Eimer, Bruce. N. (2000). Clinical applications of hypnosis for brief and efficient pain management psychotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43 (1), 17-40. (July)

This paper describes four specific clinical applications of hypnosis that can make psychotherapy for pain management briefer, more goal-oriented, and more efficient: (1) the assessment of hypnotizability; (2) the induction of hypnotic analgesia and development of individualized pain coping strategies;
(3) direct suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and pain relief imagery; and (4) brief psychodynamic reprocessing during the trance state of emtoional factors in the patient”s experience of chonic pain. Important theoretical and clinical issues regarding the relationship between hypnotizability to the induction of hypnotic analgesia are presented, and attempts to individualize pain treatment strategies on the basis of assessed differences in hypnotizability and patients” preferred coping strategies are described. Some ways are also presented of integrating direct hypnotic suggestion, COGNITIVE-EVALUATIVE reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and imagery for alleviating the SENSORY and AFFECTIVE-MOTIVATIONAL components of pain, with an exploratory, insight-oriented, and brief psychodynamic reprocessing approach during trance for resolving unconscious sources of resistance to treatment, and reducing the emotional overlay associated with chronic pain. Some basic assumptions underlying the use of this approach are discussed, and a brief step-by-step protocol is outlined.

Elter-Nodvin, Edeltraud (2000). Computerized content analysis: A comparison of the verbal productions of high hypnotizable, low hypnotizable and simulating subjects (Dissertation). (http://www.televid.com/elternodvin/dissertation/)
This research was designed to investigate the domain of hypnosis and to explore how the “”state”” of hypnosis, along with the susceptibility to hypnosis relate to lexical choice in verbal productions as well as to primary/secondary process mentation. … College students were screened for level of hypnotic susceptibility … [yielding] 32 high hypnotizable subjects and 57 low hypnotizable subjects [randomly assigned to two groups] … 29 low hypnotizable subjects and 28 low hypnotizable simulating subjects.
Responses to six Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) cards and responses to five free speech story-openings were collected and tape-recorded during [counterbalanced waking and hypnosis conditions]…. verbal productions were transcribed and [computer] analyzed by … the Dartmouth Adaptation of The General Inquirer … and COUNT with the Regressive Imagery Dictionary … .
To summarize, findings suggest that the changes in SECONDARY PROCESS and THOUGHT,as well as the DAGI-III-variable EMOTION and the COUNT-RID-variable EMOTION, may be a result [sic] other than hypnotic ability or the hypnotic experience. The possibility has been raised, that subjects who had been instructed to simulate hypnosis were successful in discerning the experimental, implicit demands to respond with decreased SECONDARY PROCESS and THOUGHT as measured by the DAGI-III and COUNT-RID respectively and to present the appearance of a genuinely hypnotized subject. The same was true for the increase in EMOTION as measured by the DAGI-III as well as by the COUNT-RID. The interaction between the condition (baseline vs. hypnosis) and the group (level of hypnotic susceptibility) would have provided the strongest support for the assertion that hypnosis changes a dimension (e.g. enhances primary process responding or decreases secondary process mentation) in highly hypnotizable subjects.
The likelihood that the hypnotic main-effect can be attributed at least to some extent to demand characteristics has been supported by the current results. The hypnotic state , even though it can be measured through behavioral measures such as the HGSHS and the CAH, cannot be measured by content measures of verbal productions.
Findings are discussed in regard to previous literature suggesting a link between primary process and hypnosis and suggestions for future research are made. In addition, theoretical and practical implications are discussed. – From dissertation at web site http://www.televid.com/elternodvin/dissertation/

Patterson, David R.; Adcock, Rebecca J.; Bombardier, Charles H. (1997). Factors predicting hypnotic analgesia in clinical burn pain. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (4), 377-395.
The use of hypnosis for treating pain from severe burn injuries has received strong anecdotal support from case reports. Controlled studies provide less dramatic but empirically sound support for the use of hypnosis with this problem. The mechanisms behind hypnotic analgesia for burn pain are poorly understood with this patient population, as they are with pain in general. It is likely that, whatever the mechanisms are behind hypnotic pain analgesia, patients with burn injuries are more receptive to hypnosis than the general population. This article postulates some variables that may account for this enhanced receptivity, including motivation, hypnotizability, dissociation, and regression.

Watkins, Helen H. (1993). Ego-State therapy: An overview. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 35, 232-240.
Ego-state therapy is a psychodynamic approach in which techniques of group and family therapy are employed to resolve conflicts between the various “ego states” that constitute a “family of self” within a single individual. Although covert ego states do not normally become overt except in true multiple personality, they are hypnotically activated and made accessible for contact and communication with the therapist. Any of the behavioral, cognitive, analytic, or humanistic techniques may then be employed in a kind of internal diplomacy. Some 20 years experience with this approach has demonstrated that complex psychodynamic problems can often be resolved in a relatively short time compared to more traditional analytic therapies.

Zamore, Neal; Barrett, Deirdre (1989). Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics. Psychiatry Journal of the University of Ottawa, 14 (4).

This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson’s dream inventory and Hilgard’s theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability as measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory. For Ss as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotizability to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams, and precognitive dreams.

Nash, Michael R. (1988). Hypnosis as a window on regression. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 52, 383-403.

Examines the empirical evidence for temporal and topographic regression during hypnosis–which Freud explicitly defined as regressive. A review of more than 100 studies spanning 60 years of research found no convincing evidence that developmentally previous psychological structures are reinstated during hypnosis (temporal regression). In contrast, there is evidence that hypnosis enables subjects to elicit more imagistic, primary process, and affect-laden material (topographic regression). The author recommends a careful reexamination of two core assumptions underlying the concept of temporal regression: (1) that early structures in human development are imperishable, and (2) that regression necessarily involves reinstatement of infantile psychological structures.

Eisen, Marlene R.; Fromm, Erika (1983). The clinical use of self-hypnosis in hypnotherapy: Tapping the functions of imagery and adaptive regression. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (4), 243-255.

The authors present a new method of interweaving hetero-hypnotic psychotherapy and self-hypnosis. In the hetero-hypnotic sessions, the hypnotherapist acts as a dependable parent figure who is supporting and available when that is desirable, but who also encourages and fosters the patient’s efforts to develop his/her inner resources and ability to function autonomously. Self-hypnosis is utilized for its rich idiosyncratic imagery. The hypnotherapist uses and elaborates on this rich, affect-loaded imagery. At other times the therapist takes a guiding role in producing therapeutic metaphors of positive valence. The patient uses and enlarges on these during self-hypnosis between the weekly therapeutic hours. In addition, the hypnotist may counteract any negative strong self-hypnotic images during hetero-hypnosis. Self-directed self-hypnosis allows patients to experience openness and receptivity to internal and unconscious processes against which they may defend themselves in the dyadic relationship with the therapist. For patients struggling with issues of control and for patients fighting their own regressive pull towards dependency, this mode of therapy appears to be particularly effective. The emphasis in this paper is on imagery and on the inter-twining of the two modalities, hetero-hypnosis and self-hypnosis.

Kampman, R. (1976). Hypnotically induced multiple personality: An experimental study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 215-227.

The purpose of the study was to clarify the frequency of appearance of a hypnotically induced secondary personality and to compare Ss who were able to create secondary personalities in hypnosis to control Ss who could enter a deep hypnotic trance but were unable to produce secondary personalities.
The sample of 1,200 pupils was made up of the 3 highest grades of the secondary schools in the city of Oulu, Finland. A total of 450 students volunteered to participate in the study. All those who could enter a deep hypnotic state, 78 in all, were selected for closer study. 32 Ss were able and 43 were unable to create multiple personalities in hypnosis.
Ss also underwent a psychiatric interview. In addition, the identity of Ss was measured.
Both the psychiatric interview and identity examination gave parallel results to the effect that Ss capable of producing secondary personalities were clinically healthier and more adaptive than the group without secondary personalities. This finding is at variance with results presented in previous studies.
Procedure for induction of multiple personalities involved re-hypnotizing Ss, suggesting, “You go back to an age preceding your birth, you are somebody else, somewhere else,” and repeating the suggestion many times. Other suggestions were given that everything was completely normal, nothing miraculous was happening. A multiple personality was counted if the S then said he was a human being, was able to give his name and where he lived, could describe the social environment and his own personality.

Lavoie, Germain; Sabourin, Michel; Ally, Gilles; Langlois, Jacques (1976). Hypnotizability as a function of adaptive regression among chronic psychotic patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 238-257.
The Rorschach and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A (SHSS:A) were administered to a sample of 56 chronic psychotic patients, mainly schizophrenics (N = 48). Verbatim transcriptions of tape-recorded Rorschach protocols were scored according to the Holt system (Holt et al., 1963), which provides an index of adaptive regression. Experimental procedures were conducted single blind. With one exception, all the patients high on SHSS:A were among those obtaining a higher adaptive regression index, while 50% of those obtaining higher adaptive regression index were high on SHSS:A. A systematic investigation of ego functions was proposed for a better understanding of this asymmetry, although the results already gave ostensible positive support to the Gill and Brenman (1959) theory, and to the theory of ego autonomy.

Levin, L. A.; Harrison, R. H. (1976). Hypnosis and regression in the service of the ego. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 400-418.
28 highly hypnotizable female Ss were selected to test the hypothesis that hypnosis is characterized by regression in the service of the ego (adaptive regression). 2 tasks, producing a hypnotic dream and telling a TAT story, were administered individually under hypnotic and normal waking conditions. Scoring for adaptive regression yielded 2 factors, one for the regressive aspects of the fantasies produced, the other for cognitive mastery of those fantasies. An increase in primary process thinking was found in hypnosis, particularly in the hypnotic dream. There was a relationship between S’s capacity for adaptive regression and the amount of adaptive regression found in hypnosis. Although facilitating regression from secondary to more primary process thinking, hypnosis does not inherently provide mechanisms by which primary process manifestations can be utilized adaptively by the ego. Such mechanisms are ego functions which tend to be amplified by hypnosis only in Ss who demonstrate good capacity for adaptive regression.

Crystal, Thomas H.; Gish, Herbert; Bloom, Richard F. (1973, June). Psychophysiological factors affecting speaker authentication and identification. (See Notes field for additional reference information and information about ordering.)

Research and Development Technical Report ECOM-0161-F; AD-913 696L; Contract DAAB07-71-C-0161 with Signatron, Inc. (Lexington, MA). Distribution limited to U.S. Government agencies only; Other requests for this document must be referred to Commanding General, U.S. Army Electronics Command, ATTN: AMSEL-PP-CM-CR4, Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703

This document reports on a U.S. Army research project using hypnosis to collect high fidelity samples of the voice under “combat stress” conditions in the laboratory. Using hypnotic regression, combat veterans “re-experienced” their own, actual high stress combat situations. Besides subjective reports of stress levels by subjects, physiological stress measures were obtained from polygraph recordings of heart, respiration and GSR activity. The voice samples were later analyzed by spectrographic techniques to determine which factors remain invariant to identify and authenticate the speaker in a military communications situation. Hypnotic techniques were shown to be useful in establishing controlled emotional states for laboratory research purposes. (Richard Bloom)

Shor, Ronald E. (1970). The three-factor theory of hypnosis as applied to the book-reading fantasy and to the concept of suggestion. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 89-98.
Maintained that many of the conflicting viewpoints in theories of hypnosis parallel the descriptive complexity of the phenomena. A 3-factor theory of hypnosis is surveyed in which hypnotic depth is conceived as a complex of 3 separate but complementary processes or dimensions. The theory is used to illuminate the book-reading fantasy and the concept of suggestion. (Spanish & German summaries) (16 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

Meares, Ainslie (1968). Hypnotherapy without the phenomena of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 211-214.

A clear distinction must be drawn between the phenomena of hypnosis and the hypnotic state itself. Hypnosis is a state of mind characterized by regression to atavistic mental functioning. The phenomena are produced as a result of this regression. The production of phenomena in either the induction or the therapeutic process is generally undesirable. Hypnosis may be used for reduction of anxiety or as a therapeutic experience without the production of any hypnotic phenomena. (French & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Raginsky, Bernard B. (1967). Rapid regression to the oral and anal levels through sensory hypnoplasty. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15 (1), 19-30.


Schneck, Jerome M. (1960). Comment on a theory of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8 (4), 231-236.
(Author”s Summary) I presented, in previous reports, a holistic, biological theory of hypnosis which emphasized the core element in the nature of hypnosis, to which other theoretical propositions appear to serve as embellishments and secondary detail, valid as the various observations may be. The proposed theory states, “The hypnotic state, in terms of its basic ingredient, is that condition represented by the most primitive form of psychophysiological awareness of individual-environmental differentiation attainable among living organisms.” An explanation of the theory, its ramifications, and the ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications haave been disclosed elsewhere. Meares regarded the theoretical proposal as too complex, with clarity obscured. A review of the material tends to affirm the opposite, I believe. Meares presents his own ideas regarding the nature of hypnosis as a regression to the archaic mental function of suggestion. Suggestion is recognized as verbal and non-verbal. The ontogenetic and phylogenetic features of this concept are included among other ramifications of his discussion. I have offered the opinion that Meares” ideas about hypnosis do not contradict my theory. On the contrary, his experience is quite consistent with the theoretical concepts I have offered, and his understanding of the nature of hypnosis fits in quite easily with my own. His stress on archaic mental function is not, however, as far reaching as the proposals I have made, but it does constitute one proper aspect of the broader spectrum of hypnosis. Of this there is a definite core as outlined. Secondarily, there are manifold, complex, superimposed ingredients and embellishments with psychological, physiological, and sociological determinants.

Schneck, Jerome M. (1957). Hypnoanalytic observations on the psychopathology of fainting. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (4), 167-171. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 62: 3 II 67S)
Varieties of fainting have been described as hysterical syncope, vasodepressor syncope, and carotid sinus reactions, among others. Fainting has been linked in general with personality problems, emotional instability, and immaturity. It has been called a mechanism for blocking of ego functions in its role of primitive defense against overwhelming stimuli. The present paper gives in greater detail the specific dynamics in a patient with fainting episodes. A crucial event incorporating major dynamic ingredients was an operative procedure in childhood. The psychological impact of this trauma was revivified during a spontaneous hypnotic regression. The personality matrix significant for this patient in relation to the fainting episodes consisted of passive, masochistic submission to a dominant, highly influential mother whose pressure was felt by the patient as pervasive and stifling. Circumstances associated psychologically with this feeling apparently triggered the fainting reactions. As he matured through the years and cast off increasingly this type of maternal influence, the tendency toward fainting reactions diminished” (p. 170).

Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1957). Concerning the induction of the hypnotic state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 82-98.

The hypnotic state has four attributes: “an effect of emotional stabilitization, a retrogression to an infantile psychological functioning, suggestibility, and transmissibility of the hypnotic relationship” (p. 82). “SUGGESTIBILITY is a special motivation to accept, incorporate within one’s self, and execute direct or implicit propositions, which is equivalent to the motvation of a child to accept, assimilate and carry out the propositions of its parents” (p. 84). The authors propose that verbal and non-verbal suggestions are incorporated during the course of education, lasting years and thus becoming in effect post-hypnotic suggestions. “The person will have in the future a _special responsiveness,_ that may be more or less pronounced according to the circumstances, _for those data_ (coming from books, movies, conversations, etc.) _which agree with his emotionally-incorporated post-hypnotic suggestions_” (p. 85). If while in an auto-hypnotic condition he comes in contact with someone “who appears to be the embodiment of the convictions or prejudices that on being stimulated started the process of emotional activation that led to the development of the hypnotic state, _there may be a transformation of the auto-hypnotic condition into an interpersonal hypnotic relationship_ (p. 86).
According to the authors, this theory can explain post-hypnotic (negative) sequellae. It also accomodates explantions of both Natural or Direct Orientation inductions and Indirect Orientation inductons, and explains phenomena such as patients entering hypnosis rather automatically while awaiting the appearance of Mesmer in his waiting room.
“To conclude, we will stress that the psychological mechanism of hypnotic induction is exactly _the same_ in everyday life and in the experimental environment. The apparent differences like [sic] in the _behavior_ of the subject in the hypnotic state, and are due to the motivation that arises from the circumstances and to the convictions, capacities, psychologicl maturity, and degree of retrogression of the individual” (p. 96).

Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1957). Concerning the nature of hypnotic phenomena. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 67-76.

The authors write about the place of the hypnotic state in general psychology: “the study of the _psychological mechanisms_ that make the appearance of the phenomenon _possible, which need not be different from the normal and current psychological mechanisms in everyday life_” (p. 67). They classify hypnotic phenomena into three groups:
“I. Phenomena _which are a function of the state of psychological_ retrogression (hypnotic depth), appearing in spontaneously [sic] or when proposed by the operator.
II. Phenomena which appear without any specific suggestion, as _a side issue of other suggestions,_ capable of originating emotional states in the subject.
III. Phenomena _which are independent of all suggestion,_ being a constituent part of the hypnotic state itself, in its ‘positive’ or ‘negative’ forms” (p. 68).
Using this framework, the authors describe several aspects of hypnosis: catalepsy, anesthesia, retrogression, the taking of a role, negativism and resistance, visceral changes, emotional stabilization, psychotherapeutic benefits (indirect). They observe that direct suggestions are often not necessary for therapeutic benefit, and give as an example the tendency for less bleeding when dentists suggest that patients will not feel less pain.
“For the elucidation of this point, the authors carried out an experiment in a dental clinic, taking six easily hypnotizable subjects in whom dental extractions were to be performed. They were given only the suggestions that they would feel the doctor working, but not experience pain … that they would pay no attention to it … or even if they felt a little pain, this would not trouble them and they would bear it perfrectly … Nothing was said about the loss of blood. As a result, in all the cases the loss of blood was slight, practically insignificant, though technically difficult extractions of roots were included” (p. 74).
“The explanation of hypnotic phenomena as natural and normal consequences of the hypnotic emotional state, and of the state of psychological retrogression, eliminates the supposed mysterious powers of suggestion. _Suggestion is thus relegated to the modest role of a litmus paper which reveals the psychological functioning of the individual_ in an experimental environment. On the other hand, in everyday-life hypnosis, in the principal hypnotic relationships of parents with their children, of teachers with their pupils, etc. (11), suggestibility plays an important role in education or re-education” (p. 75).

Guze, Henry (1956). Kline, M. V. A scientific report on ‘The Search for Bridey Murphy’ [Review]. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (3), 127-130.

This book contains chapters by scientists who are critical of the book on Bridey Murphy written by Morey Bernstein. The critiques discuss the following phenomena in relationship to reports of ‘past lives’:
idea of traveling back in time, glossolalia or speaking in tongues, ecstatic states in certain religious sects, physiological regression (Babinski), medical hypnosis, mysticism, reincarnation theories in religion and philosophy, miraculous healing, and supernatural phenomena.
Kline describes a parallel case described by Professor Flourney (Helene Smith) in which previous life on other planets and use of Martian language was claimed.

Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1956). Concerning a theory of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4, 37-45.

“The essential attributes of the hypnotic condition may be understood to derive from three sources:
1) The hypnotic emotional state per se
2) The resultant motivation of the ‘subject’ to comply with the desires of the ‘operator’ (reinstating a child-like responsiveness).
3) The RETROGRESSION to an earlier form of psychological functioning that takes place under a hypnotic state of growing intensity” (p. 43).
“Although the retrogressive process is a general response to emotions and probably exists in some toxic states as well, it has a remarkable feature in the hypnotic state: THE COALESCENCE OF MOTIVATION AND RETROGRESSION, which exists in hypnotized people, permits a peculiar manipulation of the retrogressed condition. The peculiar responsiveness of the subject may be tested and molded by means of propositions which act as suggestions. In this manner, the so-called HYPNOTIC PHENOMENA are elicited” (p. 44).

Solovey de Milechnin, Galina (1956). Concerning the attributes of the hypnotic state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (3), 115-126.
This article considers four areas:
“1) The essential attributes of the ‘positive’ (’empathetically-induced’) hypnotic emotional state.
2) The distinguishing features of the ‘negative’ (‘authoritarian’) hypnotic emotional state.
3) ‘Suggestibility’ — as a motivation to comply with the desires of the person who has induced either of these emotional conditions.
4) The retrogression to a more primitive form of psychological functioning: a phenomenon which is common to all sufficiently intense emotions.
5) ‘Hyper-suggestibility’ — as the peculiar behavior that is made by the coalescence of the motivation to comply with the operator’s desires and the retrogressed condition” (p. 115).
Wagner, Frederik F. (1956). A dynamic approach to the problem of hypnotic induction. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4, 93-98.
The author discusses inductions in a broadly psychoanalytic framework. “In keeping with the terminology, hypnotic induction can be defined as a deliberate attempt to disturb the phychic [sic] equilibrium leading to a reorganization on a regressed level. This process takes place in a structured, goal directed interpersonal relationship to which the subject attempts to adjust himself. The outcome of this potential conflict determines whether or not the subject can be hypnotized. Hypnotizability can consequently be formulated as the degree of motivation to regress in this transference-like relationships with the hypnotist” (p. 95). He suggests that the thoughts and fantasies about the hypnotist are very important, as well as the kind of physical setting the subject would prefer, to assure adequate induction.
“With such information at hand the hypnotist would probably, to a greater extent, be able to phrase his suggestions in the patient’s lingo and assume a proper attitude according to the patient’s needs. By avoiding suggestions which stir up fearful fantasies about hypnosis he will try to keep anxiety at a minimum. By assuming a protective parental role he may stimulate infantile needs and give the patient a maximum of security; anxiety, and consequently, defenses may thereby be minimized. He may even assume an authoritarian role, deliberately stirring up anxiety, if he expects the subject will respond with regression” (p. 97).

Rosen, Harold (1955). Regression hypnotherapeutically induced as an emergency measure in a suicidally depressed patient. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (1), 58-70.

After cautioning that regressive techniques are only to be undertaken by very experienced therapists, the author states in conclusion, “However, if the therapist have a thorough grounding in dynamic psychiatry, he may as an emergency measure, through the adjunctive use of hypnotic techniques of the type described in this article even induce regressive phenomena in the potentially homicidal or suicidal psychotic patient, in order that they may be integrated and utilized in the service of the ego, at first by blotting out ego-boundaries between patient and therapist, so that later on during the course of the therapeutic process these self-same ego-boundaries may be re-defined and re-constituted on a more mature emotional level and with much healthier personality functioning.

de Milechnin, Galina Solovey (1955). Concerning the concept of hypnotic depth. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 243-252.

The author discusses the following:
A. “Two basic aspects of hypnosis which do not appear to be in a direct relationship to the traditional concept of hypnotic depth:
1) the effectivity of suggestions
2) the psycho-therapeutic (or psycho-prophylactic effects of hypnosis)” (p. 243)
B. “the problem about the nature of the hypnotic state and its levels of ‘depth,’ …
1. What is the hypnotic state?
2. What is the meaning of the traditional levels of ‘hypnotic depth?'” (p. 244).
C. Three hypothetically ‘pure’ points of reference:
1. The waking state as it is seen in the normally developed adult person in our present civilization.
2. The ‘deep’ somnambulistic hypnotic state in its most characteristic aspect.
3. The still ‘deeper’ stuporous hypnotic state” (p. 245).
D. “three periods from the continuum of a normal person’s maturation:
1. The hypothetically ‘psychologically completely mature’ adult
2. The normal child from 1 to 3 years of age
3. The newborn infant” (p. 247).
She relates C and D. “If we compare: 1) the ‘somnambulistic’ hypnotic behavior of the adult to the normal behavior of the child from 1 to 3 years of age approximately, and 2) the ‘stuporous’ behavior under hypnosis to the normal behavior of the neonate, their general mechanisms appear to coincide” (p. 250). “The so-called light and medium stages of hypnosis can be understood as an overlapping of the ‘adult’ and ‘childhood’ psychological mechanisms with a progressive reduction of the former and increase of the latter, in a reversion of the progress of normal psychological maturation” (p. 250).
1. The hypnotic state is a special emotional state, the intensity of which varies similarly to that of other emotional states and cannot be graduated.
2. The traditional ‘hypnotic depth’ is nothing else than a ‘retrogression’ to a more primitive psychological mechanism. This retrogression constitutes one of the basic phenomena of the hypnotic state” (p. 251).

Conn, Jacob H. (1953). Hypnosynthesis III. Hypnotherapy of chronic war neuroses with a discussion of the value of abreaction, regression and revivication. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1, 29-43. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 53: 6687)

Author’s Summary – Three examples of chronic war neuroses which were successfully treated by hypnotherapy are presented. The clinical material would seem to indicate that the patient in the trance state is greatly influenced by the attitude and goal of the therapist and tends to produce the type of material which is expected of him. The protocols reveal that the hypnotized patient responds to a permissive, calm, attitude with relatively little emotional display, and by talking about harrowing war experiences in a matter-of-fact manner.
It would appear that merely to recall the traumatic experience without a personalized, constructive, emotional relation to a supporting, understanding therapist is of little therapeutic value. The crux of the therapeutic problem in every approach, whether it be narcosynthesis, narco-analysis, hypno-synthesis, or the hypnotic intensification of an emotion is to bring about the integration of unbearable experiences which previously had been dissociated and obliterated from memory or which automatically reappear and disrupt smooth ego functioning.
It is postulated that the hypnotic trance state provides a unifying, integrating inter-personal experience which is of value in the treatment of chronic war neuroses.

Schneck, Jerome M. (1953). A theory of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (3), 16-17.
“This theory of hypnosis proposes then, that the hypnotic state, in terms of its basic ingredient, is that condition represented by the most primitive form of psychophysiological awareness of individual-environmental differentiation attainable among living organisms. The capacity to move in the direction of functioning which would bring to the fore this most primitive state to the greatest degree possible probably varies among different organisms. The retention of some degree of such capacity probably obtains among all biological forms” (p. 17).


Breuer, William C. (2000). Physically focused hypnotherapy: A practical guide to medical hypnosis in everyday practice. Louisville, KY: SPRF Inc., 1810 Sils Avenue, Louisville, Kentucky, 40205.
Table of Contents
Contents and topics:
Harnessing the placebo effect to your advantage.
Individualizing the Therapeutic Pathology-based Model.
Patient Clues.
Physical Approaches and Factors in Inducting Hypnosis.
History, Screening and Assessment.
Pre-induction and Induction Methods.
Hypnotherapy Equipment, Accessories, Mechanical Aids.
The Hypnotherapy Station or Treatment Room in a clinic.
Daily Abuse of suggestion/Covert Suggestion.
Treating common Physical conditions.
Litigation Stress Syndrome
Addressing Body Mind & Spirit in a medical setting.
Techniques Connecting to the physical.
Useful Forms For Patient/Client Documentation.
A listing of physical conditions & situations that are addressed:
Blood sugar disorders