Zwolf gesunde junge Manner, die seit mindestens einem halben Jahr Autogenes Training praktizierten, wurden mit der 133-Xenon-Methode untersucht. Dem Muster der kortikalen Ruhedurchblutung fehlte die aus der Literatur bekannte Hyperfrontalitat, was auf eine langfristig durch Ubung verminderte Aktivation hinweisen konnte. Fur gut realisiertes Autogenes Training wurden einerseits Bereiche des Homunkulus (pra- und postrolandische Zentralwindung) aktiviert und andererseits Regionen desakuviert, die mit akustischer Aufmerksamkeit und autonomen Funktionen verknupft sind. Die niedrige linkshemispharische Durchblutung in Ruhe und die relative Aktivierung der linken Hemisphare unter Autogenem Training werden diskutiert.

English Summary.
The well-known hyperfrontal pattern of hemispheric blood flow measured with 133-Xenon is not found in 12 healthy resting men who have been practicing Autogenic Training at least six months. This might indicate a long-term decrease in the level of activation. Successfully practiced exercises of Autogenic Training lead to an increased blood flow in the Rolandic area representing the body scem (sic) and to a decreased blood flow in regions related to acoustical attention and to autonomic functions. Left hemispheric cerebral blood flow is lower in rest. The relative activation of the left hemisphere during Autogenic Training is discussed.


Aronson, David M. (1986). The adolescent as hypnotist: Hypnosis and self-hypnosis with adolescent psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 28 (3), 163-169.

This paper describes the theoretical rationale, pragmatic implementation issues, and procedure for a particular technique of clinical hypnosis which is designed as an adjunctive therapy within a multidisciplinary adolescent inpatient treatment program. A model of combined auto- and heterohypnosis which features collaborative production of audiocassettes is presented. Advantages and indications for this technique are discussed, and a case study is presented. – Journal Abstract

Markus, Hazel; Nurius, Paula (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41 (9), 954-969.

The concept of possible selves is introduced to complement current conceptions of self-knowledge. Possible selves represent individuals’ ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming, and thus provide a conceptual link between cognition and motivation. Possible selves are the cognitive components of hopes, fears, goals, and threats, and they give the specific self- relevant form, meaning, organization, and direction to these dynamics. Possible selves are important, first, because they function as incentives for future behavior (i.e., they are selves to be approached or avoided) and second, because they provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self. A discussion of the nature and function of possible selves is followed by an exploration of their role in addressing several persistent problems, including the stability and malleability of the self, the unity of the self, self- distortion, and the relationship between the self-concept and behavior

McConkey, Kevin M. (1986). Opinions about hypnosis and self-hypnosis before and after hypnotic testing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 311-319.

Before hypnotic testing, Ss completed a questionnaire on their opinions about hypnosis and self-hypnosis Approximately 1 week later, they completed a similar questionnaire that included questions about their experiences of hypnotic testing. Data are presented concerning Ss’ agreement with statements about hypnosis and self-hypnosis. Findings are discussed in terms of their generality and in terms of whether Ss’ opinions are consistent with scientific evidence.

Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas; Margolis, Clorinda G. (1986). The effects of a comprehensive self-hypnosis training program on the use of factor VIII in severe hemophilia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 71-83.

Hemophilia, the bleeder’s disease, is characterized by internal bleeding episodes which have been associated anecdotally with psychological stress. The focus of the present investigation was to study the potential utility of a comprehensive self- hypnosis training program to decrease stress and to assess the amount of clotting factor used for bleeding by those individuals trained in self-hypnosis compared to a control group. 30 severe hemophiliacs on home therapy were randomly assigned to a treatment or to a waiting list control group. The treatment group received a comprehensive 6-week training program including support, education, deep relaxation, and self-hypnosis. Over the 18-week follow-up, the treatment group significantly reduced the amount of factor concentrate used to control bleeding in comparison to controls. The treatment group also significantly reduced general distress level as measured by a symptom checklist. The training was extremely cost effective, and the results support the efficacy of this comprehensive training program to augment the medical management of severe hemophiliacs on a home therapy regimen.

The authors begin with a discussion of the importance of being able to reduce the amount of blood factor concentrate required by hemophiliacs, including the problems of obtaining uncontaminated blood in an era of HTLV-III and LAV contamination and the fact that some patients with Hemophilia A have developed antibodies to Factor VIII (so- called inhibitor patients). When an inhibitor patient hemorrhages, it is potentially life- threatening. Earlier controlled clinical research by LaBaw (1975) indicated that hypnosis might be useful for decreasing blood usage. The current study builds upon that research and adds further control procedures.
The hypotheses of this study were: “(a) hemophiliacs who received the comprehensive training program including self- hypnosis along with education, support, and relaxation for stress management would significantly reduce the amount of factor concentrate used to control spontaneous bleeding in comparison to randomly assigned waiting list controls; (b) the general distress level, as measured by the SCL-90 (Derogatis, 1977), would significantly decrease for the treatment group from pretraining to follow-up; and (c) hypnotizability as measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. C. Orne (1962) would show a positive correlation with the treatment effect” (p. 74).
The Subjects were patients of a hematologically severe status (less than 1% clotting factor present in the blood); ages 11-50, mean age 30; normally distributed on socioeconomic variables; and prescreened to rule out serious psychological dysfunction. The treatment and control groups did not differ in SES or pretest bleeding severity. Control Ss were informed that they would receive the same training after the initial follow- up period. Three Ss were lost from the treatment group because they did not complete the 6 weekly self-hypnosis training sessions, and three from the control group due to geographic move or decision to obtain treatment elsewhere.
Patients recorded their factor usage on log sheets, and their reports were checked with distribution records kept at the clinic. (Factor received during hospital stays was not included. Also 3 “inhibitor” patients–2 treatment, 1 control–were removed from some analyses because they must infuse Factor IX at a level that far exceeds the amount appropriate for body were an inhibitor not present.)
The Ss, in groups of 3-4 people, were educated about the effects of stress on bleeding, physiological signals of overstress, and then trained as a group in self hypnosis. Each training session began with a group hypnosis induction followed by various suggestions and imagery. They were given a cassette tape with suggestions for decreased bleeding, ego-strengthening, relaxation, and sensations of floating. In addition to listening to the tape at least once each day, they were taught rapid (1-2 minute) inductions to combat stress, and were to develop their own self-hypnosis procedure.
In terms of results, 9 of 11 (82%) treatment Ss and 4 of 10 (40%) control Ss decreased in blood factor usage (p<.05). There was a great deal of variability between Subjects. While the treatment group demonstrated an overall decrease in factor usage, the control group actually had an overall increase in usage. The authors speculate that possibly a change in season caused the increase, because several Ss reported that a change in season ordinarily caused an increase due to their arthritic joints. Also, a change to warmer weather might have led to increased physical activity. General distress, measured by General Severity Index of the SCL-90, was reduced significantly for the treatment group. (Results of SCL-90 aren't reported for control group.) The third hypothesis was not supported. In fact, the correlation between HGSHS:A and treatment effect was in the opposite direction from what was expected (- .25, n.s.). However, "there was a significant correlation (rho = .56, p<.025) between Ss' self-reported trance usage and change scores, indicating that those Ss who practiced self- hypnosis more were more likely to have decreased factor usage. There was also a trend (rho = .44, p<.10) between treatment Ss' change scores and their initial distress levels (GSI), suggesting that those Ss who were initially more distressed tended to profit more from treatment" (pp. 78-79). In their Discussion, the authors suggest that the fact that the treatment effect of decreased factor usage was consistent throughout the follow-up period suggests that reduced usage was not due to a placebo effect. They note that placebo responses are usually brief, and situation-specific (Frank, 1976). They see the need for further research to clarify which component(s) of the treatment program are effective (self-hypnosis, relaxation, education, social support), and to extend the length of follow-up period. Since hypnotizability did not correlate with outcome, the results might be due to some other component. Since outcome did correlate with amount of self hypnosis practice, motivation may be an important determiner of effect. Decreased stress was not only reported by Ss but also reflected in changes on the test scores (SCL-90). Also, several Ss spontaneously used the self hypnosis for school and occupational performance, and to relieve headaches. In terms of financial benefits, "the one patient who had the most significant decrease in factor usage noted an average monthly savings of $850. For the entire treatment group (including those few Ss whose factor usage increased), the training resulted in savings of $1240 per month over the follow-up period" (p. 81). 1985 Olness, Karen N.; Conroy, Mary Margaret (1985). A pilot study of voluntary control of transcutaneous PO 2 by children: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 1-5. This pilot study took place to determine whether or not children could voluntarily change tissue oxygen as measured by a transcutaneous oxygen monitor. It tested 2 hypotheses: (a) children can voluntarily change tissue oxygen as reflected by a transcutaneous oxygen monitor and (b) children, experienced in use of self-hypnosis exercises, will be able to change tissue oxygen to a greater degree than children unfamiliar with such exercises. 11 children between the ages of 7 and 17 year were studied. 8 children were previously experienced in the use of self-hypnosis; 3 were not. A Novametrix transcutaneous O 2/CO 2 monitoring system provided a constant read-out of PO 1, PCO 1 and local perfusion. After stabilization, children were asked to attempt increases of oxygen. 9 children increased tissue oxygen significantly. Of those, 8 children had previous self-hypnosis training. 1 had not. Only 2 children with no previous self- hypnosis training were unable to change oxygen values. This pilot study upholds both hypotheses; however, it does not conclude that self-hypnosis mediated the changes noted or that self-hypnosis would be essential to success in voluntary control of tissue oxygen. 1984 Fogel, Barry S. (1984). The 'sympathetic ear': Case reports of a self-hypnotic approach to chronic pain. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27 (2), 103-106. Secondary gain issues may limit the success of hypnotherapeutic approaches to chronic pain. A self-hypnotic suggestion that promotes patients' awareness of the interpersonal aspects of their pain complaints was used in the treatment of two patients with chronic headache. Hypnotic suggestions that help make secondary gains conscious may be a useful addition to hypnotic techniques of pain management. Handelsman, Mitchell M. (1984). Self-hypnosis as a facilitator of self-efficacy: A case example. Psychotherapy, 21 (4), 550-553. This article presents the four-session treatment of Elaine, using self- hypnosis to facilitate the mourning process. It is argued that self-hypnosis-- rather than enhancing imagery-- increases self-efficacy, a person's feeling that he/she can perform behaviors that lead to desired outcomes. Elaine's sense of self-efficacy was increased by allowing her to choose scenes from her life to be explored in the context of the use of imagery. Elaine imagined events surrounding her father's death, and "rewrote history" in an attempt to permit herself the direct expression of emotions. Kohen, D.; Olness, K.; Colwell, S.; Heimel, A. (1984). The use of relaxation-mental imagery (self-hypnosis) in the management of 505 pediatric behavioral encounters. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 5, 21-25. This report assessed outcomes of hypnotherapeutic interventions for 505 children and adolescents seen by four pediatricians over a period of one year and followed from four months to two years. Presenting problems included enuresis, acute pain, chronic pain, asthma, habit disorders, obesity, encopresis, and anxiety. Using strict criteria for determination of problem resolution (e.g., all beds dry) and recognizing that some conditions were intrinsically chronic, the authors found that 51% of these children and adolescents achieved complete resolution of the presenting problem; an additional 32% achieved significant improvement, 9% showed initial or some improvement; and 7% demonstrated no apparent change or improvement. Children as young as three years of age effectively applied self-hypnosis techniques. In general, facility in self-hypnosis increased with age. There was an inverse correlation (p less than 0.001) between clinical success and number of visits, suggesting that prediction of responsivity is possible after four visits or less. NOTES Discusses the treatment of 505 pediatric patients with a variety of problems(enuresis, pain, obesity, anxiety reactions, habit problems, encopresis, headache, fear of pelvic examinations). Smith, Mark Scott; Kamitsuka, Michael (1984). Self-hypnosis misinterpreted as CNS deterioration in an adolescent with leukemia and Vincristine toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26 (4), 280-282. A thirteen year-old girl with leukemia was taught self-hypnosis techniques for symptom control. She was hospitalized with probable vincristine toxicity and a superimposed hyperventilation syndrome. Her spontaneous use of the self- hypnosis technique was misinterpreted as central nervous system deterioration until her apparently comatose state resolved with suggestions from the therapist. 1983 Johnson, Lynn S.; Dawson, Steven L.; Clark, Janet Lee; Sikorsky, Catherine (1983). Self-hypnosis versus hetero-hypnosis: Order effects and sex differences in behavioral and experiential impact. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31, 139-154. Recent studies (Fromm, Brown, Hurt, Oberlander, Boxer, & Pfeifer, 1981; Johnson, 1979, 1981; Johnson & Weight, 1976; Ruch, 1975) of self-hypnosis versus hetero-hypnosis are compared. A study is reported addressing unresolved questions about interactions between order of presentation and sex with the 2 types of hypnosis. 90 male and 149 female volunteer college students were proportionally assigned to 1 of 4 groups, each of which received 1 of the following hypnosis-order combinations on successive days: self hypnosis, then hetero-hypnosis; hetero-hypnosis, then self-hypnosis; self- hypnosis, then another self-hypnosis; or hetero-hypnosis, then another hetero-hypnosis. Half of each group of Ss had a male hypnotist; half had a female hypnotist. Analysis of variance of total scores for behavioral and experiential impact showed: (a) a general order effect, a decrease from first to second experience; (b) initial self-hypnosis to facilitate either subsequent experience, mitigating the general decrement; (c) switching modes to also reduce the decrement; (d) a clarification of certain order and sex interactions from earlier studies; (e) self-hypnosis to be behaviorally superior to hetero-hypnosis on later presentations; and (f) crossed-sex training to be experientially facilitory. Conclusions are drawn about unresolved issues in self hypnosis research, including the limits of comparability of self-hypnosis versus hetero-hypnosis, which depend on definitional assumptions of the self-hypnosis state and the allowance for order effects in the design. NOTES In their Discussion, the authors note that self hypnosis and heterohypnosis yield similar results, and that although clinical hypnosis effects may increase with practice, such would probably not be true for hypnosis in the experimental setting. They speculate that "self-hypnosis triggers an 'active involvement' which provides more continuity in responsiveness across experiences, while hetero- hypnosis encourages a more passive mode which is more susceptible to external events (like order effects)" (p. 150). 1982 Brown, Daniel P.; Forte, Michael; Rich, Philip; Epstein, Gerald (1982-83). Phenomenological differences among self hypnosis, mindfulness meditation, and imaging. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 2 (4), 291-309. A survey of 122 subjects was conducted to investigate the differences in the phenomenological quality of the experiences engendered by three types of awareness discipline: self-hypnosis (21 Ss), waking dreaming (49 Ss) and mindfulness meditation (25 Ss from a 2-week retreat, and another group of 27 Ss from a 2-day weekend retreat). A questionnaire, the profile of Trance, Imaging, and Meditation Experience (TIME) was used in the survey. Discriminant analyses were used to construct models of the differences in the phenomenological quality of the experiences among the three groups. A number of phenomenological dimensions, in the major areas of attention, thinking, memory, imagery, body sensations, emotions, time sense, reality sense, and sense of self, were found which could accurately distinguish among the experiences of practitioners of the three types of awareness training. Results show that while self hypnosis involves self-referential thinking, memory changes, and intense emotions, waking dreaming emphasizes the immediate impact of emerging images, which unfold in a thematic manner and have a sense of their own reality. Mindfulness meditators have difficulty managing distractions, but with experience learn greater awareness of bodily processes, and experience changes in the perception of time and self; mental processes seem to slow down, and awareness assumes an impersonal quality. No attributions as to the causes or sources of these phenomenological differences are made, as the survey was not large enough to provide comparison groups, subject matching, or other statistical controls necessary for causal analyses. NOTES (Information taken from a pre-publication manuscript.) 1981 romm, Erika; Brown, Daniel P.; Hurt, Stephen W.; Oberlander, Joab Z; Boxer, Andrew M.; Pfeifer, Gary (1981). The phenomena and characteristics of self-hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (3), 189-247. Self-hypnosis and hetero-hypnosis were compared, and self-hypnosis was studied longitudinally. Results indicated that absorption and the fading of the general reality orientation are characteristics of both hetero-hypnosis and self-hypnosis. The differentiating characteristics lie in the areas of attention and ego receptivity. Expansive, free-floating attention and ego receptivity to stimuli coming from within are state-specific for self-hypnosis, while concentrative attention and receptivity to stimuli coming from one outside source--the hypnotist on whom the subject concentrates his attention--are state- specific for laboratory defined hetero-hypnosis. Attempts to produce age regression and positive or negative hallucinations are markedly more successful in hetero-hypnosis. Imagery is much richer in self-hypnosis than in hetero-hypnosis. Self-hypnosis requires adaptation to the state: in the beginning of self-hypnosis there is a good deal of anxiety and self-doubt. As the subject feels more comfortable in the self-hypnotic state, he spends less time worrying about failures in self-suggestion, his ability to enter trance quickly and easily increases, as does the fading of the general reality orientation, trance depth, and absorption. An attempt was also made in the present study to find personality characteristics related to the ability to experience self-hypnosis. Gardner, G. G. (1981). Teaching self-hypnosis to children. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 300-312. Hypnotherapy with children increasingly includes teaching self-hypnosis in order that young patients may make the fullest possible use of their hypnotic talent. This paper discusses indications and contraindications, reviews issues of patient resistance and parental involvement, and describes in detail Gardner's 3-step method of teaching self-hypnosis to children. NOTES Table 1 lists the problems treated by self-hypnosis in children aged 3-20 years as: anxiety, asthma, bleeding disorders (hemophilia), body cast immobilization, burns and burn therapy, depression, drug abuse, enuresis, functional megacolon, hair-pulling, helpless feelings, insomnia, learning difficulties, muscle spasm, nausea, pain, poor self-esteem, psychogenic seizures, stuttering, tension. The author lists references discussing the use of self hypnosis with each of these problem areas. Houston, Rodney Earl (1981). The effects of autohypnosis, imagery, or single suggestion on pain threshold and tolerance (Dissertation, University of Cincinnati). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (5), 1961-A. NOTES Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and subject's subjective opinion of the pain were studied in 94 volunteer subjects (75 female, 19 male), who had been randomly assigned to three treatment groups (self hypnosis, in-vivo imagery, single suggestion) and a control group. (The original randomized sample included 124 Ss, but 30 were lost to the study-- 22 because of initial baseline scores being above maximum, 2 after reading the consent form, and 6 not returning for post-testing.) Mean age was 25; age range was 18-59 years. The pain stimulus was 33 degree F. ice water in which the dominant hand was submerged for as long as the subjects were able. Subjects were told to nod when pain was first felt (threshold), and remove their hand when the pain was more than they could tolerate (tolerance). They were then asked to rate the pain on a 7-point scale, from 'none' to 'extreme.' Thus the three outcome measures were threshold time, tolerance time, and degree of perceived pain. During the week between pretesting and posttesting, the self hypnosis group was to listen to a tape training them in self hypnosis at least twice; the imagery group was to listen to their imagery training tape at least twice; the simple suggestion group received no training. Posttesting was the same as pretesting, except that the simple suggestion group was given the single waking suggestion, "You will be able to withstand the pain much longer this time." The experimental predictions were that treatment groups would increase in threshold levels and tolerance levels more than the control group; and that the treatment groups would decrease more than the control group in reported pain level. Multivariate analysis of variance of difference scores (pre- to posttest) demonstrated significant differences on the three dependent measures when comparing the three treatment groups to the control group. " Significant differences were also found when comparing treatment groups, autohypnosis and imagery to those given the single suggestion. No significant differences were found when comparing the autohypnosis to the imagery treatment. "The results indicate that training in autohypnosis and in-vivo imagery has an effect on threshold, tolerance and pain levels. The results also indicate that the use of a single suggestion may not have an effect on threshold, tolerance, and pain levels" (p. 1961). Sacerdote, Paul (1981). Teaching self-hypnosis to adults. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 282-299. The author presents operational definitions of self-hypnosis and examines the differences and similarities between hetero- and self-hypnosis in relation to the methods used and the hypnotizer's attitudes. It is argued that, with the exception of spontaneously occurring trances, there is no "pure" self-hypnosis. Most clinicians teach self-hypnosis through hetero-hypnosis, in part by direct or indirect posthypnotic suggestion. Some subjects never completely reach and maintain the same depth in self-hypnosis achieved in hetero-hypnosis, contrary to Ruch's (1975) conclusions. According to the present author, self-hypnosis taught through hetero-hypnotic experiences is effective as a method for physical and emotional tranquilization in nearly all subjects. Dynamically meaningful and physically effective self-hypnosis, however, is only learned by subjects who have been successful with deep hetero-hypnotic trances which included somnambulistic experiences. Effective deepening methods likely to stimulate psychodynamic creativity during hetero-hypnosis and subsequently during self-hypnotic trances are described. Some of the difficulties encountered by subjects during self-hypnosis are discussed: incomplete dissociative experiences; anxieties about self-control; doubts about the reality of the self-hypnotic state; and the possibility that negative attitudes, habits, and expectations may act countertherapeutically as posthypnotic suggestions. When successful, self-hypnosis permits prolongation and extension of effective therapy. Self-hypnotic teaching can be administered with different modalities in individual and in group settings. Clinicians can make useful contributions both to the therapeutic use of self-hypnosis and to a clearer theoretical understanding of self-hypnotic phenomena. 1980 Case, David B.; Fogel, David H.; Pollack, Albert A. (1980). Intrahypnotic and long-term effects of self-hypnosis on blood pressure in mild hypertension. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 27-38. Self-hypnosis using the method of Spiegel (1974) was evaluated in 15 patients with labile or mild essential hypertension who were equally hypnotizable and adhered to a regimen of 6-10 daily exercises for a 4-month period. During the hypnotic state, there were consistent rises in both systolic and diastolic pressures in hypnotizable patients, but not in non-hypnotizable controls. Similar but smaller changes were also observed in normotensive subjects. Pressure rose immediately with hypnosis and subsided gradually over 15 minutes. However, the long-term effects of the daily practice of self- hypnosis were variable: ambulatory diastolic pressure fell in 5 patients, was unchanged in 7 patients, and rose in 3 patients. The changes in blood pressure could not be specifically attributed to the daily practice of self-hypnosis; however, all patients experienced improvement in well-being, mood, and behavior patterns during the 4-month period. The study indicates that self-hypnosis can produce changes in behavior and mood which may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, although paradoxically, the act of hypnosis by this technique is pressor. Aside from its therapeutic potential, self- hypnosis may provide useful information about central mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. 1979 Johnson, Lynn S. (1979). Self-hypnosis: Behavioral and phenomenological comparisons with heterohypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 240-264. In a study of behavioral and phenomenological differences between auto- and heterohypnosis, standard autohypnotic and hetero-hypnotic experiences were administered to 48 college students (25 males, 23 females). Total scores of behavioral and phenomenological responses were compared for each experience. The phenomenological scores were also factor analyzed for each type of hypnosis. Behavioral total scores were comparable. Inexperienced Ss were as able to hypnotize themselves as to be hypnotized by another. Scores on "challenge" items were also comparable, whereas items suggesting positive actions showed greater variability. Factor analyses showed that the subjective experiences were generally similar. Heterohypnosis evoked more feelings of unawareness, passivity, and loss of control. Self-hypnosis elicited more feelings of time distortion, disorientation, active direction, and trance variability. The relationship between hypnotic mode and order effects was discussed in terms of Ruch's (1975) facilitatory/inhibitory effects. Conclusions are drawn that self-hypnosis and heterohypnosis are sufficiently similar to be conceptualized undr the same label. Data is offered on expectations of self-hypnosis and their effect on later responsiveness. 1978 Benson, Herbert; et al. (1978). Treatment of anxiety: A comparison of the usefulness of self-hypnosis and a meditational relaxation technique. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 30, 229-242. NOTES This is a controlled clinical outcome study of psychotherapy involving the use of hypnosis. Benson, Herbert; Frankel, Fred H.; Apfel, Roberta; Daniels, Michael D.; Schniewind, Henry E.; Nemiah, John C.; Sifneos, Peter E.; Crassweller, Karen D.; Greenwood, Martha M.; Kotch, Jamie B.; Arns, Patricia A.; Rosner, Bernard (1978). Treatment of anxiety: A comparison of the usefulness of self-hypnosis and a meditational relaxation technique. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 30, 229-242. We have investigated prospectively the efficacy of two nonpharmacologic relaxation techniques in the therapy of anxiety. A simple, meditational relaxation technique (MT) that elicits the changes of decreased sympathetic nervous system activity was compared to a self-hypnosis technique (HT) in which relaxation, with or without altered perceptions, was suggested. 32 patients with anxiety neurosis were divided into 2 groups on the basis of their responsivity to hypnosis: moderate-high and low responsivity. The NIT or HT was then randomly assigned separately to each member of the two responsivity groups. Thus, 4 treatment groups were studied: moderate-high responsivity MT; low responsivity MT; moderate-high responsivity HT; and low responsivity HT. The low responsivity HT group, by definition largely incapable of achieving the altered perceptions essential to hypnosis, was designed as the control group. Patients were instructed to practice the assigned technique daily for 8 weeks. Change in anxiety was determined by three types of evaluation: psychiatric assessment; physiologic testing; and self-assessment. There was essentially no difference between the two techniques in therapeutic efficacy according to these evaluations. Psychiatric assessment revealed overall improvement in 34% of the patients and the self-rating assessment indicated improvement in 63% of the population. Patients who had moderate- high hypnotic responsivity, independent of the technique used, significantly improved on psychiatric assessment (p = 0.05) and decreased average systolic blood pressure from 126.1 to 122.5 mm Hg over the 8-week period (p = 0.048). The responsivity scores at the higher end of the hypnotic responsivity spectrum were proportionately correlated to greater decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.075) and to improvement by psychiatric assessment (p = 0.003). There was, however, no consistent relation between hypnotic responsivity and the other assessments made, such as diastolic blood pressure, oxygen consumption, heart rate and the self-rating questionnaires. The meditational and self- hypnosis techniques employed in this investigation are simple to use and effective in the therapy of anxiety. Porter, J. W. (1978). Suggestions and success imagery for study problems. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 63-75. A procedure is presented for dealing with study problems in cases where patients come with an expectancy of help through hypnosis. Specific suggestions directly related to the study difficulty are given. "Success imagery" is outlined for use under hypnosis and by the student himself in his daily life. Two self-management techniques associated with the relaxation induced by exhalation are given further strength by being made posthypnotic suggestions. A direct posthypnotic suggestion for "concentration and recall" is combined with contingency management to effect more efficient performance when the decision is made to study. Four sessions are shown by clinical experience to be generally adequate to allow a transition from therapy to self-management of the problem aided by the student's own use of self-hypnosis. A general outline of how this is achieved for the first three sessions incorporates both Wolberg's (19656) suggestions to remove barriers preventing progress and Stanton's (1977) Rational-Emotive Therapy suggestions to strengthen the person's belief in himself. 1977 Sachs, Lewis B.; Feuerstein, M.; Vitale, J. H. (1977). Hypnotic self-regulation of chronic pain. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 106-113. A more diverse conceptualization of pain including the motivational- affective, cognitive-evaluative, as well as sensory components has resulted in a greater emphasis on 'central' factors in pain and the development of comprehensive treatments directed at these various components. This study is one such treatment program. Eight patients with chronic pain (mean duration of 8.8 years) were trained in a hypnotic self- regulation procedure to modify pain. Pre and post measures were collected on a series of indices relevant to the pain experience. The post-treatment evaluation indicated significant reductions in: (1) daily pain intensity, (2) the degree to which pain interfered with major life areas (e.g., sleep and social activity), (3) life dissatisfaction and suffering, (4) personality characteristics relevant to chronic pain and (5) percentage of self-administered pain medication. Despite the lack of a no-treatment comparison and placebo-attention controls, the chronicity of pain and the lack of effectiveness of prior medical interventions suggest that this treatment program is an effective agent in the control of chronic pain. 1976 Miller, Lawrence J. (1976). A comparison of hypnotic susceptibility for internal and external locus of control subjects in hetero- and self-hypnotic treatments (Dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 978-979. : "This study investigated the use of self- and hetero-hypnosis with internal and external locus of control subjects. Fifty-eight subjects, matched on hypnotic susceptibility and internal-external locus of control, were randomly assigned to the self- or hetero-hypnotic treatments. Self reports of their hypnotic behavioral scores and hypnotic subjective responses were obtained for each subject. "The statistical analyses showed there were no significant differences between the internal and external locus of control groups or within groups in regard to self- and hetero-hypnosis total behavioral scores, "challenge" or "non-challenge" items, .... their reported subjective experiences. The results supported the similarity of hetero- and self- hypnosis. Various findings from past research in regard to I-E subjects were also challenged in terms of their generalizability to hypnotic settings" (pp. 978-979). 1974 Surman, Owen S.; Hackett, Thomas P.; Silverberg, Elizabeth L.; Behrendt, Douglas M. (1974). Usefulness of psychiatric intervention in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 830-835. Twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were seen one or more times by a psychiatrist who performed two functions. In a supportive fashion he cleared up any misconceptions the patient had about the forthcoming surgery and he taught him a simple autohypnotic technique. Twenty controls, matched for relevant variables, received routine preoperative care. Contrary to the report of others, a single visit by the psychiatrist did not influence the incidence of postoperative delirium, anxiety, depression, pain, or medication requirements. However, there was a trend for patients receiving a greater number of preoperative visits to have a lower incidence of detected delirium. Age was the only factor in this study that differed significantly between delirious and nondelirious patients. 1973 Shor, Ronald E.; Easton, Randolph (1973). A preliminary report on research comparing self- and hetero-hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 16, 37-44. A method is described for the study of the relationship between self- and hetero-hypnosis and initial findings are presented. A new instrument is described, the Inventory of Self-Hypnosis (ISH) which is a self-hypnosis adaptation of the hetero- hypnotic Harvard Group Scale, Form A (HGS). The new scale permits the making of precise item-by-item quantitative comparisons between the effects of these two scales. Preliminary research with 29 non-motivated college student subjects suggests that mean levels of responsiveness to the two scales are about the same, that item difficulty levels have much in common, but that whatever it is that the ISH measures is largely different form what the HGS measures. The findings help to formulate the need to study what it is that contributes to the similarities and differences. Further studies are in progress. NOTES Total Score Intercorrelations were reported as follows: HGS ISHb ISHt HGS 1.00 ISHb .39 1.00 ISHt .33 .67 1.00 Item Pass Percents Intercorrelations were reported as follows: HGS ISHb ISHt HGS 1.00 ISHb .72 1.00 ISHt .70 .82 1.00 ISHb = time calculated by breaths ISHt = time calculated by timer The Inventory of Self Hypnosis (ISH) consists of 12 items, the same ones as in the Harvard scale with a few minor exceptions. Subjects are told that the inventory "is designed to teach self-hypnosis and that all of the information needed for a person to induce hypnosis in himself and to give himself a series of simple suggestions is contained in the inventory booklet" (p. 40). Therefore, there is more emphasis on hypnosis as an active imagination (cognitive) skill. An example, using a suggestion for Immobilization of the Right Arm, follows. "This set of instructions is devoted to having it become very difficult for you to lift your right arm. These instructions involve a count of 33 breaths. The first 30 breaths is the _suggestion phase_ and the final three breaths is the _trial phase_. "When ready close your eyes and pay close attention to your right arm. Notice how your arm shares in the general feeling of heaviness that you feel all over your body. Throughout the count of 30 breaths concentrate your thoughts on the idea of how heavy it feels; think about it growing more and more heavy, heavy like lead. Although you should try not to lift it until later, notice how the arm seems to become much too heavy to lift. "At the end of the 30 breaths take 3 extra breaths. During this new count try to lift your arm to see how heavy it is. Perhaps in spite of being so heavy you will be able to lift it a little, although by then it may be too heavy even for that. You will notice that there is some resistance because of the relaxed state you are in. After the three breaths stop trying and relax. In a few moments your arm will feel normal again, no longer heavy; you can easily lift it if you want to. At that point open your eyes and continue reading below the double lines. "Summary of instructions: "Initial actions: Close your eyes. Pay close attention to the feelings in your right arm. "During count of 30 breaths -- Main Actions: Concentrate on the idea of your arm becoming so heavy that you would not be able to lift it. "3 breaths -- Try to lift your arm. "Post actions: Let normal feeling return to your arm. Open your eyes and continue reading" (p. 41). 1970 Maher-Loughnan, G. P. (1970). Hypnosis and auto-hypnosis for the treatment of asthma. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18 (1), 1-14. Conducted 2 controlled studies into the use of hypnosis in 252 asthma patients. Several different control procedures were used. Methods and results were summarized, and the same conclusion was reached: That hypnosis supplemented by autohypnosis was significantly more effective than control procedures. An outline is given of details of treatment methods. A current analysis of Ss involving up to 6 yr. of follow-up, is presented to provide a working guide to the regime in regular practice. To be fully effective hypnosis should be employed before steroids are started. Steroid-dependent asthma is rarely totally relieved by hypnotherapy. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) Spiegel, Herbert (1970). A single-treatment method to stop smoking using ancillary self-hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18 (4), 235-250. Discusses the 1st 615 patient-smokers who were treated with a single 45-min session of psychotherapy reinforced by hypnosis. Technique of treatment, including rationale of approach, induction procedure, assessment of hypnotizability, and training instructions to stop smoking are presented in detail. 6-mo follow-up study results are discussed. Of 44% who returned a questionnaire, hard-core smokers stopped for at least 6 mo. Another 20% reduced their smoking to varying degrees. Results of a 1-session treatment compare favorably with, and often are significantly better than, other longer-term methods reported in the literature. It is suggested that every habitual smoker who is motivated to stop be exposed to the impact of this procedure, or its equivalent, so that at least 1 of 5 smokers can be salvaged. (French & Spanish summaries). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) Spiegel, Herbert (1970). A single-treatment method to stop smoking using ancillary self-hypnosis: Final remarks in response to the discussants. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18 (4), 268. Reexamines the major points of the author''s papers (see PA, Vol. 45:Issue 1) on smoking modification. Data inclusion, therapy length, Ss'' ability to change, and use of multiple therapists and tape recordings as reinforcement are discussed. It is concluded that the method should be used to "sharpen our techniques that we can relatively quickly learn who has the capacity to change for given goals, and then to help evoke the desired change as efficiently as possible." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) Reexamines the major points of the author''s papers (see PA, Vol. 45:Issue 1) on smoking modification. Data inclusion, therapy length, Ss'' ability to change, and use of multiple therapists and tape recordings as reinforcement are discussed. It is concluded that the method should be used to "sharpen our techniques that we can relatively quickly learn who has the capacity to change for given goals, and then to help evoke the desired change as efficiently as possible." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 1969 Frankenthal, Kate (1969). Autohypnosis and other aids for survival in situations of extreme stress. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 153-159. Presents case histories where strong autosuggestion was utilized to survive in situations of extreme stress by dissociating unbearable realities. The difference between hypnosis and depersonalization is discussed. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1965 Fromm, Erika (1965). Spontaneous autohypnotic age-regression in a nocturnal dream. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (3), 119-132. A new operational approach to the psychoanalytic interpretation of dreams is presented and exemplified. The example used contains an autohypnotic age-regression in a spontaneous noctural dream which was dreamed after failure to achieve age-regression in a hypnotic session a few hours earlier. In the interpretative method discussed, emphasis is placed on learning to understand dreams as coherent cognitive structures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Naruse, Gosaku (1965). The hypnotic treatment of stage fright in champion athletes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (2), 63-70. The use of direct hypnotic suggestion, posthypnotically produced autohypnosis, and self-hypnosis in conjunction with autogenic training and progressive relaxation in the treatment of "stage fright" in athletes is discussed. Illustrative case histories drawn from a sample of athletes participating in the 1960 Olympic Games are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Naruse, Gosaku (1965). The hypnotic treatment of stage fright in champion athletes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (2), 63-70. The use of direct hypnotic suggestion, posthypnotically produced autohypnosis, and self-hypnosis in conjunction with autogenic training and progressive relaxation in the treatment of "stage fright" in athletes is discussed. Illustrative case histories drawn from a sample of athletes participating in the 1960 Olympic Games are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1963 Das, J. P. (1963). Yoga and hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 31-38. The nature of Yoga and Samadhi (concentration) was described. A comparison with hypnosis revealed widely differing objectives, but many points of functional and methodological similarity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)