Sears, Alden B. (1956). Hypnosis and recall. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (4), 165-171.

This paper reports two experiments. In the first one, 24 college students with IQs 135 or more who were making low C grades were called in for counseling and given conventional methods for remedial study. Afterwards 11 volunteered for hypnosis and were good subjects; they were enrolled in the hypnosis experiment. They were trained to go into hypnosis on signal, then had four sessions where they studied their school material in hypnosis, then four sessions where they (a) studied post hypnotically in the same way as they had done during hypnosis, and (b)were given post hypnotic suggestions that whenever they sat down to study they would have this degree of concentration and would be able to study, learn and remember in spite of distractions, and finally 4 sessions for reinforcement of the commands and discussion of any difficulties. Throughout the experiment they had 2 sessions each week. “Using their grades for the following semester as criteria: three had gone up slightly but were still doing C work; three were now achieving a B average; four were making an A average and one had a basic personality problem which came to light and is not considered in this paper” (p. 167).
The second experiment involved four art students who were given highly technical material of a mechanical nature and semi-technical material of the same type to learn in the waking state. They were tested for recall in both the waking and hypnotic states. “The hypnotic recall of the two types of material was about the same. However, the waking recall of the highly technical material was much less than that of the semi-technical material, thus tending to indicate that, in the waking state, the ‘non-meaningful material’ was not remembered although they actually knew it well enough to reproduce it under hypnosis” (p. 168).


Gravitz, M.A. & Page, R.A, (2002). Hypnosis in the management of stress reactions.. In Everly, G.S.; Lating, J.M. (Ed.), A clinical guide to the treatment of the human stress response. (2nd, pp. 241-252). New York: NY: Kluwer/Plenum.

Reviews the history and current modes of hypnosis-based treatments of a variety of stress reactions.

Breuer, William C. (2000). Physically focused hypnotherapy: A practical guide to medical hypnosis in everyday practice. Louisville, KY: SPRF Inc., 1810 Sils Avenue, Louisville, Kentucky, 40205.

Table of Contents
Contents and topics:
Harnessing the placebo effect to your advantage.
Individualizing the Therapeutic Pathology-based Model.
Patient Clues.
Physical Approaches and Factors in Inducting Hypnosis.
History, Screening and Assessment.
Pre-induction and Induction Methods.
Hypnotherapy Equipment, Accessories, Mechanical Aids.
The Hypnotherapy Station or Treatment Room in a clinic.
Daily Abuse of suggestion/Covert Suggestion.
Treating common Physical conditions.
Litigation Stress Syndrome
Addressing Body Mind & Spirit in a medical setting.
Techniques Connecting to the physical.
Useful Forms For Patient/Client Documentation.
A listing of physical conditions & situations that are addressed:
Blood sugar disorders
Essential Hypertension
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic Fibromyalgia
Headaches (Tension/Migraine/Histamine)
Indigestion/GERD from Hiatus
Immune System Disorders
I.B.S./Chron s Disease
Litigation Stress Syndrome
Menstrual Disorders
Memory Problems
Multiple Sclerosis
Muscle Spasm or Tension
Nausea & vomiting
Panic Attacks
Pain Management
Shy Bladder
Sleeping Disorders
TMJ Cranio-facial Pain Syndrome

Bryant, Richard A.; Somerville, Ernest (1995). Hypnotic induction of an epileptic seizure: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (3), 274-283.

This case study investigated the utility of hypnosis to precipitate a seizure in a patient with refractory epilepsy. The patient was twice administered a hypnotic induction and a suggestion to age regress to a day when he was distressed and suffered repeated seizures. The patient did not respond to the first hypnotic suggestion; however, an epileptic seizure was observed in the second hypnotic session. Videorecording and subdural electroencephalograph recording confirmed that he suffered an epileptic seizure. Postexperimental inquiry revealed that the patient used deliberate cognitive strategies to avoid seizure onset in the first session but adopted a more constructive cognitive style in the second session. Findings are discussed in terms of emotions, hypnosis, and cognitive style as mediating factors in the experimental precipitation of epileptic seizures.

Litwin, R. G.; Cardena, E. (1993, August). Dissociation and reported trauma in organic and psychogenic seizure patients. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

: Early detection and differential diagnosis of non-epileptic seizures (NES) versus epileptic seizures (ES) is a major clinical issue in comprehensive epilepsy centers. Recent research suggests that differences in dissociative experiences between NES and ES patients may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Non-epileptic seizures are frequently conceptualized as a dissociative response to past emotional trauma or abuse; dissociation in ES occurs as a result of electrophysiological abnormalities, most often associated with the temporal lobes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness for the differential diagnosis of NES from ES of several measures of dissociation and of a self- report measure for physical and sexual abuse. Four quantitative measures of dissociation were utilized in this study: the dissociative disorders interview schedule (DDIS), dissociative experience scale (DES), Tellegen absorption scale (TAS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS). The incidence of sexual and physical abuse was obtained from structured questions in the DDIS. Forty-one patients being evaluated for intractable seizures participated in this study; 13 ES patients with non-temporal lobe involvement (ES/NTL), 18 ES patients with temporal lobe focus (ES/TLE) and 10 patients with NES spells of psychiatric origin. The main researcher was blind to these diagnoses until the study was completed. Results show a trend toward greater incidence of dissociative experiences in the NES versus ES group on the DDIS, TAS and DES, although these differences tended to be modest and not statistically significant, perhaps given the small N of the study. There were no significant trends or differences in dissociative experiences reported by ES/NTL patients versus ES/TLE patients. Contrary to the study’s hypothesis, ES patients were slightly more susceptible to being hypnotized than NES patients. As hypothesized, a significant difference was that NES patients reported physical and sexual abuse of higher incidence and longer duration than did ES patients. Logistic regression analysis for prediction of NES using the DES, TAS and SHCS instruments correctly predicted only 10% of NES patients. However, exploratory logistic regression analysis using the demographic variables of gender, months of sexual abuse and years of recurrent seizures suggest that these characteristics may be specific and sensitive in the prediction of NES. Being a female, having a higher incidence and longer duration of abuse and fewer years of recurrent seizures all predicted significantly the existence of non-epileptic seizure events, allowing for a 95% accuracy in diagnostic prediction. Our findings reinforce prior research indicating that dissociation is an important symptom component of both ES and NES events. The trend toward more prevalent dissociative experiences in the NES group suggests that in depth examination of these differences and of key demographic variables may help differentiate between these two groups. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall 1993, Vol. 2, No. 3.)

Persinger, M. A.; Makarec, Katherine (1991-92). Interactions between temporal lobe signs, imaginings, beliefs and gender: Their effect upon logical inference. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 11, 149-166.

Rotton’s Paralogic Test, Wilson-Barber’s Inventory of Childhood memories and Imaginings (ICMI) and the PPI (Personal Philosophy Inventory) were administered to 100 male and 100 female university students. Both sexes displayed moderately strong (0.50) correlations between content-selected and factor analyzed clusters of possible temporal lobe signs, exotic beliefs and the numbers of childhood imaginings. Although there were no sex differences between the accuracy of logical statements that contained paranormal or neutral content, males who displayed more temporal lobe signs were more accurate for logical items that contained paranormal content. Females who displayed more imaginings were more accurate for valid than for invalid items. Accuracy for items with paranormal content increased with exotic beliefs but not with conservative religious beliefs for both sexes. The relationship between exotic beliefs and accuracy for items with paranormal content was especially strong for females. These results suggest: 1) gender differences in the neurocognitive processes that contribute to logical problem solving and 2) accuracy may depend upon the degree to which the subject matter is commensurate with the person’s history of enhanced temporal lobe signs, capacity for fantasy and imaginings and beliefs in exotic concepts.

Review of related literature indicates that Personal Philosophy Inventory (PPI) temporal lobe signs are correlated with temporal lobe EEG alpha but not occipital lobe alpha (Makarec & Persinger, 1990), with increased suggestibility (Persinger & DeSano, 1986; Ross & Persinger, 1987), with creativity and proneness towards fantasy (Persinger & DeSano, 1986; Ross & Persinger, 1987; Makarec & Persinger, 1987), and with reports of psi experiences and beliefs in such things as reincarnation and aliens in UFOs (‘exotic themes’) (Persinger & Makarec, 1987; Persinger & Makarec, 1990).
This experiment was designed to answer four questions: ” 1) Do imagery and temporal lobe signs emerge from the same source of variance?; 2) Do males and females differ significantly in their incidence of imaginings and temporal lobe signs?; 3) Do males and females differ in their ability to solve logical problems?; and 4) Is the accuracy of problem solving affected by the subject matter of the problem and the problem solver’s temporal lobe signs and capacity for imagery?” (p. 151).
The PPI consists of 140 true-false items that were selected with a goal of discerning temporal lobe signs within a normal population. One 30-item subscale has items that are similar to experiences reported by patients with verified electrical foci in the temporal lobes, albeit milder (the TLS or temporal lobe sign scale). Of these 30 items, 16 refer to ictal-like experiences (the CPES, or complex partial epileptic signs), and 14 refer to interictal-like behaviors (ILB). CPES items are items like “Sometimes an event will occur that has special significance for me only,’ and ‘While sitting quietly, I have had uplifting sensations as if I were driving over a rolling road.” ILB items are items like “People tell me I blank out sometimes when people are talking,’ and ‘When I lose an argument I spend a lot of time thinking about what I should have said.”
Wilson and Barber’s Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings (ICMI) has 52 true-false items that include reports of paranormal experiences (5 items), moderate imaginings (18 items) such as ‘When I was a child I enjoyed fairytales,’ and extreme imaginings (15 items) such as ‘When I was a child or teenager, at times I was afraid my imagining would become so real to me that I would be unable to stop it.’
Rotton’s Paralogic Test [unpublished, at Florida International University, Miami] has 16 syllogisms, each with major premise, minor premise, and conclusion. “The person must decide if the argument is valid (n = 8) or invalid (n = 8). Half of each of the valid and invalid arguments refer to mundane material while the other half of the arguments refer to paranormal-related material. An example of the former is ‘If a president is a crook, he would be impeached; Congress did not impeach Nixon. Therefore Nixon is not a crook’ and ‘If flying saucers really existed, somebody would have photographed one. Nobody has ever photographed a flying saucer. Therefore, flying saucers do not exist'” (p. 153).
Correlations were computed separately for males and females. Both groups increased in accuracy for paranormal items as their belief in things like reincarnation and UFOs (‘exotic concepts’) increased. Males with a higher number of temporal lobe signs demonstrated more accuracy for logic test items with paranormal (psi) content than logic test items with mundane content.
“The single most important correlation was between exotic beliefs and the interaction term for the Rotton scale; the coefficient was unusually strong (0.54) and highly statistically significant (p<0.001) for females only. Because of the manner in which the interaction term was calculated, this correlation meant that females who reported more exotic beliefs were also more accurate for valid items that contained paranormal content only" (p. 159). In their Discussion, the authors write, "The significant positive correlations between exotic beliefs and the clusters of CPES items and extreme Wilson-Barber imagining items are expected associations according to Bear's concept of sensory-limbic hyperconnectionism [Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Syndrome of Sensory-Limbic Hyperconnectionism, Cortex, 15, pp. 357-384. It would predict that concepts (or word trains) that are unusual, strange or infrequent would be charged with emotional significance and personal value. Ideas that generate substantial imagery, such as time- travel, reincarnation and alien intelligence, would be particularly prone to this affective infusion from limbic sources. Induction of such unique or intensified affective states, especially during childhood, would facilitate the development of more frequent or more extreme periods of dissociation in the adult. We have collected (unpublished) clinical evidence to suggest that the emergence of this pattern is found in the propensity for creative thinkers, including writers, poets, musicians, artists and scientists, to have had developmental histories that could have promoted temporal lobe lability without overt seizure activity; clusters of such "promoters" include mild physical abuse, febrile episodes, minor head injuries and likely hypoxic periods during extreme physical exertion (competitive athletics)" (pp. 161-162). Another conclusion of the study is that males and females do not differ in their accuracy in solving syllogisms, but "the neurocognitive processes, as inferred from inventories of temporal lobe signs or childhood imaginings, by which the two sexes arrive at solutions may be quite different" (p. 162). 1988 DeBenedittis, Giuseppe; Sironi, Vittorio A. (1988). Arousal effects of electrical deep brain stimulation in hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 96-106. In an earlier study, DeBenedittis and Sironi (1986) demonstrated that during depth EEG studies, electrophysiological correlates of hypnotic behavior emphasize the role of the limbic system in mediating the trance experience. In the case of a young man who was affected by medically resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and who was a potential candidate for surgical treatment, diagnostic depth EEG in hypnotic and non- hypnotic conditions offered a unique opportunity to stimulate limbic structures. This permitted an evaluation of the subjective and behavioral responses, as well as of the electrophysiological correlates. During hypnosis, repeated stimulations of the left and the right amygdala produced arousal from the hypnotic state each time, whereas the stimulation of other cerebral structures (e.g., temporal neocortex, Ammon's horn) or pseudostimulations were ineffective on the hypnotic state. These data represent the first experimental, controlled evidence of the amygdala's effects on the arousal from the hypnotic state in man, thus suggesting that hypnotic behavior is mediated, at least in part, by a dynamic balance of antagonizing effects of discrete limbic structures--the amygdala and the hippocampus. NOTES The patient was a 30-year-old man who had suffered from medically resistant psychomotor temporal lobe epilepsy since age 7; a diagnostic EEG showed right temporal seizure focus, concomitant with independent, contralateral, temporal spiking abnormalities. Hypnotizability was measured at 6 on the SHSS:C; the patient was given two training sessions in hypnosis, with suggestions for "dissociation, rehearsal and reframing of spontaneous seizure events, desensitization of their negative emotional impact, and amnesia" (p. 99). Electrodes were implanted in deep cerebral structures (amygdala, Ammon's horn) and corresponding superficial areas of temporal cortex, with confirmation of placement by X-ray. Two weeks later the patient's brain was stimulated on two consecutive days, first in the waking state (Session 1) and then in hypnosis (Session 2). (Antiepileptic medication was discontinued three days before the stimulation sessions.) False (placebo) stimulations were randomly provided along with the true stimulations. The false (placebo) stimulations did not result in subjective or behavioral changes in either the waking or the hypnosis condition. In the waking condition, a psychomotor seizure was produced by stimulation of Right amygdala and Left Ammon's horn; stimulation of Left amygdala evoked only the aura patient usually had before a seizure, or a brief lapse of consciousness. Stimulating the temporal neocortex did not evoke seizure activity. In the hypnosis condition, arousal from hypnosis into the waking condition occurred with stimulation of amygdala (either Right or Left). Stimulation of the temporal neocortex or of the Right Ammon's horn did not arouse the patient. Stimulation of Left Ammon's horn led to abortive seizures, such that it could not be determined whether the hypnotic state had been interrupted. Stimulating the Right amygdala "triggered a psychomotor attack similar to that recorded during the waking stimulation, but with reduced emotional involvement" (p. 100). For the Left Ammon's horn, "waking stimulation always induced clinical seizures with prolonged after-discharge, whereas hypnotic stimulation evoked only abortive seizures, without after-discharge" (p. 100). In their Discussion, the authors note that animal experimental literature suggests that stimulation of the cortico-medial amygdala facilitates arousal functions, of the baso- lateral amygdala diminishes arousal and produces sleep, and lesions of the amygdala lead to 'amygdala hangover' (Weiskrantz, 1956). "The animal with amygdala destruction appears tame and placid, with reduced social reactivity, insensitive to environmental changes and reluctant to initiate new behavior, unless highly motivated (Isaacson, 1976)" (p. 101-102). In contrast, the animal research on hippocampus suggests it is involved in inhibitory functions (Isaacson, 1976), and may be the 'internal inhibitor' theorized by Pavlov (1955) to be responsible for animal hypnosis. With lesions, animals are more willing to undertake new behaviors, less inactive, less distractible during goal-oriented behavior (Isaacson, 1976). "Moreover, normal hippocampograms show typical, slow (theta) synchronous activity opposed to the arousal desynchronized activity of the electroencephalogram. During hypnosis, desynchronization of the normal, slow activity of the hippocampal Ammon's horn has been registered as compared with the waking hippocampogram, opposite to the slow synchronous activity of the amygdala" (p. 102). The authors note that their results are at variance with the finding by Crasilneck et al. (1956) that their patient, during brain surgery for an epileptogenic focus, aroused from hypnosis each time they stimulated the hippocampus. They explain the discrepancy as due to the fact that the hippocampus was not simply stimulated, but in fact there was 'coagulation' of a hippocampal vessel each time. Quoting from Crasilneck et al. "'The patient did not complain of pain during this [brain] excision [in hypnosis] except on one noteworthy occasion, when a blood vessel of the hippocampal region was being coagulated. The patient suddenly awoke from the hypnotic trance ... She was immediately rehypnotized. ... The surgeon then purposefully 'restimulated' the same region of the hippocampus. Once again, the patient abruptly awakened from trance... [p. 1607].'To the present authors, the description appears misleading and responsible for subsequent misinterpretation of the observation. Because on the first occasion the hypnotic arousal effect followed 'coagulation' of the hippocampal region, it may be assumed that 'restimulation' is a misnomer for repeated coagulation. From this it may be inferred that the arousal effect observed by Crasilneck et al. (1956) could probably be ascribed to a hippocampal microlesion rather than to hippocampal stimulation. This could explain the apparent discrepancy" (p. 104). Loewenstein, R. J.; Putnam, F. W. (1988). A comparison study of dissociative symptoms in patients with complex partial seizures, MPD, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Dissociation, 1, 17-23. Depersonalization and dissociative symptoms have been widely reported in chronic seizure disorder patients, especially those with temporal lobe involvement and complex partial seizures (CPS). It has been theorized that development of multiple personality disorder may be related to temporal lobe pathology. We administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) to 12 male patients with severe chronic epilepsy, primarily of the complex partial type. Patients had epilepsy from 1 to 30 years. Most were being evaluated for intractable seizures occurring several times per week. DES data on the epileptic patients were compared with DES data on 9 male MPD patients and 39 PTSD patients. MPD and PTSD patients were significantly different from CPS patients in median DES scores and all DES subscale scores. MPD and PTSD patients were far more similar on the DES, although MPD patients had a significantly higher score on the dissociation/psychogenic amnesia subscale of the DES. The authors conclude that there is little data to support a relationship between MPD, dissociation, and epilepsy. 1987 Makarec, K.; Persinger, M. A. (1987). Electroencephalographic correlates of temporal lobe signs and imaginings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 1124-1126. Significant correlations (0.50) were observed between scores for the Wilson-Barber Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings and the experiences that are indicative of temporal lobe lability. In addition, positive correlations (0.42) occurred between temporal lobe EEG measures (scalp electrodes) and numbers of temporal lobe signs. The numbers of alpha seconds per minute from the occipital lobes were correlated (0.57) with the Wilson-Barber cluster that indicated interests in 'altered states'. Scores on the childhood imaginings section of the Wilson-Barber Inventory were correlated (0.44) with the numbers of spikes per minute over the temporal lobes when the eyes were closed. NOTES "Persinger and DeSano (1986) found that people who display temporal lobe signs were also more likely to have more imaginings (as defined by Wilson and Barber's (1983) Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings) and to be more suggestible as indicated by Spiegel's Hypnosis Induction Profile" (p. 1124). Subjects in this investigation were 12 male and 18 female students, ages 18-39 (M = 25 years) Bipolar measures were taken from just above the ears (approximately T3-T4) and the occipital lobe (01-02). Number of alpha seconds per minute and number of spikes per minute from each lobe was taken for 10 minutes (5 successive pairs of 1 minute eyes- open, 1 minute eyes-closed). "The total Wilson-Barber score was significantly (p <.01) correlated ... with the major (0.46) and minor (0.50) temporal lobe clusters but not with two clusters of control items: normal psychological experiences (0.21) and mundane proprioceptive experiences (0.29). These correlations are similar to those in the Persinger and DeSano study (0.60, 0.50, 0.13, and 0.14, respectively). Like the first study (0.53), the items that were most associated with dissociation (depersonalization) were best correlated with the Wilson- Barber scores (0.60). The Wilson-Barber subcluster: adults' extreme experiences (Items 44 through 52, that indicate physiological changes associated with thinking) was again most strongly correlated with the major (0.55) and minor (0.65) temporal lobe clusters; these values were 0.42 and 0.52 in the first study" (p. 1125). "The only statistically significant (p < .01) correlations between the Wilson-Barber scales and the EEG measures were between the number of alpha seconds from the occipital lobe (with the eyes closed) and the [Wilson-Barber] 'altered state' cluster (r = 0.57; Items 33, 41, 42, 43). A weaker correlation (0.36) occurred between the number of alpha seconds per min. (eyes closed condition) and childhood vestibular experiences (items 1, 2, 3, 10, 24)" (p. 1126). 1986 DeBenedittis, Giuseppe; Sironi, Vittorio A. (1986). Depth cerebral electrical activity in man during hypnosis: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 63-70. To the authors' knowledge, hypnosis has never been induced in epileptic patients during a depth EEG study. This neurosurgical diagnostic procedure has been routinely used in medically resistant epileptic patients for the preoperative exact delimitation of the epileptogenic lesion. It offers a unique opportunity to obtain fundamental information on the possible neurophysiological mechanisms implicated in hypnosis. Observations were carried out on 1 patient affected by medically resistant partial seizures with complex symptomatology. A chronic deep electrode study explored rhinencephalic structures as well as specific target areas of the cerebral cortex. Background electrical activity during hypnosis showed a significant decrease of slow waves and an increase of alpha and beta rhythms, with constant increase of amplitude, when compared to activity in the pre- and posthypnosis states. Focal interictal abnormalities were dramatically reduced during hypnosis. NOTES Hypnotizability was assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale in order to test for suggestibility without a prior induction of hypnosis. The patient's score was 7 out of 8 possible. Patient was hypnotized with a standard induction procedure (Barber & Calverley, 1963). Experimental Protocol: 15 minutes resting baseline; 15 minute test of mental imagery (waking suggestions with imagination instructions); hypnosis with progressive relaxation; suggestions for dissociation; suggestions for amnesia; arousal from hypnosis (the patient was successful with positive hallucinations, catalepsy, total amnesia, and spontaneous analgesia); and posthypnosis awake and alert (5 minutes eyes open, 5 minutes eyes closed, then 15-minute recording of post-treatment waking baseline). EEG background activity was scored for the number of sec/minute of delta (0-4), theta (4-7), alpha (8-12), and beta (13-30) rhythms, for each 5-min period. Score = percent as related to the 1-minute epoch. Number, amplitude, and diffusion of interictal spikes also were measured but ictal activity was not recorded during the periods considered. Experimenters also measured heart rate, respiratory rate, and mean blood pressure. ANOVA for 4 conditions (resting, waking suggestion, hypnosis, and posthypnosis) was computed for background and for focal interictal activities, and the t-test used to evaluate significant differences. ANOVA indicated a significant effect across the four experimental conditions for theta and alpha in the temporal anterior cortex, temporal posterior cortex, and frontal convexity cortex. The effect was attributable only to changes in theta and alpha between baseline and hypnosis (theta decreasing, alpha increasing as the patient went into hypnosis). No other significant difference was found. Following arousal from hypnosis, EEG activity was similar to the EEG activity before the induction. Interictal focal abnormalities were reduced during hypnosis, compared with before hypnosis. The effect was due to changes in the area of Ammon's horn, the amygdala, the posterior temporal cortex, the mesial temporal cortex, and the inferior temporal cortex. In their Discussion, the authors note that their data supports earlier work indicating that the limbic system is implicated in hypnosis. The cite the publications of Arnold (1959, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis) and Crasilneck, McCranie, and Jenkins (1956). The latter authors observed EEG records taken during brain surgery on one patient. Hypnosis terminated every time the hippocampus was stimulated, leading them to suggest that the hippocampus is part of the neural circuit involved in hypnosis. "If it is assumed that a convulsion can be considered a result of both pathophysiological and emotional events operating in the individual, emotions being the most common precipitating factor in epilepsy, then any amelioration of one will raise the convulsive threshold or lower the seizure level (Goldie, 1979; MacCabe & Habovick, 1963). Although 'voluntary control of the alpha rhythm' was achieved over 40 years ago (jasper & Shagass, 1941), only since 1969 has such control been used for clinical purposes (Kamiya, 1969). One striking characteristic of the EEG pattern of many epileptics is the absence of a 12 to 14 c/s rhythm normally recorded from the anterior portions of the brain (sensorimotor rhythm) and the presence of a 4 to 7 c/s rhythm at the same location (Olton & Noonberg, 1980). Biofeedback may enable the individual to increase the amount of sensorimotor rhythm and to decrease the amount of 4 to 7 c/s activity. As a consequence, clinically significant decreases in seizure activity have been found after biofeedback training (Sterman, 1973, 1977). "The present data demonstrate that in this female patient hypnosis induced a highly significant reduction of the interictal activity, concomitant with an increase of alpha and sensorimotor rhythm and a decrease of slow activity, similar to biofeedback but without prior training. " In conclusion, a depth EEG study in one epileptic patient comparing EEG activity during hypnosis and pre- and posthypnosis suggests the following conclusions: (a) hypnosis may be associated with significant decrease of slow activity and an increase of alpha and relatively high frequency, beta activity; (b) electrophysiological correlates of hypnotic behavior support the possible role of the limbic system in mediating the trance experience; and (c) hypnosis is effective in reducing focal interictal abnormalities in this patient and so it can be considered a promising technique to prevent and/or reduce emotional precipitating factors and the tendency to develop seizure activity" (p. 69). The article referenced regarding biofeedback training to reduce ictal activity is: Sterman, M. B. (1973). Neurophysiologic and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: some effects on epilepsy. In L. Birk (Ed.), _Biofeedback: Behavioral medicine._ New York: Grune & Stratton, Pp. 147-165. Sterman, M. B. (1977). Effects of sensorimotor EEG feedback training on sleep and clinical manifestations of epilepsy. In J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.), _Biofeedback: Behavioral medicine._ New York: Plenum, 1977, Pp. 167-200. 1984 Cocores, James A.; Bender, Andrew L.; McBride, Eugene (1984). Multiple personality, seizure disorder, and the electroencephalogram. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172, 436-438. Used the EEG to study multiple personality in a 48-yr-old ambidextrous male admitted for alcohol detoxification and individual psychotherapy. Despite conflicting reports in the literature, no changes in the EEG were found that could not be ascribed to the normal changes seen in transitions from various states of alertness. The problems of differentiating multiple personality as a psychiatric entity in itself from those cases arising as a result of chronic partial or partial-complex epilepsy are discussed. 1981 Gravitz, Melvin A. (1981). Non-verbal hypnotic techniques in a centrally deaf brain-damaged patient. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 110-116. Non-verbal techniques across several sensory dimensions were utilized with a brain-damaged centrally deaf 36-year-old female patient who had been referred for hypnotherapeutic relaxation. These included optical fixation on the therapist's hand with gradual thumb and fore-finger closure, vibratory stimuli, light shoulder pressures, arm stroking, manually facilitated air currents, and reinforcing homework assignments. With hypnotherapy, the patient's physical and emotional behavior was reported by her to have improved to a significant degree. Gross, Meir, M. D. (1981). Hypnosis for dissociation -- diagnostic and therapeutic. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 28 (2), 49-56. NOTES Dissociative disorders might be at times very difficult to diagnose and treat, especially since they are very similar to epilepsy in general and to temporal lobe epilepsy in particular. Amnesia, fugue, changing personality and depersonalization are part of both disorders. Patients who suffer from dissociative disorders might be diagnosed and treated for epilepsy with anticonvulsive medications without any beneficial results. These patients are labeled as epileptics and have to face the social stigmata associated with being epileptic. The wrong label could even reinforce the sick role and make it become fixed and chronic. Hypnosis was used to diagnose the dissociative disorder by using the hand levitation technique for the differential diagnosis. It was found by the author that patients who suffer from dissociative disorders would get into spontaneous hypnotic trance during the hand levitation. Hypnosis was used also for successful therapy of these patients. Seven cases are presented in which the hand levitation technique was used to diagnose the dissociative disorder. They were also treated by hypnotherapy. Their treatment by hypnosis is discussed. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the hand levitation technique for the differential diagnosis of dissociative disorder and to emphasize the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of this disorder. Sorting out the cases of dissociative disorders from the epileptics is very important clinically, since it can save many patients from the anguish of having to take anti-convulsants unnecessarily and having to face the social stigmata of being labeled as epileptic. 1963 Masserman, J. H. (1963). Current psychiatric therapies. New York NY: Grune & Stratton. (Reviewed in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1964, 6, 278-279) NOTES Contains a chapter on 'Hypnotic studies of patients with convulsions' Slater, Roger C.; Flores, Louis S. (1963). Hypnosis in organic symptom removal: A temporary removal of an organic paralysis by hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5 (4), 248-255. NOTES "Summary and Conclusions. A detailed case study is reported on the use of hypnosis with beneficial results in an instance of eventually proved organic brain disease. Three other confirmatory case reports of organic disease definitely benefitted by the use of hypnosis are briefly cited. " The first patient had been adequately studied repeatedly for organic brain disease. Because the studies led to an uncertain indefinite unconfirmed suspicion of psychogenic epilepsy, the patient was returned with a recommendation for continued treatment and observation by the author, a general practitioner. Hence, she was, after still further study for organic disease, treated symptomatically by hypnosis with beneficial results. This led to the erroneous conclusion that the patient's disability was probably functional. A sudden fatal outcome of the actual but unrecognized brain disease led to a correct but post- mortem diagnosis of astrocytoma of the brain, Grade IV. "This report and those given to supplement it raise significant questions about the importance and value of hypnosis in organic disease. These include the challenging question of the extent to which the use of hypnosis can potentiate the natural corrective forces of the body; the need to recognize the value of hypnosis in effecting beneficial results in organic disease; the need to qualify the reliability of hypnosis as a differential diagnostic procedure in relation to psychogenic and organic disability; and the possibility and extent of the amelioration or actual correction of known organic illness" (p. 254). 1959 Crasilneck, Harold B.; Hall, James A. (1959). Physiological changes associated with hypnosis: A review of the literature since 1948. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (1), 9-50. ( Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 61: 6626) NOTES Topic headings include: Experimental Techniques (Depth, Type of suggestion, Other variables) Cardiovascular Effects (Clinical reports, Blister formation, Bleeding, Peripheral vasomotion, Heart rate, EKG changes, Blood pressure, Hematological changes) Respiration Urogenital System Gastrointestinal System Metabolism and Temperature Endocrine System Central Nervous System (Electroencephalography, Epilepsy, Age regression, Galvanic skin response, Muscle control, Electromotive changes, Multiple sclerosis, Cold adaptation, Exocrine glands, Reflexes, Russian reports) Special Senses (Hearing, Taste) 1957 Moss, C. Scott (1957). A forced hypnoprojective fantasy used in the resolution of pseudo-epileptic seizures. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 59-66. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 58: 5812)