We are reporting on part of an ongoing study, with results still being analyzed. We are looking at imagination, fantasy, and dissociation in abused and non-abused children. This focuses on the relationship between dissociation and fantasy and imagination.
For Janet, dissociation was the primary defense against trauma. [Quotes D. Spiegel also.] There is a body of research on trauma associated with the development of dissociation. 1. NIH found 97% of multiple personality patients reported trauma in childhood; 83% were sexually abused; 75% were repeatedly physically abused; 68% had both types of abuse. 2. Bliss – studied 70 MPDs and found same results. 3. Ross, Norton, and Noosney [?name] – found same results 4. Coombs & Milstein – same
The incidence of retrospective reports of abuse is much lower in other types of patients.
So, what is going on during child abuse? We wanted to look at children experiencing or who recently experienced abuse. Also looked at a children’s scale of dissociation symptoms and validated other studies.
We studied 39 children referred to Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine; 12 had primary problem as sexual abuse (8 of whom were female). Non-abused Ss were either behavioral or adjustment disorders. 8 reported severe physical abuse. Parents concurred in presence of abuse. Physical abuse consisted of broken bones, burns, etc. Average age 9-10.
Ss were given the Beck Depression Scale, Children’s Fantasy Inventory, Meyers’ Children’s Creative Imagination Scale, Children’s Perception Alteration Scale, Figure Drawings, WISC-R, and 2-3 other measures. Research assistants administering the scales didn’t know the children’s diagnoses.
We found no support for the hypothesis that sexual abuse in childhood is associated with imagination, fantasy, or dissociative tendencies–not surprising considering that only 4 Ss were abused by their father or stepfather, 2/3 of Ss had fondling as the most severe abuse they had experienced; only 2 had intercourse; 2/3 were abused only 1-3 times. Sexual abuse that is not violent, severe, prolonged, or perpetrated by a parent may not lead to the same problems.
In a sample of women whose assaults were rape, only 25% reported it as rape.
On other hand, physical punishment was more reliably associated with dissociation (.47), imagination and fantasy in absorption scale (.41-.51 with question about using imagination to block awareness of punishment). Physical punishment was associated with increased dissociation.
Sample size is small and the trend is in the predicted direction, so later results may be significant.
Conclusion: measures of fantasy, dissociation, and imagination were correlated. Children’s Perception Alteration Scale and the measures of fantasy and imagination were validated. Diverse measures of fantasy were highly correlated with one another.
We need a non-abused sample to add to this research.
The clinical sample had a higher dissociation score than Evers, Sanders, and Shostick’s cutting score. We use 60 as a cutting score (for an abused sample) while they used 55.
Jack Watkins: the sexual abuse for the most part was not painful. Answer by Rhue: The group of sexual abuse cases includes very wide varieties of experiences; we need to examine that in our research. Also, trauma and the perception of trauma is an individual matter.
Etzel Cardena: We presented a paper at APA in which sexual abuse was a predictor of psychogenic seizures, and most important, the duration of the abuse.
Phyllis Alden: In a recent study in Germany, it was length of time for the abuse that predicted [dissociative symptoms?].

Sivec, Harry; Lynn, Steven Jay (1993, October). Hypnosis and early memories. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington Heights, IL.

The investigators hypnotized people and asked that they recall their earliest memories. Gorham & Hafner tested highs and lows in 2 sessions, one with a hypnotic induction. Ss in hypnosis reported more themes, whether high hypnotizables or not. Ss might have held back in non hypnosis condition however.
Hypothesized that early memories would have affect-laden materials.
20 Ss in hypnosis group, 20 Ss in relaxation condition, all highs (scored minimum of 9 of 12 on the Harvard Scale). Ss were told they were randomly selected from a pool and that it was a study of personality. Ss were administered a number of questionnaires and tests.
The two groups received either a Stanford Form C Scale induction or a relaxation procedure.
We used the procedure of Bloom [spelling?] for recall of two memories, and to probe the earliest memory. Also to recall two recent memories. Counterbalanced for order of presentation.
Positive affect, negative affect, affect intensity, and primary process were rated; 12 themes were rated. ANOVA was used.
Earliest memory at 3.8 yrs. Next earliest is 7.5 for hypnosis and 5.2 for relaxation groups. 4.3 is earliest for hypnosis group; there may be a basement effect. Negative affect varied by condition and by order of administration and recency of memory assessed. When early memories were elicited first, no differences were found in groups; when elicited second, negative affect was greater for [missed words]. Affect was more abundant and intense in the hypnosis group, but only when recent memories were elicited before early memories and only in the [missed words].
Early recollections were slightly more primary process (bizarre) than later, which should alert clinicians.
Themes didn’t differ between groups. Early memories involved more trauma than later memories. Negative affect correlated with psychopathology measures for earliest memory but not later memory.
Used posthypnotic experiences scales. There is a decrease in unpleasant experiences, suggesting the benefit of catharsis when recalling early memories.

Darken, Rachel (1992). Hypnosis in the treatment of survivors of sexual abuse. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 20, 105-110.

This paper outlines the problems of child sexual abuse and its long-term sequelae, often reaching down generations. In psychotherapy with survivors of childhood sexual abuse, hypnosis offers a flexible treatment modality and the paper focuses particularly on the use of hypnosis and self-hypnosis for the “reparenting” element of psychotherapy.

Herbert, James D.; Mueser, Kim T. (1992). Eye movement desensitization: A critique of the evidence. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.
The scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of eye movement desensitization (EMD), a novel intervention for traumatic memories and related conditions, is reviewed. The sparse research conducted in this area has serious methodological flaws, precluding definite conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the procedure. Clinicians are cautioned against uncritically accepting the clinical efficacy of EMD.

Hoencamp, E. (1992). Comment on the Nelson case. [Comment/Discussion] .

Comments on paper by H. B. Gibson, ‘A recent British case of a man charged with using hypnosis for rape and other sexual offences.’ Comentator refers to his earlier article, Hoencamp, E. (1990). Sexual abuse and the abuse of hypnosis in the therapeutic relationship. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 283-297.

Hollander, Ellen L.; Baw, Saul D. (1992, October). Improving outcomes in sex therapy through the use of hypnotic methods. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington, VA.

This is a report on the Cornell University Medical College Human Sexuality Program and Behavior Therapy Program. Cognitive-behavioral treatment is the principal approach in sex therapy these days (in contrast to insight treatment before 1954).
The authors find hypnosis to be useful in cases that were previously thought to be treatment refractory. Insensuality, inability to be absorbed, seems at the root of these problems. Hypnosis is useful for diagnosis and for developing task relevant immersion.
Three types of disorders: Desire phase Excitement phase Orgasm phase
Each phase has specific obstacles that can be elicited with a detailed interview: 1. Desire: anti-fantasy or the person focuses on unpleasant images 2. Excitement: performance anxiety or rumination about sexual potency (especially in men) 3. Orgasm: spectatoring or self-observation
Basic treatment strategy is to promote maintenance of absorption while dealing with the material that had been eliciting anxiety. In past we traditionally assumed absorption was present. Often this isn’t the case. It can be addressed with hypnotic methods. Conceptualized as a skill, hypnosis can improve the patient’s ability to shift from peripheral to focal awareness.
Reports in the literature address sexual dysfunction as one unitary phenomenon, using direct suggestions, anxiety/stress reduction techniques, metaphorical suggestions, ego strengthening devices, hypnoanalytic procedures to uncover the unconscious determinants of dysfunction.
Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Kleinknecht, Ronald A.; Conley, Althea T.; Dal Cerro, Steven; Schmidt, Joel; Sonntag, Michael E. (1992). A methodological critique of the current status of eye movement desensitization (EMD). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.
Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) has been recently advocated as a rapid treatment for the elimination of traumatic memories responsible for the maintenance of a number of anxiety disorders and their clinical correlates. Despite a limited conceptual framework, EMD has attracted considerable interest among clinicians and researchers. The popularity and interest generated by EMD will likely result in wide usage. We present a methodological critique of it with reference to assessment, treatment outcome, and treatment process. We also provide guidelines for judging the methodological adequacy of research on EMD and suggest intensive research to assess effectiveness, treatment components, and comparisons with other procedures.

Mottahedin, I. (1992). Was hypnosis involved in the Nelson case?. Contemporary Hypnosis, 9 (3), 158-163.

This is a comment on a case described by Gibson in the same issue of this journal. The case involved a man accused of raping women after hypnotizing them.

Murrey, Gregory J.; Cross, Herb J.; Whipple, Jim (1992). Hypnotically created pseudomemories: Further investigation into the ‘memory distortion or response bias’ question. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101 (1), 75-77.
n order to study whether pseudomemories represent actual memory distortions or are a result of response bias, 60 highly hypnotizable subjects and subjects from the general population were divided into 4 experimental groups and were tested for pseudomemory manifestation after receiving a false suggestion. Of the 4 groups of subjects, 3 were offered a monetary reward as a motivation to distinguish false suggestion from the actual occurrence. Pseudomemory manifestation was found to be significantly higher among subjects not offered a reward than among subjects who were offered such a reward. The implications of these findings are discussed.
NOTES: The article contains a review of the literature through 1989. The study tested the hypothesis that when it is important to distinguish fantasy from reality in a hypnosis experiment, subjects can do so–a position presented by Spanos and McLean (1986). They used a verifiable event to test for pseudomemory production, as in research published by McCann and Sheehan (1988). Subjects were 30 high hypnotizable and 30 unselected students.
Subjects were shown a videotape of a mock robbery scene. The next week, Groups A, B, and C heard audiotapes “to enhance memory,” but in addition to motivating statements about “trying to remember” certain details, the tapes included misleading information (e.g. “Remember the color of the hat the robber was wearing” when in fact there was no hat on the robber). Subjects in these groups were ‘influenced.’
“Both highly hypnotizable subject groups (Groups A and B) listened to the audiotape after being administered a 10-min hypnotic induction procedure (modified from that of Barber, 1969). Subject Group C listened to the audiotape without hypnosis. The control group, Group D, did not listen to the audiotape and was, therefore, classified as ‘uninfluenced.'”
A week later subjects responded to multiple-choice and yes-no or true-false questions about the robbery scene. The yes-no question about whether the robber was wearing a hat served as the dependent variable, a measure of pseudomemory. “To motivate subjects to report the truth rather than to follow any perceived expectations of the experimental of social context, we offered subjects in Groups B, C, and D a monetary reward if they achieved the most correct answers on the quiz (according to the videotape). The reward was offered just before administration of the quiz to ensure that no collusion between the subjects could occur. Group A was not offered any such reward” (p. 76).
“The number of subjects in Group A (hypnotized, influenced, no reward) who reported the false information at posttest (12) was significantly greater then that of Group B (hypnotized, influenced, offered reward…. However, the difference in incidence of pseudomemory between Group B and the control group, Group D (not hypnotized, uninfluenced, offered reward), was nonsignificant” (p. 76).
Table 1 Incidence of Pseudomemory Per Group ——————————————————————————————- False suggestion Group A Group B Group C Group D
result (n=15) (n=15) (n=15) (n=15) ——————————————————————————————-
Accepted 12 6 7 3
Rejected 3 9 8 12 —————————————————————————————— Note. Group A = hypnotized, influenced, not offered reward.
Group B = hypnotized, influenced, offered reward.
Group C = not hypnotized, influenced, offered reward.
Group D = not hypnotized, not influenced, offered reward.
In the Discussion, the authors wrote, “Because the only variable among these groups was the reward, a reasonable conclusion from the findings is that pseudomemories manifested by the subjects were (for the most part) not actual memory distortions. Presumably, the reward provided the subjects in Group B an incentive to ‘report the truth’ and a disincentive to give biased reports on the basis of the perceived expectations of the social or experimental context. Thus these data suggest that pseudomemory effects or the occurrence of the pseudomemory phenomenon among highly hypnotizable subjects can be minimized by providing a motivation to subjects to give unbiased reports.
“A major implication of these findings is that researchers should control for response bias resulting from perceived social demands or from leading test designs when they conduct pseudomemory research. Of further concern is the fact that a number of researchers contend that hypnotic interrogation of eye-witnesses can greatly facilitate the creation of pseudomemories (Levitt, 1990; Loftus, 1979; Orne, 1979; Putnam, 1979), and therefore hypnosis either should not be allowed in the courtroom or should be strictly controlled. Yet in light of our findings, response bias may be a confound in pseudomemory research, and thus researchers need to be cautious when making inferences to specific situations from data obtained in an experimental setting.
“Despite the existence of a confound of (unmeasured) differences in hypnotizability between the two groups, there was no significant difference between Group B and the control group (Group D). This suggests that if response bias is controlled for, there may not be significant differences in manifestation of pseudomemories between highly hypnotizable subjects and subjects representative of the general population. However, further research is needed in order to address this question” (pp. 76-77).

Chu, James A.; Dill, Diana L. (1991). Dissociation, borderline personality disorder, and childhood trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148 (6), 812.

Comments on the article by S. N. Ogata et al (see PA, vol 78:4681) on the high prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in inpatients with borderline personality disorder. It is suggested that dissociative symptoms in borderline patients may simply be a less severe form of intrapsychic fragmentation than multiple personalities.

Cornell, William F.; Olio, Karen A. (1991). Integrating affect in treatment with adult survivors of physical and sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61 (1), 59-69.

Presents a theoretical and technical model for affectively centered treatment of adults abused as children, focusing on the function of denial and dissociation as central defense mechanisms. The concept is introduced of working at an “affective edge.” At this experiential point, a client can maintain both cognitive understanding and emotional and bodily awareness without triggering denial and dissociation. This approach fosters careful monitoring of the client’s functioning both during and between therapeutic sessions. The proposed therapeutic approach uses noninvasive touch and body-centered techniques. Focus is on integrating affect and on the importance of the therapeutic relationship.

Friedrich, William N. (1991). Hypnotherapy with traumatized children. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39 (2), 67-81.

The psychological impact of trauma can include cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. The degree to which a child is either overwhelmed by or unable to access the traumatic event can make the working through of the event in therapy difficult. Hypnotherapy is a useful modality not only for alleviating symptoms but also for uncovering the traumatic event(s) with associated affects, integrating and making sense of the experience. 4 case studies are reported to illustrate the utility of hypnotherapy with young, traumatized children.

Gibson, H. B. (1991). Can hypnosis compel people to commit harmful, immoral and criminal acts?: A review of the literature. Contemporary Hypnosis, 8, 129-140.

The literature relating to whether hypnosis can be used to compel people to perform acts that are dangerous, immoral or criminal is reviewed, some evidence over the past 200 years being discussed. Relevant real-life instances are cited as well as the laboratory studies of the twentieth century. Detailed criticisms of the latter are made, and it is shown that although no really conclusive findings have emerged, such research has strongly implied that hypnosis does not increase compliance. Four past criminal trials concerned with alleged rape and sexual assault are cited. It is concluded that whilst hypnosis may be one among a number of techniques used in sexual seduction, it is not reasonable to claim that rape has ever been effected by means of hypnosis alone.
NOTES: Review of literature that concludes that while hypnosis may be one among a number of techniques used in sexual seduction, it is not reasonable to claim that rape has ever been effected by means of hypnosis alone.

Rhue, Judith W.; Lynn, Steven Jay (1991). Storytelling, hypnosis and the treatment of sexually abused children. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39 (4), 198-214.

The present article describes an assessment and therapy program for sexually abused children using hypnotherapeutic techniques which center on storytelling. Storytelling presents the therapist with an opportunity to use comforting suggestions, symbolism, and metaphor to provide the emotional distance necessary to deal with the trauma of abuse. Hypnotherapy proceeds in a stepwise fashion from the building of a sense of safety and security; to imaginativge sharing; to the introduction of reality events; to the final step of addressing complex emotional issues of loss, trust, love, and guilt brought about by the abuse.

Smith, William H. (1991). Antecedents of posttraumatic stress disorder: Wasn’t being raped enough? A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39, 129-133.

Many rape victims, like those traumatized by war, accidents, and natural disasters, are able to recover from their ordeal with supportive, crisis-oriented treatment. For others, however, symptoms may persist and require more intensive treatment. Hypnosis allows a modulated re-experiencing and abreaction of the traumatic event that can help to provide the victim with a relieving sense of mastery, and it fosters a receptive context for reassurance and interpretation regarding the irrational or exaggerated thoughts and feelings involved. 2 case examples are presented in which earlier conflicts appeared to play a role in perpetuating the patients’ symptoms. Detecting and addressing these antecedents resulted in complete alleviation of long-standing problems through relatively brief treatment using hypnosis.

Levitt, Eugene E. (1990). A reversal of hypnotically “refreshed” testimony: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38 (1), 6-9.

A case is briefly presented in which questioning under hypnosis led to a positive identification of an accused rapist when the victim had previously been uncertain. During the trial, the victim was first certain, then reverted to her pre-hypnotic uncertainty. An appeal from the conviction of the defendant was denied on the grounds that the witness’ uncertainty meant that the hypnotic intervention was harmless error. It is possible that this decision may not be entirely justified.

Perry, Campbell (1990). Coercion by hypnosis? Invited discussion of Levitt, Baker, and Fish: Some conditions of compliance and resistance among hypnotic subjects. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 32 (4), 242-243.

“A postexperimental inquiry (following Orne, 1959) might have informed the reader of the degree to which operationalization of the coercion in terms of disobedience was successful. Without this additional step, it is difficult to determine whether what was found in the laboratory by these investigators applies to what has been reported in clinical and field settings for almost 200 years” (p. 242).
“In particular, elsewhere, the authors equate coercion with involuntariness and appear to view involition as a euphemism for coercion. While I agree that perceiving involition of one’s own behavior may contribute to the commission of unconsenting acts in hypnosis, the two are easily distinguished at the conceptual level. Laboratory subjects ordinarily report much behavior in hypnosis that is experienced involuntarily, without the issue of it being coerced ever being broached” (p. 242).
Author describes cases in which patients claimed they participated in sex with hypnotist against their wills because they were hypnotized. “What may be happening in both of these reports is that the hypnotized subjects found themselves responding involuntarily; from this, they appear to have adduced that they could not resist the hypnotist’s suggestion. That is, they were coerced not by hypnosis but by their belief, which was a direct function of the experience of involuntariness, that they could not resist” (p. 243). “In short, if a hypnotized person equates involuntary behavior with powerlessness, “coercion” may occur in this limited sense. Conceptually, this appears to be a far cry from equating involition with coercion” (p. 243).

Somer, E. (1990). Brief simultaneous couple hypnotherapy with a rape victim and her spouse: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38 (1), 1-5.

This paper presents a case involving a rape victim and her emotionally affected spouse. Although the assault occurred before the couple met, the husband was too upset to concentrate when the victim wanted to share her rape-related feelings, nor could he provide the much needed empathy and support. This, apparently, was due to his difficulties in handling his own rage. Simultaneous couple hypnotherapy was used to allow the victim to share her experience under conditions safe for both her and her spouse. As he imagined in trance the rape account described by his age-regressed wife, he learned to identify his emotions and experience them in a controlled manner. During subsequent sessions, the husband was encouraged to include himself in his wife’s abreaction and reshape the traumatic scene for both of them. The husband’s rescuing behavior and the expressions of violent anger towards the perpetrator had several positive consequences. Not only did they change the abandonment component of the victim’s traumatic memory, but they also helped the husband deal in better ways with his own feelings of anger. It also provided the couple with a helpful coping mechanism they later effectively applied under different circumstances.

Borgeat, Francois; Rezanowicz, Thaddeus; Chaloult, Louis (1988). La stimulation preconsciente et consciente de l’imaginaire erotique. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 33, 394-398.

The stimulation of erotic fantasies through the association of relaxation and erotic conscious or preconscious suggestions has been evaluated. This study was attempted following positive results in the stimulation of fantasmatic activity in alexithymic subjects with a similar procedure. Thirty female subjects, allocated into three groups practiced relaxation daily for two weeks including three sessions with psychological measures. During the second week, erotic suggestions, preconscious for one group and conscious for another one were added. The third group (control) received only relaxation throughout. Results have shown an increase of sexual arousal and erotic imagery during the sessions with erotic suggestions. Sexual activities and desire increased in the two experimental groups. There was no difference between the effects of the preconscious and conscious suggestions. Possible clinical applications of such a procedure are discussed.

Venn, J. (1988). Misuse of hypnosis in sexual contexts: Two case reports. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36 (1), 12-18.

A military officer was accused by 2 young men of having used hypnosis to attempt homosexual relations. The officer denied the charges and claimed that the young men had imagined these events while they were in altered states of consciousness. The officer did admit to questionable practices such as consuming alcoholic beverages with the 2 young men and then using relaxation techniques with them in bedrooms. Subject motivation and nonhypnotic coercive tactics such as abuse of authority and alcohol seem important in understanding alleged cases of hypnotic coercion

Herman, Judith; Russell, Diana; Trocki, Karen (1986). Long-term effects of incestuous abuse in childhood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1293-1296.

Studied 2 groups of adult women with histories of incest, a nonclinical sample (n – 152) and an outpatient sample (n – 53) to investigate long-term outcomes of sexual abuse. Results indicate that Ss in the community sample reported a range of long- term effects from the incest. Most said they had recovered well from their trauma. Most Ss who had suffered forceful, prolonged, or highly intrusive sexual abuse, or who had been abused by their father or stepfather, reported long-lasting negative effects. The patient sample reported histories comparable to the most severe traumatic histories in the community sample.
Miller, Arnold (1986). Hypnotherapy in a case of dissociated incest. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34 (1), 13-28.
This case study describes hypnotherapy with a young woman who, in the course of treatment, began to remember her incestuous relationship with her alcoholic father. Her presenting symptoms included self-assaultive masturbation, suicidal fantasies, depression, impaired sexual functioning, and inability to resume her education. Different phases of treatment entailed uncovering work, mastering the incest experience with the help of emotionally corrective experiences, the use of part-selves to assist coping, and the integration of several part-selves into a more effective personality. After 4 years of treatment she has successfully resumed her education, has normal sexual functioning, and is no longer incapacitated by depression.

Bliss, Eugene L.; Larson, Esther M. (1985). Sexual criminality and hypnotizability. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173, 522-526.

Investigated 33 17-35 yr old sexual offenders, 18 of whom had been convicted of rape, 9 of pedophilia, and 6 of incest. Ss completed a questionnaire containing a list of 15 factors that might have contributed to their crime, a self-report containing 305 items that are symptoms characteristic of 11 major psychiatric syndromes, and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Controls for the self-report were 48 individuals taken from a church group, nurses, technicians, and graduate students. Controls for the hypnotizability scale were cigarette smokers who smoked 1 1/2 pack/day and S data taken from the literature. Results show that two-thirds of the Ss had histories of spontaneous self-hypnotic experiences (dissociations); 7 of these were DSM-III multiples and 6 were probable multiples. This group had very high hypnotizability scores. The other one-third without histories of spontaneous self-hypnosis had normal scores. It is concluded that spontaneous self-hypnosis contributed to the perpetration of the crimes in many of tehse cases, although other factors also directed the antisocial behaviors. (22 ref).

Matthews, William J. Jr.; Kirsch, Irving; Allen, George J. (1984). Posthypnotic conflict and psychopathology — controlling for the effects of posthypnotic suggestions: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32 (4), 362-365.

Hypnotically implanted paramnesias (false memories) designed to arouse Oedipal and non-Oedipal sexual conflicts were implanted in 2 groups of male undergraduate Ss. Ss in a third condition were hypnotized but no paramnesia was implanted. In a fourth condition, the Oedipal paramnesia was presented to Ss who had been instructed by coexperimenters to simulate hypnosis. All Ss had achieved a score of 7 or higher on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. C. Orne, 1962). Following implantation of the paramnesia, Ss were given conflict activating instructions consisting of posthypnotic suggestions to express strong sexual feelings in response to cue words contained in the paramnesias. Ss in all conditions produced significantly more symptoms of discomfort to cue words than to neutral words. No significant between-group differences were found. These results question the contention that discomfort following the implantation of an Oedipal paramnesia constitutes empirical support for psychoanalytic theory.

Nash, Michael R.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Givens, Deborah L. (1984). Adult hypnotic susceptibility, childhood punishment, and child abuse: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32, 6-11.

Earlier empirical and theoretical work has suggested that there is a relationship between higher hypnotic susceptibility and severity of childhood punishment. Experiment 1 surveyed the parents of 14 extremely high and 11 extremely low susceptible Ss concerning punishment. Low susceptible Ss were found to be more frequently punished than highs; no significant differences were found on the severity measure. Experiment 2 assessed the hypnotizability of 16 adult Ss who reported being physically abused before the age of 10 and compared these scores to those of 300 adult Ss who had not reported being abused. The mean hypnotizability of abused Ss was greater than that of controls, and the distribution of their scores appeared bimodal. Limitations of both experiments are discussed and suggestions are made for future investigations.

Stava, L. (1984). The use of hypnotic uncovering techniques in the treatment of pedophilia: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32 (4), 350-355.

This case study describes the use of the hypnotic uncovering techniques of induced dreams (Sacerdote, 1967) and the affect bridge (Watkins, 1971) in reducing inappropriate sexual arousal in a male pedophile. Treatment effects were examined through the use of both psychophysiological measures of penile tumescence and psychological tests. The hypnotherapeutic treatment regime consisted of 25 sessions over approximately 9 months. At the end of treatment, psychophysiological measures revealed a definite reduction of sexual excitation to slides of prepubescent children. Psychological testing indicated reduced defensiveness as well as reduced sexual anxiety to adult women. Various hypnotherapeutic experiences which may have contributed to the treatment effects are discussed.

Watkins, John G. (1984). The Bianchi (L.A. hillside strangler) Case: Sociopath or multiple personality?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32 (2), 67-101.

The case of Kenneth Bianchi (the Los Angeles “Hillside Strangler”) has been controversial ever since he was first arrested in January, 1979. This contributor saw Bianchi as a consultant on March 21st and 22nd, 1979. Under hypnosis, he manifested what appeared to be a multiple personality. An underlying personality, “Steve,” whose existence was apparently unknown to Bianchi, claimed responsibility for the 2 murders in Bellingham and those in Los Angeles. As a consequence, the court appointed 5 other consultants to examine the defendant. On April 20, 1979, I activated the Steve personality without a hypnotic induction. It described many murders in Los Angeles, indicating which ones he (Steve) had done and which ones Bianchi’s cousin (Angelo Buono) did. The major personality (Ken) appeared to be amnesic to all this. 2 additional “personalities” were elicited by Martin Orne, another consultant. However, Orne would not accept the diagnosis of multiple personality. He diagnosed Bianchi as an “Antisocial Personality” (Sociopath) and claimed that he was a clever malingerer. He also asserted that Bianchi had never been hypnotized. The evidence, Rorschach tests, intelligence tests, handwriting samples, art creations, plus recorded sessions by Watkins, Orne and others, are analyzed. This writer concludes that the diagnosis of multiple personality is strongly supported.

Epstein, S. J.; Deyoub, P. L. (1983). Hypnotherapeutic control of exhibitionism: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (2), 63-66.

Hypnotherapy was used to treat a 30-year-old exhibitionist in 8 sessions. Under hypnosis, he explored causes for his behavior, developed tension reducing techniques, and learned a posthypnotic emergency response. If he felt exposure imminent, his fists would clench, precluding the possibility of exposure. At 2-year follow-up, there were no known exposures.
Karlin, Robert (1983). Forensic hypnosis–two case reports: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (4), 227-234.
Two criminal cases are briefly described. In these cases, hypnosis was used to “refresh the recollection” of the victim. In each case, the victim’s unsupported identification of a perpetrator, produced through hypnosis, was the sole evidentiary basis of the prosecution. There was considerable evidence that both identifications were based on confabulation.

Polk, W. M. (1983). Treatment of exhibitionism in a 38-year-old male by hypnotically assisted covert sensitization. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (3), 132-138.

This case study reports the successful treatment of a 38-year-old male with a 14 year history of exhibitionism. A multifaceted treatment program was used, involving hypnotically assisted covert sensitization and brief marital therapy. Hypnosis was used to develop psychic aversive and reinforcing stimuli from the patient’s past experience. The value of hypnosis in enhancing imagery in cognitive treatment approaches and the need for only experienced clinicians to utilize the present intervention strategy is discussed.

Frutiger, A. Dewane (1981). Treatment of penetration phobia through the combined use of systematic desensitization and hypnosis: A case study. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 269-273.

Systematic desensitization and hypnosis were used in a client with long- standing penetration phobia. Glass test tubes were used in dilation exercises and masturbation instead of more expensive metal catheters. The client was able to have intercourse and adequate sexual adjustment.

Erickson, Milton H. (1980). Innovative hypnotherapy. New York, NY: Irvington Publishers, Inc..
NOTES: This fourth volume of four has 9 sections, with chapters as follows. I. General Introductions to Hypnotherapy
1. The applications of hypnosis to psychiatry
2. Hypnosis in medicine
3. Hypnotic techniques for the therapy of acute psychiatric disturbances in war
4. Hypnotic psychotherapy
5. Hypnosis in general practice
6. Hypnosis: Its renascence as a treatment modality
7. Hypnotic approaches to therapy II. Indirect Approaches to Symptom Resolution
8. A clinical note on indirect hypnotic therapy
9. The hypnotic and hypnotherapeutic investigation and determination of symptom- function
10. Experimental hypnotherapy in Tourette’s Disease
11. Hypnotherapy: The patient’s right to both success and failure
12. Successful hypnotherapy that failed
13. Visual hallucination as a rehearsal for symptom resolution III. Utilization Approaches to Hypnotherapy
14. Special techniques of brief hypnotherapy
15. Pediatric hypnotherapy
16. The utilization of patient behavior in the hypnotherapy of obesity: Three case reports
17. Hypnosis and examination panics
18. Experiential knowledge of hypnotic phenomena employed for hypnotherapy