outcome. 2001 Fredericks, Lillian E. (2001). The use of hypnosis in surgery and anesthesiology. Springfield IL USA: Charles C Thomas. Preface: Definition of Hypnosis History of Hypnosis in Surgery Theories of Hypnosis Chapter: 1. An Introduction to Hypnosis 2. Hypnosis in the Management of Chronic Pain 3. Hypnosis in Conjunction with Chemical Anesthesia 4. Hypnosis in Conjunction with Regional Anesthesia 5. Hypnosis as the Sole Anesthetic 6. Hypnosis in the Intensive Care Unit 7. Hypnosis in the Emergency Unit 8. Hypnosis in Pediatric Surgery 9. Hypnosis in Obstetrics and Gynecology 10. Perspectives from Physician-Patients