Guinazu, S. (1960). Relajacion de Schultz e ionotoforesis calcica trans cerebral. Acta Hipnologia Latino-Americana, 1, 65-67. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1962, 5, 75)

The author recommends the use of autogenic training in conjunction with transcerebral calcium iontoforesis for the treatment of neurotic and psychotic disorders. This combined therapy abbreviates treatment time and leads to greater percentage of recoveries. Four cases, taken from over two hundred, are presented and analyzed.

Ambrose, Gordon (1955). Multiple sclerosis and treatment by hypnotherapy. Follow-up and further cases. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 203-209.

“Summary. Present day treatment of multiple sclerosis appears inadequate from the psychological view point and patients are too often forced to show a negative response to their illness.
“Six patients have been treated by hypnotherapy with marked subjective improvement. Three of these cases are described.
“The aim in these cases is to put the patient more in control of his organism. Patients should be told that their symptoms must never control them, they must control their symptoms.
“The very nature of the illness prevents the medical attendant from feeling scientific in his approach to these cases. Long follow-up is a necessity but much subjective improvement is possible using hypnotherapy.
“In the hypnoanalytical approach the usual exaggeration of the emotions allied with the psychosomatic reaction will often be found. Hypnosis appears to produce a rapid lessening of tension and anxiety in these cases.
“A deep state of hypnosis should be aimed at and auto-hypnosis must always be taught. It is sometimes useful to place a trusted person en rapport with the patient to carry on with positive and direct suggestions.

Hart, Hornell (1955). Measuring some results of autohypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 229-242.

The author developed self ratings for mood (euphoria-dysphoria) and alertness-fatigue, which were administered to college students in neutral conditions and after self-hypnosis conditions. The self hypnosis, or “auto-conditioning” usually involved deep relaxation self suggestions followed by other suggestions. The suggestions involved using the word ‘you’ to be able to re-instate the autoconditioning more and more effectively; suggestions for attitude change (e.g. that ‘No matter what comes, we will grapple with it courageously’); and euphoria auto-suggestions (e.g. that ‘you will come out of this deep relaxation, feeling rested, alert, cheerful and courageous’).
In both single session experiments, as with a class of nurses who experienced an 8 minute auto-conditioning procedure, and in experiments extending over time, depression decreased. He noted that “for various reasons, the students who participated in autoconditioning experiments between February and May, 1955, were in many respects less successful than some of the previous experimental groups had been” (p. 235).
Increased alertness and diminished fatigue was also observed.
Many students chose to give themselves suggestions to correct the habit of procrastination. Two-thirds of the participants reported complete success, up to the level specified, and only one of 43 experiments on correcting procrastination was a “flat failure.”

Kline, Milton V.; Guze, Henry (1955). Self-hypnosis in childbirth: A clinical evaluation of a patient conditioning program. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (3), 142-147.

The author reports use of self hypnosis for childbirth by 30 patients. Many required no drugs or greatly reduced drugs. The obstetricians usually had no prior experience with hypnosis and were cautious in providing medication at the earliest sign of discomfort.
“Summary. A two year experimental study of the use of self-hypnosis in childbirth has indicated its general effectiveness for virtually all the patients who received this type of pre-natal preparation. Although problems of selecting patients capable of utilizing this method have not been discussed in detail in this paper, it must be understood that this study depended upon a patient population selected on the basis of specific psychological characteristics which were indicative of both the judiciousness and effectiveness of self-hypnosis for obstetrics.
“Within the limits set by these selective characteristics, which in themselves may be greatly broadened by further study, self-hypnosis as a means of patient participation in childbirth appears to have very great merit. It is a method that lends itself to simple administration and can be extended to many more patients than any other hypnotic approach. It minimizes the need of the obstetrician to utilize time and effort in patient conditioning without sacrificing any of the advantages of hetero-hypnotic techniques. Its use on a larger scale than reported upon here, with more exacting investigative techniques, seems clearly indicted” (pp. 146-147).

Stokvis, Berthold (1955). Autosuggestive active tonus regulation as an aid in hypnosis therapy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (3), 140-141. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 56: 4699)

The author describes a way to encourage patients to help themselves. Each day, morning and evening before rising or going to sleep they are to spend 5-10 minutes relaxing and concentrating intensively on the words spoken to him by the doctor during the previous hypnosis session. Gradually this may become self hypnosis, as in autogenic training. The author poses a psychoanlytic explanation (“the hetero-erotic bond with the hypnotist has then been replaced by the auto-erotic bond between the patient’s Ego and Self” p. 140) as well as emphasizing the benefits of practice.

Klemperer, Edith (1954). Changes of the body image in hypnoanalysis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 157-162.

Author describes people who experience age regression causing changes in body size, others who “see” themselves as a child (the watcher), both simultaneously. Others experience some part of the body as missing or added, or changing in dimensions; or a change may seem symbolic; or there may be sensory changes experienced in connection with body parts; and functions of sense organs might be felt. Equilibrium sense may change, or kinesthetic sensations. “We have a double system of memory; one is a complete and true copy of the actual experience, the other is incomplete, symbolical, fleeting. Past experiences are always present unchanged in form of thoughts or diagrams, connected with the knowledge which will bring them into consciousness” (p. 162).

Schneck, Jerome M. (1953). Self-hypnotic dreams in hypnoanalysis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (1), 44-53. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 53: 6579)

In evaluating self-hypnotic dreams from the view of form and content, they should be compared with nocturnal and hetero-hypnotically induced dreams of the same individual, aside from comparisons with others. Eight self-hypnotic dreams of a patient in hypnoanalysis are reported here. Well known dream mechanisms are readily discerned. Classic symbolism is encountered, as well as repetitive types of symbols peculiar to this patient’s functioning. The dreams are given in detail along with the patient’s associations and interpretations. Such self-hypnotic dreams may be used to extend and intensify hypnoanalytic work. They involve the patient more completely in treatment. They may be used to introduce new issues, bring problems into sharper focus, identify and analyze resistances. They may, in fact, be used for most any purpose that hetero-hypnotic dreams may be employed for in analysis (3). The text reveals other points of interrest regarding self-hypnotic dreams in relation to therapeutic work, and additional investigations which may be instituted in connection with such dreams.


Eimer, Bruce. N. (2000). Clinical applications of hypnosis for brief and efficient pain management psychotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43 (1), 17-40. (July)

This paper describes four specific clinical applications of hypnosis that can make psychotherapy for pain management briefer, more goal-oriented, and more efficient: (1) the assessment of hypnotizability; (2) the induction of hypnotic analgesia and development of individualized pain coping strategies;
(3) direct suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and pain relief imagery; and (4) brief psychodynamic reprocessing during the trance state of emtoional factors in the patient”s experience of chonic pain. Important theoretical and clinical issues regarding the relationship between hypnotizability to the induction of hypnotic analgesia are presented, and attempts to individualize pain treatment strategies on the basis of assessed differences in hypnotizability and patients” preferred coping strategies are described. Some ways are also presented of integrating direct hypnotic suggestion, COGNITIVE-EVALUATIVE reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and imagery for alleviating the SENSORY and AFFECTIVE-MOTIVATIONAL components of pain, with an exploratory, insight-oriented, and brief psychodynamic reprocessing approach during trance for resolving unconscious sources of resistance to treatment, and reducing the emotional overlay associated with chronic pain. Some basic assumptions underlying the use of this approach are discussed, and a brief step-by-step protocol is outlined.

Eimer, Bruce; Freeman, Arthur (1998). Pain management psychotherapy: A practical guide. New York NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

“Pain Management Psychotherapy” (PMP) provides a clear and methodical look at pain management psychotherapy beginning with the initial consultation and work-up of the patient and continuing through termination of treatment. It is a thoughtful and thorough presentation that covers methods for psychologically assessing the chronic pain patient (structured interviews, pain assessment tests and rating scales, instruments for evaluating beliefs, attitudes, pain behavior, disability, depression, anxiety, anger and alienation), treatment planning, cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, and a range of hypnotic approaches to pain management. The book covers both traditional (cognitive and behavior therapy, biofeedback, assessing hypnotizability, choice of inductions, designing an individualized self-hypnosis exercise) as well as newer innovative techniques (e.g., EMDR, pain-relief imagery, hypno-projective methods, hypno-analytic reprocessing of pain-related negative experiences). An extensive appendix reproduces in their entirety numerous forms, rating scale, inventories, assessment instruments, and scripts.
The senior author, Bruce Eimer, states in his online comments on Amazon.com that “most therapists hold the belief that ‘real’ chronic pain patients are quite impossible to help. This book attempts to dispel these misguided beliefs by providing a body of knowledge, theory, and techniques that have proven value in understanding and relieving chronic physical pain.” He also states that “the challenge for the therapist is to persuade the would-ne patient/client that he or she has something to offer that can help take way pain and bring back more pleasure. This challenge is negotiated through the therapeutic relationship. However, the therapist just can’t be ‘warm, accepting, non-judgmental and empathic’. The therapist must also have knowledge and skills relevant to relieving pain. Only then can the therapist impart such knowledge, and in teaching these skills to the pain patient, help the patient become something of a ‘self-therapist’. . . I dedicate this book to everyone who wants to find ways to make living with pain more comfortable, and to the ongoing search for better ways to relieve pain.”

Kay, L. M. (1992, October). The effects of hypnosis, relaxation, and suggestion on visual acuity (Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (4), 2065-B. (Order No. DA 9221587)

“Evaluated the relative efficacy of several aspects of the hypnotic process on facilitating change in hypnotic state-dependent visual acuity in myopic student subjects. Five conditions included hypnosis with suggestions, neutral hypnosis, nonhypnotic suggestion, progressive relaxation, and a control (comedy). Visual acuity was assessed as baseline (a task-motivational situation where they were to try to see as well as possible) and after the experimental condition. Results found that hypnosis facilitated a significant improvement in visual acuity (p = .002), although no differences were found in the other conditions” (p. 2065).

Brown, Jason W. (1991). Self and process: Brain states and the conscious present. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Author, from the Department of Neurology at New York University Medical School, presents a theory about the genetic unfolding of mental content (mind) through stages, from mental state into consciousness or into behavior. He relates the genesis of mind to brain development but avoids assuming that there is a straightforward correlation between brain development (e.g. myelination) and cognitive development or perception. To some degree, the theory is based on subjective report data and psychological symptoms. The author discusses issues that bear on the phenomena of nonvoluntary responding and dissociation that are reported or described by hypnotized persons.
“The nature of the mental state will determine the relation between self and world, and thus the interpretation given to agency and choice. … The crossing of the boundary from self to world is a shift from one level in mind to another” (pp. 10-11).
“… if we begin with mind as primary and seek to explain objects from inner states and private experience, the discontinuity between inner and outer evaporates: mind is everywhere, a universe. … Whereas before we thought to perceive objects, now we understand that we think them” (p. 19).
“The concept of a stratified cognition is central to the notion of a mental state …. This entails an unfolding from depth to surface, not from one surface to the next, a direction crucial to agency and the causal or decisional properties of consciousness” (p. 52). By unfolding from depth to surface, he means from Core, through Subconscious, then Conscious Private Events, and finally Extra-Personal Space.
He goes on to provide a definition of mental states. “A mental state is the minimal state of a mind, an absolute unit from the standpoint of its spatial and temporal structure. … The state also has to include the prehistory of the organism. … The concept of a mental state implies a fundamental unit that has gestalt-like properties, in that specific contents– words, thoughts, percepts–appear in the context of mind as a whole (p. 53).
“The entire multitiered system arborizes like a tree, with levels in each component linked to corresponding levels in other components. For example, an early (e.g., limbic) state in language (e.g., word meaning) is linked to an early stage in action (e.g., drive, proximal motility) and perception (e.g., hallucination, personal memory) …. In sum, a description of the spatial and temporal features of a _single_ unfolding series amounts to a description of the minimal unit of mind, the _absolute_ mental state” (p. 54).
The author’s discussion of an individual’s physical movement relates to the concept of nonvoluntary movement (or movement without awareness of volition) in hypnosis. “More precisely, levels in the brain state constitute the action structure. As it unfolds, this structure generates the conviction that a self-initiated act has occurred. This structure–the action representation–does not elaborate content in consciousness. … As with the sensory-perceptual interface, the transition to movement occurs across an abrupt boundary. In some manner, perhaps through a translation of cognitive rhythms in the action to kinetic patterns in the movement, levels in the emerging act discharge into motor (physical) events” (p. 57).
“The self has the nature of a global image or early representation within which objects-to-be are embedded. … The self is the accumulation of all the momentary cognitions developing in a brain configured by heredity and experience in a particular way (p. 70).
“The deposition of a holistic representation … creates the deception of a self that stands behind and propagates events. The feeling of the self as an agent is reinforced by the forward thrust of the process and the deeper locus of the self in relation to surface objects. The self appears to be an instigator of acts and images when in fact it is given up in their formation. The self does not cause or initiate, it only anticipates (p. 70).
The foregoing notes cover only the first five chapters, less than half the book. Other chapters relevant to hypnosis would be those titled ‘The Nature of Voluntary Action,’ ‘Psychology of Time Awareness,’ ‘From Will to Compassion,’ and ‘Mind and Brain.’

Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Zachariae, Robert; Bjerring, Peter (1990). Quantitative evaluation of hypnotically suggested hyperaesthesia and analgesia by painful laser stimulation. Pain, 42, 243-251.

Sensory and pain thresholds to laser stimulation were determined, and the laser-pain evoked brain potentials were measured for 8 highly hypnotizable (Harvard Scores 10-11) student volunteers in 3 conditions: (1) waking, (2) suggestion of hyperaesthesia during hypnosis, (3) suggestion of analgesia during hypnosis.
The investigators used a laser beam 3 mm in diameter, with a 200 msec stimulus duration; the same area (but different points within the area) was used for consecutive stimulations. Ss were otherwise maintained in low stimulus conditions so they would not have visual or auditory cues about laser beam onset; they wore goggles, had eyes shut, and had earphones on. Sensory threshold was defined as warmth; pain threshold was defined as a distinct sharp pin prick.
The laser intensity used for stimulation corresponded to strong pain. Interstimulus intervals averaged 15 sec (but were randomly varied between 10-20 sec). Sensory and pain thresholds as well as two evoked potential measurements were taken during waking , hypnotized hyperaesthesia, and hypnotized analgesia conditions in a single 1 1/2 hour session.
The evoked potential component of interest was the negative complex N1 with latency of 300 msec; amplitude (P1=N1-P2) and latency of this complex (N1) were measured. EEG epochs contaminated by eye movement were omitted from analysis.
The standardized induction and deepening of hypnosis required 15-20 minutes; then the suggestion was given that Ss could alter their perception of stimuli such as pain. Hyperaesthesia suggestions were to imagine the right hand was in very hot water, then taken out but still very red, hot, sensitive so that even the vaguest stimulus would be detectable and unpleasant. They were told that they would receive a series of painful but tolerable stimuli, and to raise the left index finger if they could just perceive a laser pulse (sensory threshold), and again if they felt pricking pain (pain threshold).
Suggestions for analgesia were to imagine that their right hand was placed on their chest, and that their ‘former right hand’ was no longer their own but was made of some heavy and completely insensitive material like wood or stone. Sensory and pain threshold measures were then taken. During the evoked potential measurement period they received continuous suggestions of analgesia. They also were told to relax and imagine they were in a pleasant place, ignoring everything except the pleasant, relaxed feelings and imagining pleasant sights, sounds, feelings and the imagined place. They were told that though they would receive stimuli, they probably would be able to ignore the stimuli completely.
Results were as follows.
1. In the hypnotic hyperaesthesia condition, sensory and pain thresholds decreased significantly by 47% and 48%, respectively. Three Ss reacted to laser intensities far below what normally can be perceived in the waking state. [The authors ran a separate small control experiment to make sure that the Subjects were not using any other cues, but mention the possibility of light-sensitive skin reacting to the blue laser light, creating evoked potentials.]
2. In the hypnotic analgesia condition, sensory and pain thresholds increased by 316% and 190%, respectively. 7 of 8 Ss did not even respond to pain threshold when the laser intensity was increased to the noxious level of 3W, which is the level at which tissue damage can occur.
3. Pain-related evoked potentials. Amplitude of the first pain-related potential was increased significantly by 14% in the hyperaesthesia condition and reduced significantly by 31% in the analgesia condition. Changes in the evoked potentials were considered minor however compared to those observed for thresholds, which are subjective response measures. Even in Subjects who reported complete analgesia, the experimenters observed the laser pain evoked responses. There were no differences in latencies of the first pain-related potentials for the three conditions (indicating that peripheral and central afferent conduction velocities were the same).
Discussion. “There has been some dispute concerning the experimental design and the reliability of the data obtained in studies dealing with hypnotic suggested analgesia [Spanos & Chaves, 1970]. In our design 2 ‘opposite’ conditions were induced, and the 2 inductions gave ‘opposite’ results.
“The experience of pain can be significantly altered by suggestions of analgesia, which is in accordance with a number of other studies (for review see [Barber & Adrian, 1982; Hilgard & Hilgard, 1975]). The finding that suggestions of hyperaesthesia can decrease the sensory and pain thresholds and increase the amplitude of the pain evoked potential is a new observation. Since synchronized auditory and visual stimuli from the laser were blocked, and the stimulus was given at random intervals, the changes might be induced by the hypnotic suggestions” (p. 247).
The authors discuss their results in terms of (1) four pain modulation systems (neural/opiate, hormonal/opiate, neural/non-opiate, and hormonal/non-opiate) and (2) focusing and defocusing attention. Because in their pilot study it was necessary to give suggestions continually in order to affect the laser evoked potentials, they conclude that endogenous substances or hormonal/non-opiates would play a minor role, if any, in hypnotic analgesia. (Price and Barber [25] had also found it important to give suggestions continuously.)
On the other hand, “event-related potentials [7, 26] and pain-related potentials have, previously, been shown to be sensitive to focused and de-focused attention. Recently, Miltner et al. [23] showed the influence of attention on the late pain-related component of potentials, evoked by painful intracutaneous electrical stimulation. The degree to which the subject paid attention to the painful stimulus had a powerful effect on the pain-related complex. When subjects ignored the pain, it was still possible to record the pain-related complex although all the subjects consistently reported less or no pain. In wakeful subjects where cutaneous pain was abolished by lignocaine infiltration, the pain-related evoked potentials were abolished [4]. In our study, we could also record evoked potentials although the subject subjectively did not feel pain. The reason might be that the S acted as if there was full analgesia to the stimuli, in order to satisfy the hypnotist. During suggested hyperaesthesia the thresholds declined below what normally could be perceived in the wakeful state. The volunteers could, therefore, not act hypersensitive, so something did happen.
“The discrepancy in subjective and objective responses might, however, be useful when investigating levels of the neuroaxis at which hypnosis might work” (pp. 248-249).
The authors note that this laser induced pain and the tooth pulp stimulation pain of Mayer & Barber both use the A-delta fibers. Barber & Mayer found it impossible to elicit pain within the output range of the stimulator (up to 150 microA) and reached maximal intensity for all volunteers during suggested analgesia. Using cutaneous laser stimulation the authors found that the skin damage level (3W) could be reached in 7 of 8 volunteers without any reaction of pain.
During the hyperaesthesia condition the sensory threshold was sometimes lower than can be detected in the waking state. Although some researchers have suggested that red light from a helium-neon laser might activate cutaneous photosensitive receptors and thereby elicit brain potentials, the authors were unable to elicit potentials in waking Subjects using their blue and green argon laser light with below sensory threshold intensity.
The authors also note that previous attempts to use physiological correlates of pain such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response have yielded confusing results. The physiological indicators are present even when Subjects report analgesia, leading some investigators to conclude that the subjective reports are due to illusion [Sutcliffe, 1961], compliance [Wagstaff, 1986], or a placebo induced by the hypnosis context [Wagstaff, 1986]. “These confusing results lead to the conclusion that both the traditional methods used for induction of pain and the monitored physiological responses have been unsatisfactory. The present study has sought to eliminate some of the methodological difficulties by (1) using brief well-defined argon laser stimuli which in awake volunteers induce very stable perceptions between trials [Arendt-Nielsen & Bjerring, 1988], and (2) recording psychophysical thresholds and objective parameters quantitatively related to the intensity of the pain perceived (1, 3)” (p. 249).

Cikurel, Katia; Gruzelier, John (1990). The effect of an active-alert hypnotic induction on lateral asymmetry in haptic processing. British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, 7, 17-25.

In order to elucidate further left hemispherical inhibitory dynamics in response to instructions of hypnosis, bilateral haptic processing times were compared before and during a traditional hypnotic relaxation procedure and an active-alert procedure in which subjects pedaled a bicycle ergometer and instructions on mental alertness were incorporated with hypnosis. Previous evidence suggesting a slowing of left hemispherical processing and a facilitation of right hemispherical processing in susceptible subjects was replicated, and was shown to characterize high rather than medium susceptibles, the latter showing a bilateral slowing of processing. These effects occurred with both induction procedures whose influence on susceptibility was highly correlated. In fact the lateral shift in processing in the direction of left hemispherical inhibition and right hemispherical facilitation was favoured by the active-alert procedure, indicating that neuropsychological changes which occur with hypnosis cannot be discounted as a by-product of relaxation.
Ross, Colin A.; Fast, E.; Anderson, G.; Auty, A.; Todd, J. (1990). Somatic symptoms in multiple sclerosis and MPD. Dissociation, 3, 102-106.
Fifty subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) were compared to 50 subjects with multiple personality disorder (MPD). MS patients endorsed an average of 3.0 somatic symptoms on structured interview, and MPD subjects an average of 14.5. Somatic symptoms characteristic of neurological illness were trouble walking, paralysis, and muscle weakness, while those characteristic of psychiatric illness were genitourinary and gastrointestinal symptoms.

Bryant, Richard A.; McConkey, Kevin M. (1989). Hypnotic emotions and physical sensations: A real-simulating analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 305-319.

Real hypnotizable Ss and simulating unhypnotizable Ss were administered a suggestion for either happiness, emotional neutrality, or sadness. The emotion was assessed through subjective and behavioral measures taken once before, twice during, and once after the emotion. Findings indicated that emotionally congruent changes occurred in both self-report and performance measures. Ss’ physical sensations during the emotion were assessed on a 34-item self-report scale. It was demonstrated that Ss in the happy versus sad conditions reported different physical sensations; in particular, they reported different facial sensations. The responses of real hypnotizable subjects, however, were essentially paralleled by those of simulating unhypnotizable subjects. Therefore, the possibility exists that hypnotized subjects may have been responding on the basis of social demands. The findings are discussed in terms of the effects of the emotion suggestions, and the implications of real and simulating Ss displaying similar affective responses.

Used the real-simulating model in an attempt to eliminate the possibility that hypnotized Subjects in previous studies may have been responding to the demand characteristics of the situation. Used both subjective and behavioral measures. Self-report happiness and sadness, of emotion intensity; behavioral performance measure of speech rate, indexed by counting speed (which has been shown to distinguish between happiness and sadness). Used 34-item self-report Physical Sensations Scale based on Pennebaker, J. W. The psychology of physical symptoms. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982.
They cite Weiss, et al (1987) who focused on the onset latency, and the fluctuation of muscular contraction associated with facial expression indicated a difference between posthypnotically cued and simulated emotions of anxiety and pleasure.

Hall, H.; Minnes, L. (1989). Psychological modulation of auditory responses. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 36 (1-4), 59-63.

Psychological modulation of auditory response, the effects of imagery and suggestion on auditory thresholds were examined in naive subjects. After a hypnosis-like induction, the subjects, who were not aware of the purpose of the study, were asked to generate and maintain a specific set of images before, during, and after which their auditory thresholds were tested. Following the imagery, which represented cooling and vasoconstriction in the cochlea, audiograms revealed a temporary auditory threshold shift (TTS) in the experimental group only. This TTS pattern was similar to that produced by exposure to loud noise. Information carried in the image is suggested as the basis for the observed auditory changes. Although a hypnosis-like induction was employed, the subjects’ level of hypnotizability did not appear to be related to the findings.

Friedman, Howard; Taub, Harvey A.; Sturr, Joseph F.; Church, Katherine L.; Monty, Richard A. (1986). Hypnotizability and speed of visual information processing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 234-241.

Following the determination of the luminance threshold of each S, high and low hypnotizable Ss were tested for speed of information processing using a backward masking paradigm with a bias-free and ceiling-free psychophysical task. No significant relationship between hypnotizability as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A (SHSS:A) of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1959) and speed of information processing was observed. The order of administering SHSS:A, pre- or postthreshold task, was significantly related to luminance threshold. Results were compared to other studies wherein some evidence for a relationship between hypnotizability and speed of visual information processing had been offered.

106 college students were tested using tachistoscopic presentation of stimuli. 52 Ss received the SHSS:A immediately prior to the experimental tasks, 54 immediately after, and testing was terminated for each Subject after they failed 3 successive items. The test flash was set at 0.3 log units above threshold, i.e. double the threshold intensity. A trial consisted of 2 observation intervals, separated by warning tones. The test flash occurred randomly in one of the two intervals. The S indicated which observation interval contained the test flash by pressing a button. Feedback tones gave S information about the correct response.
“The masking experiment was begun with the suprathreshold test flash occurring 250 milliseconds prior to the onset of the larger bright masking stimulus. As before, a two-interval forced -choice staircase procedure was used, but this time the test intensity was constant, and ISI was changed. If S ‘hit’ three trials in a row, ISI was decreased by 10 milliseconds. The ISIs continued to decrease in 10-millisec steps, until S “missed,” causing an increase in ISI” (p. 348).
RESULTS were analyzed by 2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA (Hypnotizability, sex, and order of hypnotizability measurement). High hypnotizables = 7-12 on the SHSS:A, and low hypnotizables = 0-6. Ss receiving SHSS:A prior to the tasks had a significantly lower luminance threshold (-1.99 log mL) than did those having it after tasks (-1.93 log mL), p<.05. None of the other analyses were significant. No significant relationships were observed vis a vis the masking task, and the mean masking thresholds were almost identical for the lows and highs. DISCUSSION. "Spanos (1982), in studying the effects of hypnotizability and suggestions in altering auditory sensitivity, reviewed the difficulties inherent in the measurement of perceptual accuracy and emphasized the role of response bias in the confounding of results" (p. 239). Secondly, these tasks reflect more fundamental, central processes and use more neutral stimuli than letter recognition used earlier. "Thus, while the masking effects of both the previous recognition tasks (masking by pattern) and the current detection tasks (masking by nearby contours) are presumably mediated through similar high level central processes, the differences in findings could possibly have been related to additional processing cues required in letter recognition" (p. 239). A footnote mentions, "Other studies have shown that with stimulus configurations similar to that used in the present study, there are significant central masking effects (Battersby & Wagman, 1962; Markoff & Sturr, 1971; Turvey, 1973)" (p. 239). "Quite intriguing is the luminance threshold finding which, although not as robust as one would desire, suggests that a hypnotic induction procedure given prior to a task may significantly affect sensitivity on that task. Speculatively, the relaxation suggestions inherent in SHSS:A may account for the changes in luminance threshold" (p. 239). 1985 LaRiccia, P. J.; Katz, R. H.; Peters, J. W.; Atkinson, G. W.; Weiss, T. (1985). Biofeedback and hypnosis in weaning from mechanical ventilators. Chest, 87, 267-269. Weaning patients from mechanical ventilation can be hindered by both physical and psychologic factors. Biofeedback has been used successfully as an adjunct in difficult weaning problems. We have used a combination of hypnosis and biofeedback to wean a patient with neurologic disease who previously failed weaning by standard procedures. A 30-year-old woman with respiratory failure secondary to multiple sclerosis with transverse myelitis was given eight sessions of biofeedback over 12 days in which the movements of her chest wall, as monitored by magnetometers, were displayed on an oscilloscope. The patient was praised for targeted respiratory rate, amplitude, and rhythm. These sessions included hypnosis in which the patient was given suggestions of well-being and that she could breathe as she had five years earlier. In this manner the patient was successfully weaned. Respiratory biofeedback and hypnosis appear to be useful adjuncts in weaning patients form ventilators. Naish, Peter L. N. (1985). The trance described in signal detection terms. British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, 2 (3), 133-138. NOTES While most current theories of hypnosis are of the non-state kind, clinical practitioners seem to use the concept of trance or altered state. The subjective reports of hypnotised subjects usually involve something akin to perceptual distortion, e.g. time distorion, suggested hallucinations. Such "misperceptions" can be explained by signal detection theory, in which the subject shifts the criterion by which they judge a sensation to be over the threshold of random neural excitation. Thus one would predict that "highly susceptible hypnotic subjects will be those who are better able, or more willing, to shift their criteria by large amounts" (p. 134). The author reports experiments from his laboratory that support his hypothesis. [Jean Holroyd] 1983 Barabasz, Arreed F.; Lonsdale, Christopher (1983). Effects of hypnosis on P300 olfactory-evoked potential amplitudes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92 (4), 520-523. From a sample of 93 undergraduates, 4 high- and 5 low-hypnotic susceptibility (the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C) Ss were exposed to a waking condition and a hypnotic induction condition that included a suggestion for anosmia. ANOVAs of the P300 showed significant amplitude increases for weak and strong odors for high-hypnotizable Ss in hypnosis, but not for high-hypnotizable Ss in the waking state. No such amplitude increases were found for the low-hypnotizable ss 1982 Farthing, G. William; Brown, Scott W.; Venturino, Michael (1982). Effects of hypnotizability and mental imagery on signal detection sensitivity and response bias. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 289-305. It was hypothesized that the ability to selectively concentrate attention on mental images would be greater among high hypnotizable Ss than among low hypnotizable Ss, as indicated by a greater interference with visual signal detection by concurrent visual mental imagery in response to specified nouns. This hypothesis was not supported in the overall results, though the finding of a significant interference effect among the high hypnotizable female Ss, but not among other subgroups, indicates that further research with a more refined procedure might be worthwhile. On the control trials without images, the high hypnotizable Ss made more false alarms than lows, and had a significantly different bias index indicating that high hypnotizable Ss were more likely than lows to respond "yes" when uncertain about whether the signal was present; false alarms can be interpreted as a nonhypnotic measure of suggestibility. The high and low hypnotizable Ss did not differ in their times to generate images in response to the specified nouns. 1980 Bauer, Herbert; Berner, Peter; Steinringer, Hermann; Stacher, Georg (1980). Effects of hypnotic suggestions of sensory change on event-related cortical slow potential shifts. Archiv fur Psychologie, 133 (3), 161-169. "The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether cortical slow potentials related to a S1-S2 paradigm are influenced by hypnotic suggestions of sensory change. Five healthy subjects susceptible to hypnosis participated each in two identical experiments with three conditions. In condition (1) and (2) each three intensities of 800 and 4000 Hz tones were presented. Preceding condition (2) hypnosis was induced and the subjects received the suggestion to hear the 800 but not the 4000 Hz tones. In condition (3), the tones were presented as S1 and a flash as S2. The subjects received the same suggestions as in (2) and a motor response to S2 was required. EEG was recorded from Cz. In (1) 800 and 4000 Hz tones caused negativities of equal amplitude, in (2) only minute negativities developed, possibly due to hypnosis induced deactivation. In (3) the S1-S2 related negativities were significantly smaller in amplitude during 4000 Hz tones than during 800 Hz tones, while the negativities preceding S2 differed only after the most intense S1. Hypnotic suggestions attenuate S1-S2 related negative potentials, possibly by affecting cognitive functions. Wallace, Benjamin; Hoyenga, K. B. (1980). Production of proprioceptive errors with induced hypnotic anesthesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (2), 140-147. The present study assessed the ability of Ss to localize their noses with the forefinger of their dominant hands. This was accomplished while S had his eyes closed and while the limb performing the task was or was not hypnotically anesthetized. In performing this task with an anesthetized limb, 2 error types were observed. The first involved a localization error of missing the nose location. A second error involved an increased amount of time required to find the nose location. An inverse relationship was found to exist between these error types such that a large localization error was associated with a short latency period while a small localization error was associated with a long latency period. Neither error type was evident when hypnotic anesthesia was absent. 1975 Talone, James M.; Diamond, Michael Jay; Steadman, Clarence (1975). Modifying hypnotic performance by means of brief sensory experiences. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 23, 190-199. This study examined the extent to which hypnotic performance could be modified by means of 2 types of pre-hypnosis sensory experiences: (a) auditory stimulation in the form of recorded music, and (b) a variant of sensory restriction in the form of a short period of silence with eyes closed. 39 University of Hawaii students were given a baseline test of hypnotic susceptibility and then randomly assigned to 2 of 3 conditions. The Ss in the music and silence groups were exposed to 10 minutes of either recorded music or silence prior to a criterion hypnotic susceptibility scale. Control-group Ss were exposed only to the hypnotic test scale. All Ss reported their experienced hypnotic sensations. Music- and silence-group Ss completed a self-report scale assessing the role played by relaxation and receptive perception in the manipulation. Although the results were not consistent, both music and silence were significantly effective in increasing responsivity in comparison with practice only. The findings are discussed with reference to possible mediating mechanisms, and the implications of these findings with regard to modifying hypnotic ability, along with the need for replication studies, are considered. 1968 Kline, Milton V. (1968). Sensory hypnoanalysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 85-100. SENSORY HYPNOANALYSIS AS A PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH EMPHASIZES THE REORGANIZATION OF COGNITIVE CORRELATES OF SENSORY AND MOTOR COMPONENTS ENCOUNTERED IN BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS. NONVERBAL STIMULATION IS UTILIZED IN ELUCIDATING AREAS OF SENSORY DEPRIVATION AND SENSORY OVERLOADING WHICH APPEAR LINKED TO DISORGANIZING OR INTERFERING EFFECTS UPON THE BEHAVIORAL PROCESS. (SPANISH + GERMAN SUMMARIES) (16 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Schneck, Jerome M. (1966). A study of alterations in body sensations during hypnoanalysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14 (3), 216-231. Presents body-sensation phenomena which appeared in a patient in treatment. The total number exceeds that reported previously and supplies longitudinal as well as cross-sectional perspectives because the data were gathered over a period of several mo. Comparisons are made of this material with findings in other patients. The large variety of sensory phenomena are representations of conscious and unconscious experiences, many of which can be understood in relation to the S''''s conflicts or his total personality functioning at the time the phenomena appeared. Additional areas for investigation include: (1) evaluation of hypnotic sensory phenomena in relation to a variety of symptoms in the form of somatic complaints by patients seeking psychotherapy, (2) the study of sensory experiences in therapists in connection with their roles in the special settings of hypnotherapy and hypnoanalysis and in treatment without hypnosis, (3) the study of body sensations experienced by "normal" individuals and comparisons of them with hypnotic sensory phenomena, and (4) the evaluation of sensory phenomena as reflections of total psychosomatic functioning with its ideational and affective ingredients. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1965 Jackson, Bill (1965). The autoblink: A technique to explore nonveridical visual perception. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (4), 250-260. The Autoblink technique was developed to allow objective, quantitative investigation of perceptual abnormalities found in psychiatric and normal populations under various experimental conditions. A pilot study demonstrated that spontaneous visual percepts could be elicited by this technique in a group of psychiatric patients and that wide individual differences were present. A 2nd study found significant differences in Autoblink rate between normal and hallucinating psychotic male Ss and also suggested that sensory deprivation and prestige suggestion are variables related to Autoblink rate. A 3rd study further explored differences between psychiatric patients and normal Ss as well as examining sex differences. The latter 2 studies are reported in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1964 Brady, J. P.; Levitt, E. E. (1964). Hypnotically-induced 'anosmia' to ammonia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 18-20. The procedure to demonstrate anosmia by the inhalation of ammonia is discussed. Deeply hypnotized Ss who are not knowledgeable of the relevant facts of physiology may fail to respond to ammonia fumes when it is suggested that they have no sense of smell (anosmia). However, persons who, in fact, are anosmic do respond to ammonia fumes because they are a powerful stimulus to the pain fibers in the nasal mucosa. This procedure illustrates that the crucial factor in the response of the hypnotized S is not the actual facts of anatomy and physiology, but the S''''s concept of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1960 Sukhakarn, Khun Vichit (1960/1962). Extra ocular vision [Letter]. British Journal of Medical Hypnotism, 14 (2), 41-47. NOTES The article is in the original form of a letter to Herbert Spiegel, M.D. The author describes experiences training subjects, both blind and with normal vision, to 'see' through the skin of their cheeks. Training involved concentrative meditation (Buddhist) and hypnosis. Simple tests were performed, apparently independently, by two other scientists. "From information available from our subjects, the Extra Ocular Vision gained through the cheek-skin is different from those through the eyes as best explained here below:-- (1) The vision through the cheek-skin first takes a form of a series of spots somewhat like the image of coarse gain prints. Only after further training the spots are transformed into a clear object, so clear that needle threading is possible. (2) Objects seen through the cheek-skin are as clear as through the eyes. Distant objects can be magnified by the subject's wish, just like looking through an opera glass. (3) The vision gained through the cheek-skin is first 'seen' in black and white, and the 'colour picture' is achieved only after further training. But the colour 'seen' through the cheek is more intense than those through the eyes. (4) The field of vision 'seen' through each side of the cheek is more narrow than those seen through each eye. (5) There is a sign indicating that the vision through the cheek is only two-dimensional, the subjects find it difficult at first to stand the finger to another finger test" (p. 42). 1955