36. Symptom prescription for expanding the psychotic’s world view VII. Sexual Problems Hypnotherapeutic Reorientations to Emotional Satisfaction
37. Posthypnotic suggestion for ejaculatio praecox
38. Psychotherapy achieved by a reversal of the neurotic processes in a case of ejaculatio praecox
39. Modesty: An authoritarian approach permitting reconditioning via fantasy
40. Sterility: A therapeutic reorientation to sexual satisfaction
41. The abortion issue: Facilitating unconscious dynamics perm itting real choice
42. Impotence: Facilitating unconscious reconditioning
43. Latent homosexuality: Identity exploration in hypnosis
44. Vasectomy: A detailed illustration of a therapeutic reorientation VII. Self-Exploration in the Hypnotic State: Facilitating Unconscious Processes and Objective Thinking
45. Pseudo-orientation in time as a hypnotherapeutic procedure
46. Facilitating objective thinking and new frames of reference with pseudo-orientation in time
47. Self-exploration in the hypnotic state
48. Self-exploration in trance following a surprise handshake induction
49. The reorganization of unconscious thinking without conscious awareness: Two cases of intellectualized resistance against hypnosis IX. Facilitating New Identity
50. Psychological shocks and creative moments in psychotherapy
51. Facilitating a new cosmetic frame of reference
52. The ugly duckling: Transforming the self-image
53. A shocking breakout of a mother domination
54. Shock and surprise facilitating a new self-image
55. Correcting an inferiority complex
56. The hypnotherapy of two psychosomatic dental problems
57. The identification of a secure reality
58. The hypnotic corrective emotional experience
59. The February man: Facilitating new identity in hypnotherapy

Horowitz, Mardi J. (1979). States of mind: Analysis of change in psychotherapy. New York NY: Plenum Medical Book Company. (Also published in London, England)

Provides a configurational analysis approach to describe problems, resources, and processes of change in psychotherapy. Uses psychoanalytic (ego psychology) model “that emphasizes information processing and the structural aspects of self and object representations” (p. ix). The book provides methods for evaluating treatment outcome using increasingly precise ways of observing clinical material. As an example of how the author writes about states of mind, consider that “One could subject Hamlet to a description of his recurrent states of ambivalence, paralysis of action, deadly decisiveness, and pretense of gaiety or of madness; one could describe his various self-images and core models of role relationship, and explain his changes in state by the ways in which he processed information. Similarly, in a psycho-history one could plot the states, images, and information-processing styles of a person whose decisions interacted with important events” (pp. x-xi).
Spanos, Nicholas P.; Steggles, Shawn; Radtke-Bodorik, H. Lorraine; Rivers, Stephen M. (1979). Nonanalytic attending, hypnotic susceptibility, and psychological well-being in trained meditators and nonmeditators. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (1), 85-87.
Four groups of trained meditators differing in amount of meditation practice and a group of nonmeditators attended nonanalytically to a mantra in two meditation sessions. Subjects signaled intrusions into their attending, and were also assessed on several person variables. The four trained meditator groups differed from one another only in terms of self-esteem. When combined into a single group, meditators signaled fewer intrusions and reported “deeper” levels of meditating than nonmeditators. However, meditators and nonmeditators did not differ on hypnotic susceptibility, absorption, or indices of psychopathology.

Fisher, S. (1963). Body image and hypnotic response. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 152-162.
This study had 2 principal objectives: (a) To test the hypothesis that hypnotizability is negatively related to the definiteness of the individual”s body image boundary, as measured by barrier and penetration scores derived from the Rorschach. (b) To ascertain what body image experiences are characteristic of the hypnotic state. Hypnotizability was evaluated with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. In the male group only, hypnotizability was negatively correlated with boundary definiteness. Depersonalization proved to be the most characteristic body image change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Mellenbruch, P. L. (1962). The validity of a personality inventory tested by hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5 (2), 111-114. (In Psychological Abstracts: 63, 5234)

The authors found that administration of the California Test of Personality in the waking and hypnotized state resulted in subjects describing themselves in a better light in the waking state than in the hypnosis condition. The differences were especially noted on the following scales: Self Reliance, Feeling of Belonging, Family Relations, and Occupation Relations. The scales least subject to distortion (in sense of presenting a good image) in waking state are Sense of Personal Worth and Freedom from Anti-Social Tendencies. J. Holroyd
Sutcliffe, J. P.; Jones, J. (1962). Personal identity, multiple personality, and hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10, 231-269. (Abstracted in Index Medicus, 63, Mar., S -543)
The concept of multiple personality is critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: as a diagnostic fashion, as a product of shaping in therapy, as a product of hypnotic suggestion, as simulation, and as an extension of characteristics found in “normal” personalities. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant alterations of personality characterizing the syndromes are loss of self-reference memories, and confusions and delusions about particular identity in time and place. The parallels in multiple personality and hypnotic phenomena lead to the heuristic hypothesis that degrees of proneness to multiple personality are predictive of degrees of hypnotizability. (76 item bibliogr.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)


Kohen, Daniel (1996). Relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis) for childhood asthma: Behavioral outcomes in a prospective, controlled study. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24 (1), 12-28.

Twenty-eight 7-12-year-old children entered a controlled study of the effects of self-hypnosis on asthma. Asthma belief and behavioral inventories were collected before, and at one and two years after intervention. Asthma diaries were kept daily and mailed monthly. Subjects were randomly assigned to (a) experimental (self- hypnosis), (b) waking suggestion (no hypnosis), (c) attention placebo (no hypnosis or asthma discussion), or (d) traditional control groups. Twenty-four completed one-month follow-up, 16 completed six months, and 13 completed two years. Results included: (a) fewer emergency room visits in the experimental group (p<0.05); (b)less school missed in the experimental group compared to the traditional control group (p<0.001) and to the waking suggestion group (p<0.005); (c) no differences in psychological evaluations between groups; and (d) surprising findings regarding hypnotic and hypnotic-like experiences among subjects. 1995 Olness, Karen N.; Lee, Lai (1995, November). Effects of self-induced mental imagery on autonomic reactivity in children. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX. NOTES One study that shows an IgA increase with hypnotic suggestion has been replicated and is in press. The present study emerges from work using hypnosis with biofeedback. Morgan's work with athletes has suggested the relationship between imagery and physiological activation. This has been observed clinically but not heretofore documented. We are not using formal hypnosis. Each child was asked to think about being in a quiet place, doing exciting activities, baseline, etc. The children exhibited no neurological disorders, cognitive dysfunction, nor were they on medications at time of the study. We confirmed our clinical experience: there was an increase in pulse rate when imagery changed to activity. Skin temperature continued to go up during the period (despite imagery of being active like being on roller coaster). Skin conduction went down during baseline. EDA [electro dermal activities] was higher during active imagery. How do average daily thinking processes impact on autonomic changes over long periods of time? Do these changes affect cardiovascular status? Clinically we observed that some children are more labile in different modalities, and under stress they react more in that system. 1994 Amigo, Salvador (1994, August). New approach to self-regulation therapy--treatment strategies. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles. NOTES Training programs demonstrate that hypnotisability can be improved. Use individualized treatment programs. Cognitive behavioural treatment can be improved by hypnotic suggestions. Emphasis is on alertness and relaxation, not sleepiness; on conversation with the clinician rather than just listening. Emotional self regulation is the procedure studied most. They used three phases: Phase 1: Sensory recall exercises (smell, taste, heaviness provoked by lifting a book). Phase 2: Reproduce sensations (hand stiffness, smell) without therapist stimulus. Phase 3: Generalization. Any demand generates the suggested effects. (Tell Subject his brain is very activated, that he can respond without training. Give therapeutic suggestions.) Case of nicotine addiction presented. Stanton, Harry E. (1994). Self-hypnosis: One path to reduced test anxiety. Contemporary Hypnosis, 11, 14-18. Describes a self-hypnosis technique and its efficacy in reducing test anxiety. Forty high school students were matched on sex and anxiety scores and randomly allocated to an experimental group (receiving two 50-minute sessions, a week apart, to learn the self-hypnosis technique), and a control group (receiving two 50-minute sessions focused on ways of reducing test anxiety). Students were retested after the two sessions, and 6 months later. Results showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores only for the hypnosis group, which was maintained at 6-month follow-up. 1993 Page, Roger A.; Handley, George W. (1993). The use of hypnosis in cocaine addiction. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36, 120-123 An unusual case is presented in which hypnosis was successfully used to overcome a $50-0 (five grams) per day cocaine addiction. The subject was a female in her twenties. Six months into her addiction, she acquired a commercial weight-control tape that she used successfully to stop smoking cigarettes (mentally substituting the word "smoking"), as well as to bring her down from her cocaine high and allow her to fall asleep. After approximately 8 months of addiction, she decided to use the tape in an attempt to overcome the addiction itself. Over the next 4 months, she listened to the tape three times a day, mentally substituting the word "coke." At the end of this period, her addiction was broken, and she has been drug free for the past 9 years. Her withdrawal and recovery were extraordinary because hypnosis was the only intervention, and no support network of any kind was available. Spiegel, David; Frischholz, Edward J.; Fleiss, Joseph L.; Spiegel, Herbert (1993). Predictors of smoking abstinence following a single-session restructuring intervention with self hypnosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1090-1097. Examined the relation of smoking and medical history, social support, and hypnotizability to outcome with Spiegel's smoking-cessation program. A consecutive series of 226 smokers were treated with the single-session approach and followed up for 2 years. With a total abstinence criterion, 52% success was found after 1 week, and 23% abstinence at 2 years. Hypnotizability and having been previously able to quit smoking for at least a month significantly predicted the initiation of abstinence. Hypnotizability and living with a significant other person predicted 2-year maintenance. The results are superior to those of spontaneous efforts to stop smoking and suggest it is possible to predict which patients are most likely to respond and which patients are least likely to respond to such a brief intervention. 1992 Kostka, Marion (1992). Personal experience with 'Use of Hypnosis Before and During Angioplasty' [Letter]. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 34, 281-282. NOTES Author read the article referred to after his/her heart attack and before angioplasty. Goal was to control preprocedure anxiety and assist by being relaxed and cooperative; also to be able to tolerate inflations of the balloon for as long as needed. Used self-hypnosis "and by the time I entered the laboratory my anxiety was under control. ... None of the physiological responses that can occur (i.e., nausea, pain, etc.) did occur and, for the most part, my postprocedure recovery was uneventful. ... Had two procedures because the artery again occluded. ... My cardiologist commented later that the time of inflation was longer than he had even attempted with any of his patients and he attributed this to my lack of symptoms. I felt this was due in part to the use of self- hypnosis. .... my subjective feeling was that both my discomfort and anxiety were minimal" (Pp. 281-82). No blood was sampled to measure catecholamine levels. Mittleman, K. D.; Doubt, T. J.; Gravitz, Melvin A. (1992). Influence of self-induced hypnosis on thermal responses during immersion in 25 degrees C water. Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine, 63, 689-695. The efficacy of self-induced posthypnotic suggestion to improve thermogenic responses to head-out immersion in 25 degrees C water was evaluated in 12 males. An online computerized system permitted the change in body heat storage to be used as the independent variable and immersion time as the dependent variable. Two one- hour hypnotic training sessions were used. There were no differences in rates of heat production, heat loss, mean skin temperature, or rectal temperature between control and hypnotic immersions. Individual hypnotic susceptibility scores did not correlation with changes in thermal status. Ratings of perceived exertion during exercise were similar for both immersions, but perceived sensation of cold was lower during the second rest period of the hypnotic immersion. Three subjects used images of warm environments during their hypnotic immersion and lost heat at a faster rate than during control immersions. These results indicate that brief hypnotic training did not enhance the thermogenic response to cool water immersion. Stanton, Harry E. (1992). Brief therapy and the diagnostic trance: Three case studies. Contemporary Hypnosis, 9, 130-135. NOTES He reviews very brief hypnotherapy, then writes, "A systematic way of encouraging people in the use of their inner resources to solve problems, the 'diagnostic trance', has been outlined by Havens and Walters (1989). People sit quietly, eyes closed, physically relaxed, concentrating upon the unpleasant sensations or feelings associated with their problem. By turning inward in order to focus upon these internal events, they tend to drift into a trance state. "While mentally observing these unpleasant sensations, they describe, in a somewhat detached manner, the thoughts and images which are present in their minds. They make no effort to control these in any way, simply allowing associated memories to surface quite spontaneously. Usually they reveal a pattern of thinking, a series of images, or even a specific memory which is creating the problem. Sometimes these are in the form of visual images of previously forgotten incidents, usually of a traumatic nature. On other occasions thy may take the form of a voice repeating a particular negative statement. "Once people have been able to identify the source or sources of their unpleasant feelings, they attempt to find a thought or image which is sufficiently powerful to remove or displace the negative material. On many occasions, people find that they have the inner resources needed to solve their problem but, until given the opportunity provided by the diagnostic trance, they were unaware that they possessed these resources. However, the diagnostic trance procedure appears to encourage the spontaneous emergence of creative solutions" (p. 131). Of the 103 patients with whom he used the procedure, "approximately 70% reported that it had helped them resolve the specific problem for which they had sought therapeutic assistance. ... In addition to being effective, the diagnostic trance is enjoyable, even when used to process past experience of an unpleasant nature. In its simplicity lies its strength. Patients find it easy to learn and, once they have gained confidence in its value as a problem-solving tool, often teach it to family members and friends" (p. 134). 1991 Brown, Jason W. (1991). Self and process: Brain states and the conscious present. New York: Springer-Verlag. NOTES Author, from the Department of Neurology at New York University Medical School, presents a theory about the genetic unfolding of mental content (mind) through stages, from mental state into consciousness or into behavior. He relates the genesis of mind to brain development but avoids assuming that there is a straightforward correlation between brain development (e.g. myelination) and cognitive development or perception. To some degree, the theory is based on subjective report data and psychological symptoms. The author discusses issues that bear on the phenomena of nonvoluntary responding and dissociation that are reported or described by hypnotized persons. "The nature of the mental state will determine the relation between self and world, and thus the interpretation given to agency and choice. ... The crossing of the boundary from self to world is a shift from one level in mind to another" (pp. 10-11). "... if we begin with mind as primary and seek to explain objects from inner states and private experience, the discontinuity between inner and outer evaporates: mind is everywhere, a universe. ... Whereas before we thought to perceive objects, now we understand that we think them" (p. 19). "The concept of a stratified cognition is central to the notion of a mental state .... This entails an unfolding from depth to surface, not from one surface to the next, a direction crucial to agency and the causal or decisional properties of consciousness" (p. 52). By unfolding from depth to surface, he means from Core, through Subconscious, then Conscious Private Events, and finally Extra-Personal Space. He goes on to provide a definition of mental states. "A mental state is the minimal state of a mind, an absolute unit from the standpoint of its spatial and temporal structure. ... The state also has to include the prehistory of the organism. ... The concept of a mental state implies a fundamental unit that has gestalt-like properties, in that specific contents-- words, thoughts, percepts--appear in the context of mind as a whole (p. 53). "The entire multitiered system arborizes like a tree, with levels in each component linked to corresponding levels in other components. For example, an early (e.g., limbic) state in language (e.g., word meaning) is linked to an early stage in action (e.g., drive, proximal motility) and perception (e.g., hallucination, personal memory) .... In sum, a description of the spatial and temporal features of a _single_ unfolding series amounts to a description of the minimal unit of mind, the _absolute_ mental state" (p. 54). The author's discussion of an individual's physical movement relates to the concept of nonvoluntary movement (or movement without awareness of volition) in hypnosis. "More precisely, levels in the brain state constitute the action structure. As it unfolds, this structure generates the conviction that a self-initiated act has occurred. This structure--the action representation--does not elaborate content in consciousness. ... As with the sensory-perceptual interface, the transition to movement occurs across an abrupt boundary. In some manner, perhaps through a translation of cognitive rhythms in the action to kinetic patterns in the movement, levels in the emerging act discharge into motor (physical) events" (p. 57). "The self has the nature of a global image or early representation within which objects-to-be are embedded. ... The self is the accumulation of all the momentary cognitions developing in a brain configured by heredity and experience in a particular way (p. 70). "The deposition of a holistic representation ... creates the deception of a self that stands behind and propagates events. The feeling of the self as an agent is reinforced by the forward thrust of the process and the deeper locus of the self in relation to surface objects. The self appears to be an instigator of acts and images when in fact it is given up in their formation. The self does not cause or initiate, it only anticipates (p. 70). The foregoing notes cover only the first five chapters, less than half the book. Other chapters relevant to hypnosis would be those titled 'The Nature of Voluntary Action,' 'Psychology of Time Awareness,' 'From Will to Compassion,' and 'Mind and Brain.' Stanton, Harry E. (1991). The reduction in secretarial stress. Contemporary Hypnosis, 8, 45-50. 30 secretaries from a large business firm were matched on their stress thermometer scores and one member of each pair was allocated at random to either an experimental group or a control group which discussed stress management procedures. The experimental group had two treatment sessions in which they learnt a technique of induction, deepening and ego-enhancement which included (1) physical relaxation; (2) mental calmness; (3) disposal of unwanted mental and physical 'rubbish'; (4) removal of a negative barrier; and (5) enjoyment of a special place. The stress thermometer was administered on two further occasions, one immediately after completion of the second training session and one as a follow-up 2 months later. In addition, on these two occasions, subjects completed anecdotal reports, recording their impressions of the experiment. After completion of this first stage of the study, control group secretaries experienced the same two treatment sessions as had the experimental group. Results indicated that stress level was significantly lower both immediately after treatment and at the two-month follow-up. 1990 Fromm, Erika; Kahn, Stephen (1990). Self-hypnosis: The Chicago paradigm. New York: Guilford Press. NOTES In addition to extensive research on self hypnosis, this book refers to a number of clinical investigations that involved self hypnosis with patients, as at least part of the treatment protocol: 1. J. R. Hilgard & LeBaron (1984) 34 patients, ages 4-1, with cancer pain 2. Spinhoven (1989) headache control; low back pain 3. Wakeman (1988) 50 patients with third degree burns (helping half of them to return to work in high temperature environments) 4. Katz, Kellerman, & Ellenberg - 36 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who needed to undergo bone marrow aspirations 5. Spiegel & Bloom (1983) - 54 women with metastasized carcinoma of the breast 6. Wark (1988) improving reading comprehension - 7 students 7. Aronson (1986) adolescent psychiatric inpatients 8. Swirsky-Sacchetti & Margolis (1986) severe hemophiliacs, reducing Factor VIII (the coagulant deficiency of hemophilia A) 9. Kohen, Olness, Colwell, & Heimel (1984) - 505 pediatric patients with a variety of problems (enuresis, pain, obesity, anxiety reactions, habit problems, encopresis, headache, fear of pelvic examinations) 10. Anderson, Basker, & Dalton (1975) - migraine patients 11. Hammond, Watkins-Bartch, Grant, & McGhee (1988) compared self-directed and tape-assisted self-hypnosis in 48 Ss Plus many papers with single cases or just a few cases. Lombard, Lisa S.; Kahn, Stephen P.; Fromm, Erika (1990). The role of imagery in self-hypnosis: Its relationship to personality characteristics and gender. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38 (1), 25-38. 30 volunteer Ss practiced self-hypnosis for approximately 4 weeks and wrote a record of their experiences in a diary following each session. Imagery produced during self-hypnosis was coded in 2 ways: the imagery was either reality oriented or it was fantastic and had primary process qualities. Levels of imagery production remained virtually the same over a 4-week period. Self-hypnotic imagery was significantly greater for the female Ss than for the male Ss, particularly primary process imagery. Verbal expressivity (measured as the average number of words per page of each S diary) was calculated to control for the effects of verbal production on Ss' imagery scores. When imagery scores were standardized based on verbal expressivity, female Ss still produced significantly more primary process imagery than male Ss. Personality characteristics (assessed by standardized personality inventories) were examined in relation to self- hypnotic imagery. "Impulse Expression" was positively related to primary process imagery for the female Ss. "Outgoingness" was positively related to primary process imagery for the entire sample, but especially for the female Ss. Spanos, Nicholas P.; Williams, Victoria; Gwynn, Maxwell I. (1990). Effects of hypnotic, placebo, and salicylic acid treatments on wart regression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 109-114. Subjects with warts on their hands and/or feet were randomly assigned to a hypnotic suggestion, topical salicylic acid, placebo, or no treatment control condition. Subjects in the three treated groups developed equivalent expectations of treatment success. Nevertheless, at the six-week follow-up interval only the hypnotic subjects had lost significantly more warts than the no treatment controls. Theoretical implications are discussed. NOTES Study involved 15 females, 25 males (18-35 yrs old) with warts on at least one hand or foot, recruited through posters and newspaper ads; N = 10 in each condition. Hypnotic treatment consisted of 10 minute induction (modified from T. X. Barber's 1969 book) and a suggestion for wart regression that was 2 minutes in duration (the skin around warts was 'beginning to tingle and grow warm'; 'vividly imagine the warts shrinking and dissolving away'; 30 second break; repeated the suggestions). For Ss with warts on more than one limb the complete suggestion procedure was repeated for each wart-infected limb. Results indicate psychological factors can influence course of some virally produced disorders; that self-medicating with over-the-counter products doesn't explain suggestion-induced wart regression; that expectation of treatment success is the most important variable in psychologically induced wart regression. "Hypnotic subjects attained significantly higher CURSS:S scores than did control subjects. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that between group differences in hypnotizability accounted for the group differences in wart regression. Two previous experiments (3) that used the CURSS found that hypnotizability failed to predict wart loss in either hypnotic suggestion, nonhypnotic suggestion, or placebo treatments, and even in the present study the hypnotic treatment failed to differ from either the real or placebo treatment on CURSS:S scores, and none of the treatments differed significantly on the CURSS:O scores. Our finding and earlier findings that hypnotic subjects reported more intense suggested sensations than placebo subjects is consistent with the hypothesis that vivid suggested imagery facilitates wart loss (7, 8) . "An alternative hypothesis emphasizes that only our hypnotic suggestion treatment encouraged subjects to see themselves as developing cognitive control over their own wart regression. This hypothesis suggests that subjects' subjective sense of cognitive involvement in and control over treatment outcome (as opposed to the vividness of their suggested imagery) may have been the important psychological factor in wart regression. It would be of interest in a future study to manipulate subjects' sense of cognitive involvement in their treatment independently of suggested imagery in order to assess the relative contributions of these variables to wart regression" (pp. 113-114). Spiegel, David; Cardena, Etzel (1990, October). New uses of hypnosis in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Supplement), 51, 39-43. Vietnam veterans with PTSD and those abused as children have above average hypnotizability. Hypnosis provides controlled access to memories that may otherwise be kept out of consciousness. New uses of hypnosis with PTSD victims involve coupling access to the dissociated traumatic memories with positive restructuring of those memories. Hypnosis can be used to help patients face and bear a traumatic experience by embedding it in a new context, acknowledging helplessness during the event, and yet linking that experience with remoralizing memories, such as efforts at self-protection, shared affection with friends who were killed, or the ability to control the environment at other times. In this way, hypnosis can be used to provide controlled access to memories that are then placed into a broader perspective. Patients can be taught self-hypnosis techniques that allow them to work through and thereby reduce spontaneous, unbidden, intrusive recollections. 1989 Grant, Guy (1989, June). An investigation of hypnotic susceptibility in self-hypnosis and imagery (Dissertation, University of Utah). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (12), 5517-5518-B. NOTES "There were two phases in the study. In Phase One hypnotic susceptibility scores were assessed for 43 graduate student subjects by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (HGSHS:A). In addition, the Self-Hypnosis Research Questionnaire (an experimental scale) provided performance scores for subjects under three hypnosis conditions: heterohypnosis, self-directed self-hypnosis, and tape-assisted self-hypnosis. The first purpose in Phase One was to calculate correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and each of the hypnosis conditions. The second purpose was to determine if there were significant differences across the three types of hypnosis. The third purpose was to discover if any existing differences were dependent on level (e.g., low, medium, or high) of hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis of the data yielded significant correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and (a) heterohypnosis, (b) self-directed self- hypnosis, and (c) tape-assisted self-hypnosis. There were significant performance differences across the three hypnosis conditions with heterohypnosis being somewhat superior to tape-assisted self-hypnosis, and tape-assisted self-hypnosis being slightly superior to self-directed self-hypnosis. This relationship held true regardless of level of hypnotic susceptibility (e.g., low, medium, and high). "In Phase Two, 49 graduate student subjects were administered the shortened form of the Betts' Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery (QMI) as well as the HGSHS:A, and to determine if mental imagery is an important component of hypnotic susceptibility. Analysis yielded a significant correlation between the two measures. "Based on the current data, it was concluded that the HGSHS:A had some utility for predicting performance in hypnosis. It was noted that, as compared with self-hypnosis, heterohypnosis provided the greatest chance of eliciting a positive hypnotic response from subjects not trained or experienced in hypnosis. It was also concluded that the QMI was correlated with and had some utility for predicting performance on the HGSHS:A. It had difficulty, however, differentiating between low and medium hypnotizability" (pp. 5517- 5518). Kahn, Stephen P.; Fromm, Erika; Lombard, Lisa S.; Sossi, Michael (1989). The relation of self-reports of hypnotic depth in self-hypnosis to hypnotizability and imagery production. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 290-304. Studied multidimensional nature of self-hypnotic depth in 22 high hypnotizables who volunteered for self hypnosis research. On personality scales, they were distinguished from the population at large by: strong theoretical orientation, high level of curiosity, disregard for opinions of others, and high Mf scale on the MMPI. Used the Stanford Profile Scale, SHSS:C and HGSHS:A, which measure the entire range of phenomena ordinarily used in experimental studies of hypnosis, including ideomotor phenomena, hypnotic fantasy and dreams, hypermnesias and age regressions, analgesias, negative and positive hallucinations, amnesias, posthypnotic phenomena, and cognitive and affective distortions. They asked Subjects to experience self hypnosis for 60 minutes/day for 4 weeks. Journals were coded for imagery production by scoring for both reality-oriented and primary process imagery. Subject had been taught to monitor their hypnotic depth using a slightly revised version of the Extended North Carolina Scale (ENCS) of Tart (1979). Previously, ENCS has been used only with hetero-hypnotic Subjects. The self- reports of depth using ENCS correlated highly with hypnotizability as measured by the Revised Stanford Profile Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility... and with imagery production. Results demonstrate that ENCS scores are also a valid indicator of self-hypnotic depth among highly hypnotizable Subjects. Furthermore, they indicate that both hetero- hypnotizability and imagery production are related to self-hypnotic depth, but that the association between imagery and hypnotizability is due to their individual relationships to self-hypnotic depth. Kunzendorf, Robert G. (1989-90). Posthypnotic amnesia: Dissociation of self-concept or self-consciousness?. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 321-334. Two studies of posthypnotic amnesia tested predictions derived from the 'source' monitoring theory of self-consciousness. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that posthypnotic source amnesia is irreversible, because hypnosis attenuates self- consciousness of whether one's sensations have an imaginal source or a perceptual source. In this initial study, recall amnesia was reversed by posthypnotic cueing with a prearranged signal, but source amnesia was not reversed by such cueing. Experiment 2 examined whether the cued reversal of recall amnesia is attributable, in part, to the hypnotic attenuation of self-conscious 'source monitoring' and, in part, to the reversal of recall criteria: from a criterion rejecting 'seemingly imaginary' or 'sourceless' memories, to a criterion accepting 'sourceless but familiar' memories. In this latter study, posthypnotic recall amnesia was breached when subjects were instructed to trust their seemingly imaginary memories, but not when they were instructed to try harder to remember [emphasis removed from quoted text]. Meyer, H. K.; Diehl, B. J.; Ulrich, P. T.; Meinig, G. (1989). Changes in regional cortical blood flow in hypnosis. Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse, 35, 48-58. NOTES Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by means of the 133-Xenon inhalation method in 12 healthy male volunteers who had several months of experience in doing self-hypnosis (autogenic training). During hypnotically suggested right arm levitation, as compared to resting conditions, they found an increase in cortical blood flow and an activation of temporal areas; the latter finding was considered to reflect acoustical attention. In addition, a so-far-unexplained deactivation of inferior temporal areas was observed during successful self hypnosis and hypnosis. While there was a global absolute increase of cortical blood flow bilaterally, they could not observe a relative increase of the right as compared to the left hemisphere during hypnosis. Several subjects successfully performed the levitation of the right arm, despite a relative left hemispheric activation, provided the absolute right hemispheric activation remained dominant. Moss, Barry F.; Magaro, Peter A. (1989). Personality types and hetero- versus auto-hypnosis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 532-538. The Multivariate Personality Inventory (MPI; Magaro & Smith, 1981), the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and the Inventory of Self-Hypnosis (ISH; Shor, 1970) were used to investigate the relationship between personality style and hypnotic procedure in the determination of hypnotic susceptibility. On the basis of MPI scores, a normal college population was segregated into 5 personality styles: hysteric, manic, depressive, character disorder, and compulsive. The hysteric personality was found significantly more hypnotizable than the other personality types in the HGSHS induction context, whereas the compulsive personality was found significant more hypnotizability in the ISH induction context. Results are discussed in terms of personality and situational factors in relation to previous hypnotic susceptibility research. Soskis, D. A.; Orne, E. C.; Orne, M. T.; Dinges, D. F. (1989). Self-hypnosis and meditation for stress management: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 285-289. In a 6-month follow-up study, telephone interviews were conducted with 31 male executives who were taught either a self-hypnosis or meditation exercise as part of a stress-management program. Use of and problems with the 2 exercises were similar, with the percentage of Ss using the techniques falling over 6 months from 90% to 42%. The exercises were used primarily for physical relaxation, refreshing mental interludes, aiding sleep onset, and stress-reduction. Problems with the exercises chiefly involved difficulty in scheduling even brief uninterrupted practice times and discomfort with the techniques. The incorporation of these issues into the clinical teaching of self-hypnosis may be useful. Spiegel, David; Bloom, J. R.; Kraemer, H. C.; Gottheil, E. (1989, October 14). The beneficial effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of metastatic breast cancer patients: A randomized prospective outcome study. Lancet, 888-891. The effect of psychosocial intervention on time of survival of 86 metastatic breast cancer patients was studied using randomized prospective design. The one-year treatment consisted of weekly supportive group therapy with training in self-hypnosis for pain management, and resulted in significant reductions in mood disturbance and pain. Both the treatment and control groups had routine oncologic care. At ten-year follow-up, only three of the original 86 patients were still alive, and death records were obtained for the other 83. Survival from the time of randomization and onset of intervention was 36.6 (sd = 37.6) months for the treatment group, compared with 18.9 (sd = 10.8) months for the control group, and this difference was highly significant (Z = 3.94, p <.0001) using the Cox life table regression model. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the divergence in survival began at 20 months after entry into the study, or 8 months after the treatment intervention ended. These unexpected findings suggest that intensive psychosocial support affects the course of the illness, although the mechanism by which it does so is not clear. Spinhoven, Philip; Linssen, A. Corry (1989). Education and self-hypnosis in the management of low back pain: A component analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 145-153. Conducted a component analysis of a group program for chronic low back pain patients. 45 patients (aged 31-68 years) participated in the pain control course (PCC), consisting of education about pain and a training in self-hypnosis. A pain diary was used as a measure of pain intensity, up-time, and use of pain medication. Psychoneuroticism and depression were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL- 90) scores. No evidence was found for a differential efficacy of education or self-hypnosis on pain diary and SCL-90 scores. Subjects showed significant changes on all measures except reported pain intensity. It is suggested that the PCC is a noninvasive, inexpensive means of treatment that could be used to teach even more severely disabled low back pain patients to cope more adequately with their pain problem. 1988 Hammond, D. Corydon; Haskins-Bartsch, Catherine; Grant, Claude W.; McGhee, Melanie (1988). Comparison of self-directed and tape-assisted self-hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 129-137. Previous research on self-hypnosis has concentrated on the relationship between heterohypnosis and either self-directed self-hypnosis or self-initiated self- hypnosis. Despite widespread use of audiotapes to assist the process of self-hypnosis, no previous research has compared tape-assisted and self-directed self-hypnosis. Forty-eight inexperienced volunteers were hypnotized and taught self-hypnosis by posthypnotic suggestion and immediate practice in the office. They were randomly assigned to one of two experimental orders to practice self-directed and tape-assisted self-hypnosis. No differences were found between heterohypnosis or either type of self-hypnosis in response to behavioral suggestions. Experiential ratings, however, consistently favored heterohypnosis over either type of self-hypnosis. Tape-assisted self-hypnosis was consistently evaluated as superior to self-directed practice by newly trained subjects. NOTES The tapes were more or less identical with the in-office hypnosis, including voice of the hypnotist, except that those doing self-directed self hypnosis received a posthypnotic suggestion for how to enter hypnosis by themselves. (All Subjects received written instructions to remind them about the procedures for home practice.) When self hypnosis was evaluated, use of a tape produced greater concentration and absorption, less distraction, greater subjective depth, greater perception of nonvoluntary response to suggestion, and more changes in body perception (e.g. loss of awareness of the body, feelings of heaviness or of floating). Therefore, the tape-assisted experience could be viewed as more convincing to the Subjects. People tended to fall asleep more when they did self-directed self hypnosis than when they used a tape. However, people enjoyed heterohypnosis more than either self hypnosis experience, and reported more nonvoluntary experiences. The more positive response to heterohypnosis replicates research by Johnson et al. (1983)., in which preceding self-hypnosis by a heterohypnosis induction may results in less positive experiences with the self-directed self hypnosis. In their Discussion, the authors note that finding no differences between self hypnosis and heterohypnosis in the number of behavioral suggestions successfully passed replicates earlier research (Shor & Easton, 1973; Ruch, 1975; Johnson, 1979; Johnson, Dawson, Clark, & Sikorsky, 1983). "Thus, our present study has replicated previous findings concerning the relationship of heterohypnosis and self-directed self-hypnosis. In clinical practice, it appears that a heterohypnosis experience virtually always precedes training in self- hypnosis. Our findings and those of the Johnson (1983) study suggest, however, that generally patients will experience self-hypnosis as significantly less powerful than their previous office experience. But, by using a tape to assist the patient in initial practice, the discrepancy between the quality of the experiences appears reduced. It should be noted that Johnson et al. (1983) provide the innovative suggestion that there may be something gained by having self-hypnotic instruction and practice precede a hypnotic experience by a therapist. Initial self-hypnotic experience may create a mental set of being more actively involved" (p. 136). "However, we know nothing about how tape-assisted vs self-directed experiences are perceived by Ss with more self-hypnotic and heterohypnotic experience, and particularly if they are utilizing the same tape recording(s) over and over again. Other research (Hammond, 1987) recently followed up premenstrual syndrome patients who were trained in self-hypnosis. In this study, patients showed a clear preference for using tapes to assist them in self-hypnosis shortly after initial training. However, on 6-month follow-up, patients were found to be utilizing self-directed self-hypnosis much more frequently than tapes, with which they may have become somewhat bored. The issue of boredom has thus far not been adequately addressed in the self-hypnosis literature" (p. 136). Ringrose, Douglas (1988, November). Use of self hypnosis and adjunctive therapy to manage phobic anxiety states. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Asheville, NC. self studying self hypnosis 1987 Meyer, von H. K.; Diehl, B. J. M.; Ulrich, P.; Meinig, G. (1987). Kurz- und langfristige Anderungen der kortikalen Durchblutung bei Autogenem Training[Short and long-term changes in cortical circulation caused by autogenic training]. Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse, 33 (1), 52-62.