Personality traits have been challenged as unimportant determinants of behavior, but evidence suggests that traits may carry as much variance as experimental manipulations. Asking whether traits or manipulations control more variance is useless because researchers can plan paradigms that favor one or the other. When traits and manipulations complement each other there are several major kinds of interaction. The trait-manipulation dichotomy is analogous to the person-environment dichotomy, and both are related to active versus passive models of behavior. Trait variance is increased by aggregating across responses, situations, and time. Underlying aggregation are the issues of units and classes of behavior. Individual responses are on a continuum of breadth that extends successively upward to response classes, personality traits, and higher order traits. Broad and narrow traits each have advantages and disadvantages. Recent research has led to novel personality traits and to knowledge about the origin and maintenance of traits. If there is to be a specialty called personality, its unique and therefore defining characteristic is traits.

Friswell, Rena; McConkey, Kevin M. (1989). Hypnotically induced mood. Cognition and Emotion, 3 (1), 1-26.

This article addresses theoretical and methodological issues that are central to an understanding of hypnotically induced mood. Initially, the hypnotic procedures that are typically used to induce moods are examined. Then the empirical research that has employed hypnotic moods is reviewed; specifically, the impact of hypnotic moods on physiological responses, behavioural performance, perceptual and cognitive responses, and personality, and clinical processes is examined. Finally, major theoretical and methodological issues are highlighted, and the research directions that will lead to a greater understanding of hypnotic mood are specified.

Van der Does, A. J.; Van Dyck, R.; Spijker, R. E. (1988). Hypnosis and pain in patients with severe burns: A pilot study. Burns Including Thermal Injuries, 14, 399-404.

Presents a pilot study on the effectiveness of hypnosis in the control of pain during dressing changes of burn patients. Eight patients were treated, and all evaluated the interventions as beneficial. The treatment of four patients was more closely analyzed by obtaining pain and anxiety ratings daily. Results show a 50%-64% decrease in reported pain level for three patients and a 52% increase of pain for one patient. The mean decrease for these four patients was 30% (for overall as well as worst pain during dressing changes). A 30% reduction of anxiety level and a modest reduction of medication use were achieved concurrently. It is concluded that hypnosis is of potential value during dressing changes of burn patients. Comparison of global evaluations and daily pain ratings shows that systematic research in some cases leads to conclusions opposite from clinical observations. Follow-up recommendations for future studies are given.

Houle, M.; McGrath, Patricia Anne; Moran, Greg; Garrett, Owen J. (1988). The efficacy of hypnosis- and relaxation-induced analgesia on two dimensions of pain for cold pressor and electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Pain, 33 (2), 241-251.

This study evaluated hypnosis- and relaxation-induced suggestions for analgesia for reducing strength and unpleasantness of pain (noxious tooth pulp stimulation; cold pressor stimulation). The Tellegen Absorption Questionnaire was used to assess hypnotic susceptibility for 28 subjects in order to match treatment groups according to sex and susceptibility scores. Tooth pulp stimulation consisted of a 1 sec train of 1 msec pulses at a frequency of 100 Hz, applied at 20 sec intervals to the central incisor. Six stimuli, selected between S’s pain and tolerance thresholds, were presented 3 times each in random order. Cold pressor stimulation consisted of forearm immersion in a circulating water bath maintained at 0-1 degrees C. Subjects made threshold determinations of pain and tolerance and used Visual Analogue Scales to rate the strength and the unpleasantness of both noxious stimuli before and after receiving either hypnosis- or relaxation-induced analgesia.
There were no significant differences between hypnosis- and relaxation-induced interventions. However the percent reduction in both strength and unpleasantness varied as a function of type of pain. Both hypnosis and relaxation significantly. reduced the strength and unpleasantness of tooth pulp stimulation, but only the unpleasantness of cold pressor pain. The pain reductions were not correlated with subjects’ hypnotic susceptibility levels.
The results indicate that the extent and the quality of the analgesia produced by these cognitive-based therapies vary not only according to subjects’ characteristics and the efficacy of the intervention, but also according to the nature of the noxious stimuli. Tooth pulp and cold pressor stimulation represent qualitatively different stimuli with respect to both the type of nerves activated and the mode of stimulus application. Discrete, randomly presented levels of noxious electrical stimulation to the teeth activate predominantly small fibers and produce brief pain sensations that vary unpredictably in intensity. In contrast, continuous cold stimulation to the forearm activates a variety of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fibers and produces progressive cold and pain sensations with a predictable increase in intensity from cold sensations to paresthesia and severe pain.

In this investigation, when the authors conclude that “pain reductions were not correlated with subjects’ hypnotic susceptibility levels” (p. 241), it must be noted that hypnotizability was estimated from scores on the Tellegen Absorption scale, which is not actually a measure of hypnotic susceptibility level.

Coe, William C.; Yashinski, Edward (1985). Volitional experiences associated with breaching posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48 (3), 716-722.

Highly responsive hypnotic subjects classified as having control over remembering (voluntaries) or not having control over remembering (involuntaries) during posthypnotic amnesia were compared during posthypnotic recall. Subjects rerated their voluntariness after the experiment. Two contextual conditions were employed (2 x 2 design): a lie detector condition meant to create pressure to breach amnesia and a relax control condition. In contrast to earlier findings, the recall data showed that both voluntary and involuntary subjects breached under the lie detector condition compared with their counterparts in the relax condition; however, the degree of breaching was not great in any condition. The results are discussed as they relate to studies attempting to breach posthypnotic amnesia and characteristics of the voluntary-involuntary dimension.

Bakker, Dirk J. (1984). The brain as a dependent variable. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 1-16.

The mainstream of neuropsychological research and practice has been devoted to the impact of the brain as an independent variable on behavior as a dependent variable. Evidence is currently available to make clear that the order of causation may be reversed: Behavioral changes can have a durable impact on the brain. The results of extensive research indicate that a large number of neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and neuropsychological parameters of the animal brain can be modified through environmental manipulation, sensory experience, and systematic training. Some evidence is available to show that psychological stimulation has certain effects on the physiology of the human brain. For instance, hemisphere-specific stimulation through the presentation of words flashed in a visual hemifield appears to modify the electrophysiological activity of the contralateral hemisphere in dyslexic children and to affect their subsequent reading performance. Neuropsychology may profit from paying more attention to the ecology of the human brain.

An 18th Century anatomist in Italy, Malacarne, demonstrated increased cerebellar folds in the brains of trained (vs. untrained) dogs and birds. His approach to neuroanatomy was not continued because psychology has been more concerned with innate traits of the individual, and because of philosophical rationalism (citing Walsh, 1981). Until very recently, scientists have viewed the brain as “structurally insensitive to environmental experience” (p. 3).
Now we have evidence that animal brains are modifiable by experience, in gross morphology, fine (synapse) morphology, and neurochemicals. “Rich environments [for rats] … produce heavier and thicker cerebral cortices and callosal connections (Walsh, 1981), larger cortex/subcortex weight ratios, larger cell bodies and nuclei (Walsh, 1981), and higher metabolic activity as suggested by increased RNA/DNA ratios (Rosenzweig, Bennett, & Diamond, 1972)” (p. 4). Enrichment leads to more extensive dendritic fields (occipital and temporal cortex, some hippocampal regions); this implies that each neuron has more synapses. Researchers have found large Purkinje-cell bodies and many dendrites in richly educated monkeys.
“Some evidence is available to show that ‘preventive’ and ‘therapeutic’ environments positively affect behavioral performances of brain-lesioned animals. However, knowledge about the brain mechanisms which underly these effects is, as yet, lacking” (p. 6). Rats that were handled during the first 21 days of life exhibited different brain lateralization from rats that were not (Denenberg, cited by Marx, 1983). Those stimulated early stored memories mainly in the right hemisphere.
The author also reviews evidence that human brains are psychologically modifiable. Children with astigmatism generate weakened cortical response to visual stimulation (Freeman & Thibos, 1973), because they experience difficulty in processing some visual-spatial patterns. People who have visual-field defects due to brain damage can improve in vision when forced to make eye movements toward lighted targets flashed in the blind areas (Zihl, 1981).
Bakker theorizes that hemispheric control of reading shifts from right to left during the learning-to-read process of normal readers; at least some aspects of reading are successively mediated by the right hemisphere at age 6 and by the left hemisphere at age 8, according to electrophysiological data in a longitudinal study (Licht, Bakker, Kok, & Bouma, 1983). He thinks P-type dyslexia results from continuing to rely on right- hemispheric strategies, leading to slow reading with fragmentation errors and repetitions. L-type dyslexia results from prematurely adopting a left-hemispheric strategy, i.e. at the very beginning of the learning process, making child insensitive to the perceptual features of script with consequent substantive errors such as omissions and additions. Thus, P- type dyslexics presumably show functional overdevelopment of the right hemisphere and L-types of the left hemisphere. Treatment would involve specific stimulation of the hemisphere that they are ignoring.
He presents data suggesting that “some electrophysiological parameters of the cerebral hemispheres can be modified in dyslexic children through hemisphere-specific stimulation and loading, and that these modifications may induce better reading” (p. 12).

Brodsky, Annette M.; McNeil, Daniel W. (1984). Hypnotizability and volunteering for hypnosis experiments. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26, 206-211.

A class of 145 college students was given Barber’s Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and Spiegel’s Eye Roll Sign, and later given several opportunities to volunteer for research projects, some of which specified hypnosis was involved. Those S’s who volunteered for the hypnosis experiments took the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotizability (HGSHS). Hypnosis volunteers differed from the non- hypnosis volunteers by significantly higher grades and more total experimental volunteerism, but were no significantly different on the CIS or Eye Roll Sign. In general, nonwhites scored higher on the CIS. Among hypnosis volunteers, there was a low negative correlation between the Harvard Consciousness scale and volunteering for experiments other than hypnosis.

Critelli, Joseph W.; Neumann, Karl F. (1984). The placebo: Conceptual analysis of a construct in transition. American Psychologist, 39, 32-39.

The placebo in psychotherapy has unfortunately retained the negative connotation of an inert “nuisance variable,” a label that it originally incurred in the field of medicine. In addition, the transition toward more cognitive models of psychotherapy, particularly Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, has led to problems in defining the placebo within psychology. This transition has resulted in an awkward interface between certain preferred cognitive metaphors and the negative connotations of a presumably cognitive placebo construct. As a result, suggestions have recently been made to dismiss the placebo construct from psychology and to do away with the use of true placebo controls in outcome research. The present analysis maintains that (a) the placebo can be adequately defined within psychology, (b) the negative connotation of the placebo label is largely undeserved, (c) the placebo retains a continuing conceptual and empirical utility for evaluating psychotherapy, and (d) the therapeutic efficacy of current therapies is well established even though they have not generally been shown to be more effective than nonspecific treatment.

Dillon, F. Richard; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1983). Proactive interference and the functional ablation hypothesis: More disconfirmatory data. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31, 47-56.

According to the functional ablation hypothesis, memories for which amnesia has been hypnotically suggested do not interact with other information in memory. This hypothesis was tested in 2 interrelated experiments. In Experiment 1, Ss high and low in hypnotic susceptibility were administered a hypnotic induction procedure and tested on a Brown-Peterson (e.g., Wickens & Gittis, 1974) memory task designed to induce proactive interference (PI). Ss were exposed to 10 blocks of successive 3-word lists. Within each block, all words were strongly related, and, therefore, lists presented early in a block interfered with the retention of lists presented later (PI “buildup”). Following the “buildup” of PI, Ss were administered either a cue to be amnesic for the previous words of a block or a cue to relax. Contrary to the functional ablation hypothesis, the amnesia suggestion did not produce a “release” from PI in high susceptible hypnotic Ss. In other words, the amnesia suggestion did not prevent previously learned material from interfering with newly presented material. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the amnesia cues employed in the Brown-Peterson task produced a reversible recall deficit even though they failed to produce PI “release.” These findings are consistent with the results of studies of the functional ablation hypothesis using the retroactive interference paradigms.

Johnson, Lynn S.; Dawson, Steven L.; Clark, Janet Lee; Sikorsky, Catherine (1983). Self-hypnosis versus hetero-hypnosis: Order effects and sex differences in behavioral and experiential impact. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31, 139-154.

Recent studies (Fromm, Brown, Hurt, Oberlander, Boxer, & Pfeifer, 1981; Johnson, 1979, 1981; Johnson & Weight, 1976; Ruch, 1975) of self-hypnosis versus hetero-hypnosis are compared. A study is reported addressing unresolved questions about interactions between order of presentation and sex with the 2 types of hypnosis. 90 male and 149 female volunteer college students were proportionally assigned to 1 of 4 groups, each of which received 1 of the following hypnosis-order combinations on successive days: self hypnosis, then hetero-hypnosis; hetero-hypnosis, then self-hypnosis; self- hypnosis, then another self-hypnosis; or hetero-hypnosis, then another hetero-hypnosis. Half of each group of Ss had a male hypnotist; half had a female hypnotist. Analysis of variance of total scores for behavioral and experiential impact showed: (a) a general order effect, a decrease from first to second experience; (b) initial self-hypnosis to facilitate either subsequent experience, mitigating the general decrement; (c) switching modes to also reduce the decrement; (d) a clarification of certain order and sex interactions from earlier studies; (e) self-hypnosis to be behaviorally superior to hetero-hypnosis on later presentations; and (f) crossed-sex training to be experientially facilitory. Conclusions are drawn about unresolved issues in self hypnosis research, including the limits of comparability of self-hypnosis versus hetero-hypnosis, which depend on definitional assumptions of the self-hypnosis state and the allowance for order effects in the design.

In their Discussion, the authors note that self hypnosis and heterohypnosis yield similar results, and that although clinical hypnosis effects may increase with practice, such would probably not be true for hypnosis in the experimental setting. They speculate that “self-hypnosis triggers an ‘active involvement’ which provides more continuity in responsiveness across experiences, while hetero- hypnosis encourages a more passive mode which is more susceptible to external events (like order effects)” (p. 150).

Farthing, G. William; Brown, Scott W.; Venturino, Michael (1982). Effects of hypnotizability and mental imagery on signal detection sensitivity and response bias. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 289-305.

It was hypothesized that the ability to selectively concentrate attention on mental images would be greater among high hypnotizable Ss than among low hypnotizable Ss, as indicated by a greater interference with visual signal detection by concurrent visual mental imagery in response to specified nouns. This hypothesis was not supported in the overall results, though the finding of a significant interference effect among the high hypnotizable female Ss, but not among other subgroups, indicates that further research with a more refined procedure might be worthwhile. On the control trials without images, the high hypnotizable Ss made more false alarms than lows, and had a significantly different bias index indicating that high hypnotizable Ss were more likely than lows to respond “yes” when uncertain about whether the signal was present; false alarms can be interpreted as a nonhypnotic measure of suggestibility. The high and low hypnotizable Ss did not differ in their times to generate images in response to the specified nouns.

Friedman, Howard; Taub, Harvey A. (1982). Accessibility: A necessary control for studies of essential hypertension. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 4-8.

A study which was planned to compare the relative effects of relaxation and hypnosis upon essential hypertension also offered the opportunity to replicate some of the findings of a previous investigation. A failure in such replication led to consideration of the effect of accessibility to the laboratory, a variable not typically controlled. A significant differential effect of easy versus hard access was observed.

Frischholz, Edward J.; Blumstein, Renee; Spiegel, David (1982). Comparative efficacy of hypnotic behavioral training and sleep/trance hypnotic induction: Comment on Katz. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50 (5), 766-769.

Examines the claim by N. W. Katz (see PA, vol 62:6454) that social- learning hypnotic inductions produce significant gains in hypnotizability relative to a traditional sleep/trance hypnotic induction. His use of a “raw gain-score analysis” is criticized because it fails to identify the significant influences of pretreatment individual differences on posttreatment response. Reanalysis of Katz’s data indicates a highly significant pretest effect more potent than the observed treatment effect. Inconsistencies between Katz’s findings and those of 6 previous studies are examined.

Fromm, Erika (1981). How to write a clinical paper: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 5-9.

The standards for publishing clinical papers are in some ways the same and in some ways different from those applying to experimental articles. The present paper, written by the Clinical Editor of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, is meant to be a guide to clinicians on how to write publishable papers and to reviewers and readers on how to evaluate them.
“An outline could follow this sample:
a) Statement of problem.
b) Review of literature — and not only the literature of the last 5 years.
c) Clinical material — number of patients, descriptions of cases.
d) Description of method of treatment. If it is a new technique, give a verbatim account.
3) Results.
f) Discussion. (Evaluate your own results and, if appropriate, compare them to those in the literature.)
g) Conclusion.
h) Tables and Figures (if appropriate).
i) Footnotes.
j) List of references.
k) Abstract” (pp. 6-7).
“In closing, here is a short reviewers’ and editors’ guide — a set of questions editors and referees ask. It might be helpful to be aware of these questions as you write a paper.
1. Is the article appropriate for our journal? Does it deal with hypnosis?
2. Has the hypothesis been made explicit?
3. Has the reason for or the origin of the hypothesis been made clear?
4. Does the paper describe something new or describe the approach to an old field in a new way?
5. Are references missing? Are all the citations correct and necessary? Or, is there padding?
6. Has the author been careful to cite prior reports dealing with the same topic? Prior theories about the same topic?
7. What was the “set” given to subjects? Was there control for experimenter influence and demand characteristics?
8. Were patients led to believe they were receiving treatment or not?
9. How was the diagnosis arrived at? Is it correct? Or, does the material given remain unclear as to the correctness or incorrectness of the diagnosis?
10. Was administration and scoring of tests and evaluation of the results done correctly?
11. If statistics were used, were they used corerctly?
12. Are the figures, graphs, and tables used necessary and sufficient? Do they correspond logically to the textual argument of the article?
13. Is the discussion properly confined to the findings or is it digressive? Does it include new post-hoc speculations?
14. Has the author explicitly considered and discussed viable alternative explanations?” (p. 9).

Fromm, Erika; Brown, Daniel P.; Hurt, Stephen W.; Oberlander, Joab Z; Boxer, Andrew M.; Pfeifer, Gary (1981). The phenomena and characteristics of self-hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (3), 189-247.

Self-hypnosis and hetero-hypnosis were compared, and self-hypnosis was studied longitudinally. Results indicated that absorption and the fading of the general reality orientation are characteristics of both hetero-hypnosis and self-hypnosis. The differentiating characteristics lie in the areas of attention and ego receptivity. Expansive, free-floating attention and ego receptivity to stimuli coming from within are state-specific for self-hypnosis, while concentrative attention and receptivity to stimuli coming from one outside source–the hypnotist on whom the subject concentrates his attention–are state- specific for laboratory defined hetero-hypnosis. Attempts to produce age regression and positive or negative hallucinations are markedly more successful in hetero-hypnosis. Imagery is much richer in self-hypnosis than in hetero-hypnosis. Self-hypnosis requires adaptation to the state: in the beginning of self-hypnosis there is a good deal of anxiety and self-doubt. As the subject feels more comfortable in the self-hypnotic state, he spends less time worrying about failures in self-suggestion, his ability to enter trance quickly and easily increases, as does the fading of the general reality orientation, trance depth, and absorption. An attempt was also made in the present study to find personality characteristics related to the ability to experience self-hypnosis.

Case, David B.; Fogel, David H.; Pollack, Albert A. (1980). Intrahypnotic and long-term effects of self-hypnosis on blood pressure in mild hypertension. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 27-38.

Self-hypnosis using the method of Spiegel (1974) was evaluated in 15 patients with labile or mild essential hypertension who were equally hypnotizable and adhered to a regimen of 6-10 daily exercises for a 4-month period. During the hypnotic state, there were consistent rises in both systolic and diastolic pressures in hypnotizable patients, but not in non-hypnotizable controls. Similar but smaller changes were also observed in normotensive subjects. Pressure rose immediately with hypnosis and subsided gradually over 15 minutes. However, the long-term effects of the daily practice of self- hypnosis were variable: ambulatory diastolic pressure fell in 5 patients, was unchanged in 7 patients, and rose in 3 patients. The changes in blood pressure could not be specifically attributed to the daily practice of self-hypnosis; however, all patients experienced improvement in well-being, mood, and behavior patterns during the 4-month period. The study indicates that self-hypnosis can produce changes in behavior and mood which may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, although paradoxically, the act of hypnosis by this technique is pressor. Aside from its therapeutic potential, self- hypnosis may provide useful information about central mechanisms of blood pressure regulation.

Ericsson, K. Anders; Simon, Herbert A. (1980). Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review, 87 (3), 215-251.

Proposes that verbal reports are data and that accounting for them, as well as for other kinds of data, requires explication of the mechanisms by which the reports are generated, and the ways in which they are sensitive to experimental factors (instructions, tasks, etc.). Within the theoretical framework of human information processing, different types of processes underlying verbalization are discussed, and a model is presented of how ss, in response to an instruction to think aloud, verbalize information that they are attending to in short-term memory (STM). Verbalizing information is shown to affect cognitive processes only if the instructions require verbalization of information that would not otherwise be attended to. From an analysis of what would be in STM at the time of report, the model predicts what could be reliably reported. The inaccurate reports found by other research are shown to result from requesting information that was never directly heeded, thus forcing Ss to infer rather than remember their mental processes. (112 ref)

Connors, J. R.; Sheehan, P. W. (1978). The influence of control comparison tasks and between-versus within-subjects effects in hypnotic responsivity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 104-122.

Type of experimental design (between- versus within-subjects) and type of control task were examined for their differential effects on the magnitude of objective and state report test scores associated wtih response to items on the Stanford Hypnotic Scale of Susceptibility, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). In an integrated program of work exploring design effects in hypnotic research, Ss in each of 7 comparison conditions that involved hypnosis and 4 separate comparison conditions that did not involve hypnosis were tested twice on successive occasions. Three of the control tasks used (waking, imagination, and imagination [alert] instruction) were counterbalanced with hypnosis to analoyze possible order effects associated with hypnotic test conditions. Data indexed the patterns of between- versus within-subjects effects associated wtih standard control tasks and also highlighted the order effects that accompanied them. Imagination instructions, in particular, pose specific difficulties that require attention when Ss are tested as their own controls.

Hiscock, Merrill (1978). Imagery assessment through self-report: What do imagery questionnaires measure?. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 223-229.

Four studies examined imagery questionnaires and addressed issues of reliability, agreement among different questionnaires, social desirability, and construct validity. The Betts, Paivio, and Gordon scales were examined. In two studies the Betts and Paivio correlated .45-.50, but correlations involving the Gordon were inconsistent from one study to the next. Imagery measures generally were not influenced by social desirability. Factor analysis indicated that subjective and objective measures of visualization are independent. Concludes that imagery is not a unitary construct and that criteria other than visuospatial tests may be appropriate for validating imagery questionnaires.

Brown, Daniel P.; Fromm, Erika (1977). Selected bibliography of readings in altered states of consciousness (ASC) in normal individuals. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 388-391.

The bibliography is divided into the following sections:
I. General Works
II. Reference material on personality in relation to altered states
III. Social and cultural determinants of altered states
IV. Cognition, information-processing, and ego-functioning
V. Methodology in the study of altered states
VI. Differentiation of hyperaroused states
VII. Shamanistic states
IX. Psychedelic states
X. The meditative states
XI. Personality differences and meditation
XII. Affective and cognitive change in meditation
XIII.Ordinary Buddhist meditation, concentration, and insight meditation
XIV. The variety of Buddhist meditation traditions
Crosson, B.; Meinz, R.; Laur, E.; Williams, D.; Andreychuk, T. (1977). EEG alpha training, hypnotic susceptibility, and baseline techniques. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 348-360.

3 alpha feedback sessions of 40 minutes were administered after a similar baseline period without feedback to 12 Ss high in hypnotic susceptibility and 12 Ss low in hypnotic susceptibility. Hypnotic susceptibility was not a significant dimension in alpha feedback training and previously reported relationship between alpha density and hypnotic susceptibility were not generally found. Evidence did support the efficacy of the current baseline procedure over others more commonly used. The possibility under certain conditions of there being a relationship between hypnotic susceptibility and alpha density and theoretical considerations in recording baseline are discussed.

Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1976). Pitfalls in human research: Ten pivotal points. Overview and recommendations. In Pitfalls in human research: Ten pivotal points.

Be aware of underlying paradigm and how it influences every aspect of the research. Make assumptions more explicit. 2. Person who plans the study should be different from person who is responsible for data analysis. 3. Person who plans the study should not be person who serves as experimenter and collects the data. 4. Investigator should serve as “pilot” subject to gain insight into how the Ss view the experimental design, to tighten the design, and to change experimental instructions that are not clear to the Ss. 5. Use a tight experimental script or protocol that clearly specifies how the experimenter is to carry out each phase of the study, and that considers the various contingencies that may arise. 6. Give the experimenters sufficient supervised practice in implementing the protocol and in correctly and honestly recording the data. The experimenters should carry out pilot studies under supervision. 7. Understand the many kinds of data analyses that lead to misleading conclusions and the kinds of analyses that can be used appropriately with specified sets of data. 8. Judge the research on the validity of the design and procedures that are used to answer the questions that are posed rather than on the outcome or the results that are obtained. 9. Teachers should place much more emphasis on the value of carefully following the prescribed procedures and carefully and honestly recording the data. 10. Check often to see if the experimenters are faithfully implementing the experimental protocol and are carefully and honestly recording the data–e.g. by making tape recordings or video tapes, using one-way mirrors to observe, or by sending stooges, who give predetermined responses.

Coe, William C. (1976). Effects of hypnotist susceptibility and sex on the administration of standard hypnotic susceptibility scales. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 281-286.

Hypnotists’ susceptibility and sex were examined for their effects on the administration of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Neither resulted in different hypnotic responsiveness from Ss. Comparatively inexperienced hypnotists obtained data similar to the normative sample for the Stanford scale. The results suggest that inexperienced hypnotists are capable of administering standardized scales validly, and that characteristics of the hypnotist are relatively ineffective in distorting Ss’ responses to these scales.

Kampman, R. (1976). Hypnotically induced multiple personality: An experimental study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 215-227.

The purpose of the study was to clarify the frequency of appearance of a hypnotically induced secondary personality and to compare Ss who were able to create secondary personalities in hypnosis to control Ss who could enter a deep hypnotic trance but were unable to produce secondary personalities.
The sample of 1,200 pupils was made up of the 3 highest grades of the secondary schools in the city of Oulu, Finland. A total of 450 students volunteered to participate in the study. All those who could enter a deep hypnotic state, 78 in all, were selected for closer study. 32 Ss were able and 43 were unable to create multiple personalities in hypnosis.
Ss also underwent a psychiatric interview. In addition, the identity of Ss was measured.
Both the psychiatric interview and identity examination gave parallel results to the effect that Ss capable of producing secondary personalities were clinically healthier and more adaptive than the group without secondary personalities. This finding is at variance with results presented in previous studies.

Procedure for induction of multiple personalities involved re-hypnotizing Ss, suggesting, “You go back to an age preceding your birth, you are somebody else, somewhere else,” and repeating the suggestion many times. Other suggestions were given that everything was completely normal, nothing miraculous was happening. A multiple personality was counted if the S then said he was a human being, was able to give his name and where he lived, could describe the social environment and his own personality.

Ahlberg, D.; Lansdell, H.; Gravitz, M. A.; Chen, T. C.; Ting, C. Y.; Bak, A. F.; Blessing, D. (1975). Acupuncture and hypnosis: Effects on induced pain. Experimental Neurology, 49, 272-280.

The reactions of 14 volunteers to electrical stimulation near the supra- orbital nerve were studied under acupuncture, placebo-acupuncture, and hypnosis. As the intensity of stimulation increased, a minimum sensation, a minimum pain, and then a maximum or intolerable pain sensation were produced. Under hypnosis the average intensity of the stimulus for producing these sensations was higher than before the trance induction. Under acupuncture and placebo-acupuncture no clear increase in current intensity was observed. Acupuncture, as well as hypnosis, did not consistently change the blood, blood pressure, pulse rate, EKG, respiratory rate, or EEG.

Brown, H. Alan (1973). Role of expectancy manipulation in systematic desensitization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41 (3), 405-411.

Expectancy, relaxation, and hierarchy content were manipulated in a 2X2 factorial design with two additional control groups. It was hypothesized that a major portion of therapeutic change following desensitization could be accounted for by the subjects’ responses to positive feedback inherent in the paradigm. Spider-phobic subjects saw either photographs of spiders or blank slides that they believed to be tachistoscopically presented pictures of spiders. In the factorial part of the design, half of the subjects believed their progress through the hierarchy to be contingent on autonomic responses; the others believed rate of progress to be random. Findings did not support the hypothesis that expectancy was the only factor in desensitization, but they did serve to clarify the role of expectancy vis-a-vis the counterconditioning elements typically discussed in the literature.

Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1969). Invalid arguments, postmortem analyses, and the experimenter bias effect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 11-14.

NOTES: Answers Rosenthal’s (1969) criticism of five experiments Barber et al reported (1969).

Barber, Theodore Xenophon; Calverley, David S.; Forgione, Albert; McPeake, John D.; Chaves, John F.; Bowen, Barbara (1969). Five attempts to replicate the experimenter bias effect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 1-6.

Failed to cross-validate the Rosenthal & Fode, 1963, work on experimenter bias effect in five separate investigations. Concludes that the effect is more difficult to demonstrate than was implied in several recent reviews and that it is not known what preconditions are necessary to obtain it.

Gravitz, Melvin A.; Hopkinson, David (1969). Some methodological developments in contemporary scientific research in hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 167-179.

Discusses modern scientific investigation in hypnosis to: (a) provide an orientation toward current areas of experimental research, (b) outline the methodological problems involved, (c) review selected critical investigative findings, (d) delineate the assumptions and points of view of the major researchers, and (e) elaborate upon certain implications of the above analyses. (Spanish & German summaries) (36 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)


Evans, Frederick J. (1968). Recent trends in experimental hypnosis. Behavioral Science, 13, 477-487. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 13, 143)

Research on hypnosis has been influenced by recent methodological contributions. Social psychological factors influence experimental results, and special control procedures have been developed to evaluate the essentially subjective nature of hypnosis. Several studies are reviewed covering posthypnotic suggestion and amnesia. These studies support a state oriented theory of hypnosis.

Graham, K. R.; Patton, Ann (1968). Retroactive inhibition, hypnosis, and hypnotic amnesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 68-74.