19. The burden of responsibility in effective psychotherapy
20. The use of symptoms as an integral part of hypnotherapy
21. Hypnosis in obstetrics: Utilizing experimental learnings
22. A therapeutic double bind utilizing resistance
23. Utilizing the patient’s own personality and ideas: ‘Doing it his own way’ IV. Hypnotherapeutic Approaches to Pain
24. An introduction to the study and application of hypnosis for pain control
25. The therapy of a psychosomatic headache
26. Migraine headache in a resistant patient
27. Hypnosis in painful terminal illness
28. The interspersal hypnotic technique for symptom correction and pain control
29. Hypnotic training for transforming the experience of chronic pain V. Hypnotherapeutic Approaches in Rehabilitation
30. Hypnotically oriented psychotherapy in organic brain damage
31. Hypnotically oriented psychotherapy in organic brain disease: An addendum
32. An application of implications of Lashley’s researches in a circumscribed arteriosclerotic brain condition
33. Experimental hypnotherapy in a speech problem: A case report
34. Provocation as a means of motivating recovery from a cerebrovascular accident VI. Hypnotherapy with Psychotics
35. Hypnotherapy with a psychotic
36. Symptom prescription for expanding the psychotic’s world view VII. Sexual Problems Hypnotherapeutic Reorientations to Emotional Satisfaction
37. Posthypnotic suggestion for ejaculatio praecox
38. Psychotherapy achieved by a reversal of the neurotic processes in a case of ejaculatio praecox
39. Modesty: An authoritarian approach permitting reconditioning via fantasy
40. Sterility: A therapeutic reorientation to sexual satisfaction
41. The abortion issue: Facilitating unconscious dynamics perm itting real choice
42. Impotence: Facilitating unconscious reconditioning
43. Latent homosexuality: Identity exploration in hypnosis
44. Vasectomy: A detailed illustration of a therapeutic reorientation VII. Self-Exploration in the Hypnotic State: Facilitating Unconscious Processes and Objective Thinking
45. Pseudo-orientation in time as a hypnotherapeutic procedure
46. Facilitating objective thinking and new frames of reference with pseudo-orientation in time
47. Self-exploration in the hypnotic state
48. Self-exploration in trance following a surprise handshake induction
49. The reorganization of unconscious thinking without conscious awareness: Two cases of intellectualized resistance against hypnosis IX. Facilitating New Identity
50. Psychological shocks and creative moments in psychotherapy
51. Facilitating a new cosmetic frame of reference
52. The ugly duckling: Transforming the self-image
53. A shocking breakout of a mother domination
54. Shock and surprise facilitating a new self-image
55. Correcting an inferiority complex
56. The hypnotherapy of two psychosomatic dental problems
57. The identification of a secure reality
58. The hypnotic corrective emotional experience
59. The February man: Facilitating new identity in hypnotherapy

Araoz, Daniel (1978, August). Hypnosis in treating sexual abulia. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

Sexual abulia is described as a pathological condition where normal sexual desire is absent, following Kaplan’s recent conceptualization of hypoactive sexual desire. Reasons for preferring the current descriptive label are proposed. The clinical use of hypnosis in its treatment is outlined with emphasis on constructive and guided fantasy production. A detailed case illustrates the procedure of hypnotherapy in treating an extreme case of sexual abulia. General conclusions on the effectiveness of hypnosis for this sexual dysfunction are drawn and two hypotheses are suggested to explain its cure. The need for further research is stressed.

Brown, Jude M.; Chaves, John F., Ph.D (1978, August). Hypnosis in the treatment of sexual dysfunction. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

Recent reports suggest that hypnosis may be a useful technique for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Five distinct strategies for the utilization of hypnosis in sex therapy can be identified: (1) as a diagnostic tool, (2) to improve self-confidence, (3) as an adjunct to behavior therapy, (4) for the direct removal of symptoms, and (5) to facilitate the resolution of neurotic conflicts. Case reports documenting these applications of hypnotic procedures typically fail to include significant information regarding patient variables, symptomatology, the nature of the therapeutic intervention, and criteria for improvement. Although the conclusions provided by these case studies are encouraging, it is essential that the efficacy of hypnotic techniques in sex therapy be evaluated by controlled studies.

Wijesinghe, B. (1977). A case of frigidity treated by short-term hypnotherapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 63-67.

The case is presented of a patient with longstanding frigidity who was resistant to treatment by widely used behavioral techniques. Following the training in hypnosis, a free-association procedure enabled her to integrate past experiences, unconscious fantasies, and her sexual difficulty. The patient made a dramatic recovery and the treatment gains were seen to be maintained at follow-up after 1 year.

Roper, P. (1966). The use of hypnosis in the treatment of exhibitionism. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 94, 72-77. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1966, 9, p. 83)

The use of hypnosis in the treatment of exhibitionism is described in three patients in whom the condition has been present for more than five years. In each patient there was no subsequent recurrence of the exhibitionism once therapeutic suggestions had been made in a deep hypnotic trance, the follow-up period being respectively five years, four and a half years, and one year. The method of treatment and the results are discussed in terms of the concepts of behaviour therapy. It is concluded that with certain patients suffering from exhibitionism the use of hypnosis may well be one of the best methods of treatment, but considerable care should be exercised to exclude those patients with an underlying psychosis, mental defect or psychopathic condition. It is also noted that the efficacy of the treatment would appear to depend on achieving a satisfactory depth of hypnotic trance. If this is not reached, the results are less likely to be successful. (Author’s abstract, from AJCH pp. 83-84).

Beigel, Hugo G. (1965). Three transvestites under hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (2), 71-82.

The literature on transvestism is reviewed. Most authorities agree that it is rarely, if ever, treated successfully. A therapeutic approach is outlined which combines conventional analytically-oriented psychotherapy with appropriate hypnotherapeutic techniques. 3 illustrative cases are presented. Clinical study in the manner described has been proved effective in less than 50 sessions in 10 of the 24 cases seen. It has helped to clarify the etiology of this condition. The widely accepted belief that transvestism cannot be treated successfully appears unwarranted in the light of the findings presented. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)
Schneck, Jerome M. (1965). Hypnotherapy for vaginismus. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (2), 92-95.

The literature on hypnotherapy contains few comments, usually generalizations, on vaginismus. 2 patients with this problem are presented here. Methods used and degrees of success are described. Major stress was on hypnotic relaxation with supporting, persuading, and graded, encouraging measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Dittborn, Julio (1957). Hypnotherapy of sexual impotence. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (4), 181-192. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 62: 3 II 81D)

“An attempt is made to classify sexual impotence using several criteria, namely; the performance of coitus, the duration of the symptom and the nature of the sexual object which causes it.
“A method of muscular relaxation and preamnestic hypnosis is described, which, when associated to where visual filmlike images may lead through training, in certain cases, to the progressive disappearance of the symptom.
“The evolution of nine cases variously classified is narrated.
“The possible mode of action of the therapeutic method hereby described is discussed from a theoretical standpoint” (pp. 191-192).

Merrill, George G. (1957). Sexual complications of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (3), 138-146.

“Summary: Sexual complications of hypnosis can occur, consisting of either positive or negative erotic manifestations, of either a hetrosexual [sic] or homosexual sort, to a more intense degree than is seen in most other forms of psychotherapy. These complications can result in a real threat to the hypnotist himself as well as to the success fo his treatment, unless he is emotionally prepared to deal with them competently” (p. 145).

Guze, Henry (1956). The involvement of the hypnotist in the hypnotic session. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (2), 61-68.

“In summary, in the actual hypnotic relationship, the attitudes of the operator may influence his behavior markedly and are probably even more important than those of the subject in carrying through a successful relationship. It has been indicated in another paper that the subject’s impulse handling is more important than his attitude toward hypnosis in actual hypnotizability. This view is a re-interpretation of that of Sarason and Rosenzweig (16) with regard to the same problem. The way the operator handles his own impulses seems in itself a most significant problem, and is expressed in his reactions to the induction and later the trance state of the subject. It is indicated that to some workers, the hypnotic response of the subject offers a rare feeling of power which may have psychosexual implications of a heterosexual or homosexual kind depending on the sex of the patient and the emotional needs of the operator. Child-parent relationship attitudes may also be elicited as well as conflicts about dominance-submission related to earlier experience of the worker.** As suggested by Bruno-Bettelheim (1) for children who cannot participate in relations with others as a result of a fear of their own hostility, it appears that some persons might find the hypnotic situation difficult because of a similar factor. Thus some therapists or research workers might be impelled to reject the use of this measure or to fail in using it, because of a non-verbalized fear of their own impulses toward a ‘helpless’ subject in their power. This same situational response may be a problem that arises in the psychotherapeutic or even ordinary medical relationship. Its effect may be to limit full exploration and exploitation of therapeutic possibilities, and to hamper treatment of numerous disorders.
“It is perhaps appropriate to point out in conclusion that Freud left hypnosis, it would seem, because of some unresolved problems. Wolstein (23) says because he could not hypnotize all his patients and because of the magical connotations of hypnosis. The hypnosis in transference is still an open field. Are the two phenomena over-lapping or on a continuum? Are the problems of the therapist really the same in both areas? Is transference an aspect of hypnosis” (pp. 66-67).
“** Data on male-female differences in success as hypnotists with members of the opposite sex might be very illuminating” (p. 66).

Beigel, Hugo G. (1953). Prevarication under hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (3), 32-40.

Author describes three cases in which hypnosis was used to confirm or disconfirm information provided in the waking state. All three cases involved marital relationships and mistrust. “It is interesting that, awakened from the hypnotic state, none of the subjects made the slightest attempt to deny any of the admissions made” (p. 39).
Kroger, William S. (1953). Hypnotherapy in obstetrics and gynecology. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (2), 61-70.
Author’s Summary – “A high percentage of gynecologic complains [sic] are due to psychic factors. Therapeutic efforts, therefore, must be directed primarily toward the psychologic component. Until recently, the principal weapon of the dynamically oriented physician was orthodox psychoanalysis. However, the increased interest for a relatively rapid approach has demonstrated the diagnostic and therapeutic value of hypnoanalysis. This development has been concomitant with the psychoanalysist’s [sic] interest in ‘brief psychotherapy’ and narcosynthesis.
“In many functional gynecologic disorders, hypnoanalysis has supplanted the parent therapy even though this form of treatment utilizes the concepts of dynamic psychiatry.
“The relevant literature on the use of hypnotherapy in functional obstetrical and gynecological disorders has been reviewed.
“Significant areas for research have been pointed out.
“This review emphasizes that hypnosis _per se_ is only of value in obtaining symptomatic relief. On the other hand, hypnoanalysis elicits the responsible dynamics behind the symptom, and is effective in reaching all aspects of the personality.
“Hypnoanalysis will be more applicable in obstetrics and gynecology when there is a wider acceptance of its techniques” (p. 68).


Bryant, Richard A.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Mallard, David; Tibbits, Rachel (1999). Posthypnotic amnesia for material learned before hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 47 (1), 46-64.

The impact of a suggestion for posthypnotic amnesia on material learned either before or during hypnosis was investigated across 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, very high, high, and low hypnotizable participants learned a word list either before or immediately after a hypnotic induction. During hypnosis, participants were given a suggestion for posthypnotic amnesia for the word list. After hypnosis, they were tested on recall, word-fragment, and word-recognition tasks. Experiment 2 replicated and extended Experiment 1 through application of the real-simulating paradigm. Across the 2 experiments, there was no difference in the performance of participants who learned the word list either before or during hypnosis. Although amnnesia on direct memory measures was associated with high hypnotizability (Experiment 1), an explanation based on demand characteristics could not be excluded (Experiment 2). The implications of these findings for the use of post-hypnotic amnesia as a laboratory analog of disorders of autobiographical memory are discussed.

Kirsch, Irving; Burgess, Cheryl A.; Braffman, Wayne (1999). Attentional resources in hypnotic responding. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 47 (3), 175-191.

Theories of hypnotic responding differ regarding attentional processes. Predictions derived from neodissociation, dissociation control, response set, and ironic process theory were tested by administering suggestions with and without cognitive load to high suggestible participants and low suggestible simulators. Cognitive load interfered with responses to ideomotor and cognitive suggestions but not with responses to challenge suggestions. The effect of cognitive load on suggested amnesia depended on the assessment of that response. Although cognitive load decreased recall on the amnesia trial, it did so even more on recall trials before the amnesia suggestion was given and after it was canceled. These data indicate that attentional effort is required for both recall and memory suppression. Under conditions of low cognitive load, simulators displayed less recall than did nonsimulating participants during suggested amnesia, and they reported smaller subjective responses to ideomotor and challenge suggestions.

Barnier, Amanda J.; McConkey, Kevin M. (1998). Posthypnotic responding: Knowing when to stop helps to keep it going.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 46 (2), 204-219.

The authors examined the effect of specifying (cue) or not specifying (no cue) the cancellation cue for posthypnotic suggestion. Responding was indexed on formal, embedded, informal, and postexperimental tests. Thirty-six real, hypnotized participants and 20 simulating participants took part in an application of the real-simulating paradigm. Responding declined across the four tests. Real participants in the cue condition maintained responding longer than simulators in the cue condition, and they also maintained responding longer than reals and simulators in the no cue condition. The findings highlight the interactional influence of individual, interpersonal, and situational factors in posthypnotic responding and underscore the active involvement of individuals in hypnotically initiated events.

Perugini, Eve Marie; Kirsch, Irving; Allen, Sarah T.; Coldwell, Eleanor; Meredith, Janelle M.; Montgomery, Guy H.; Sheehan, Julia (1998). Surreptitious observation of responses to hypnotically suggested hallucinations: A test of the compliance hypothesis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 46 (2), 191-203.

Suggestions for arm levitation and for visual, auditory, tactile, and taste hallucinations were administered twice via audiotape to a group of high suggestible students and low suggestible simulators. During one of the administrations, participants were led to believe they were alone, but their behavior was surreptitiously recorded on videotape and observed on a video monitor. During the other administration, they were observed openly by an experimenter who had not been informed about group assignment. When unaware that they wre being observed, simulators were significantly less responsive to suggestion and engaged in substantially more role-inappropriate behavior. In contrast, the responsiveness of nonsimulating students was not affected by the presence of an experimenter, and they exhibited little role-inappropriate behavior even when alone. These data indicate that the responses of suggestible individuals reflect internally generated changes in experience and are not due to simple intentional compliance (i.e., faking).

Green, Joseph P. (1997). Hypnotizability, the dissociative experinces scale, HGSHS: A amnesia, and automatic writing: Is there an association?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (1), 69-80.

The present study examined whether participants (N = 112) selected on the basis of high and low dissociative ability (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES]; Bernstein & Putnam, 1986), high and low/simulating hypnotizability (Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A [HGSHS:A]; Shor & Orne, 1962), and past performance on the HGSHS:A amnesia item differentially passed an automatic writing suggestion administered during a follow-up experiment. Results from a loglinear analysis supported a single main effect for hypnotizability. Low hypnotizable, simulating participants were more than six times as likely to pass the automatic writing suggestion than high hypnotizable participants. Results found dissociation status and past performance on an ostensibly dissociative suggestion (i.e., amnesia) to be independent of passing the automatic writing suggestion. Findings are discussed in light of other research regarding the relation between the DES and hypnotizability.

Martin, Daniel J.; Lynn, Steven Jay (1996). The Hypnotic Simulation Index: Successful discrimination of real versus simulating participants. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44 (4), 338-353.

Researchers have attempted to find a method that accurately and reliably discriminates hypnotized individuals from those who are simulating hypnosis. Although an extensive literature exists in this area, researchers have failed to identify a discriminator that is consistently successful with a majority of the individuals who are tested. In the current study, 43 hypnotized and 37 simulating participants were categorized on the basis of their scores on the newly created Hypnotic Simulation Index (HSI). Using all 31 items of the HSI as predictors, 94% of the participants were correctly classified. In addition, a reduced set of only 15 items correctly classified 96% of the participants. These results suggest that the HSI is effective in discriminating hypnotized and simulating participants. — Journal Abstract

Reed, Steven B.; Kirsch, Irving; Wickless, Cynthia; Moffitt, Kathie H.; Taren, Paul (1996). Reporting biases in hypnosis: Suggestion or compliance?. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105 (1), 142-145.

The tendency of highly hypnotizable participants to bias their retrospective perceptual reports in response to instructional demands was reexamined with the addition of low-hypnotizable control participants instructed to simulate hypnosis. Mean scores of high-hypnotizable participants and simulators did not differ, but the responses of simulators to the demand instruction was less variable than those of high-hypnotizable participants, and the shape of the response distribution was different. Unlike simulators, some high-hypnotizable participants who had reported changes in perception that were consistent with a hypnotic suggestion subsequently reported changes opposite to those suggested by a demand instruction. These data were interpreted as suggesting that the responses of high-hypnotizable participants to both the demand instruction and the preceding hypnotic suggestion were not entirely due to compliance.

Barnier, Amanda J.; McConkey, Kevin M. (1995, November). Posthypnotic suggestion: Knowing when to stop helps to keep it going. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, TX.

Posthypnotic suggestion sometimes leads to compulsive and involuntary responding, but we have little information about the parameters of such a response. In some research in our laboratory, we found that subjects who were given a posthypnotic suggestion that encouraged them to experience a desire to respond, showed a different pattern of response from those simply told to make a specific behavioral response. In another study, we gave subjects a posthypnotic suggestion to mail a postcard every day to the experimenter; some subjects were told to respond until they saw the hypnotist again (termination), others were given no specific information about how long they should respond (no termination). Those expecting a termination to the suggestion showed a different pattern of response across 16 weeks of testing. Thus, the information included in the suggestion about how or when to respond influences posthypnotic responding.
Present Experiment: Laboratory test of including specific information in the posthypnotic suggestion about how long to respond – cancellation cue vs. no cancellation cue. Responding indexed on four different tests: formal, embedded, informal, postexperimental. Also used real/simulating methodology. We expected that responding would decline across the four tests, but that the decline would be slowest for those expecting a cancellation cue.
Methodology: High hypnotizable subjects scored 8-10 on SHSS:C, lows scored 0- 3 on SHSS:C. Given real/simulating instructions (Orne, 1959). Formal test was given immediately after deinduction; embedded test was given during an inquiry question; informal test was given as the hypnotist appeared to terminate the experiment and leave the room; postexperimental test was given by another experimenter during a postexperimental inquiry. The suggestion was to cough when Ss heard a particular response cue.
Results: On the forma test, there was no difference between reals or simulators in either the cue or no cue condition, although simulators in the cue condition tended to overplay their response. Across the tests, responding declined. In particular, the majority of reals and simulators in the no cue condition stopped responding after the formal test. In the cue condition, reals and simulators responded similarly on the embedded test, but differently on the informal test; more reals than simulators continued to respond across the tests. Few subjects responded on the postexperimental test. Subjects’ postexperimental comments indicated that reals and simulators in the no cue condition believed that one response was sufficient; simulators in the cue condition were confused about whether to keep responding, and reals in the cue condition responded compulsively across the test.
The inclusion of a cancellation cue in a posthypnotic suggestions maintains responding for a longer period. Responding posthypnotically is not explained solely by demand characteristics. Rather, individuals respond on the basis of their interpretation of the implied intent of the hypnotist’s message (c.f., Sheehan, 1971). Responding changes across test types. These findings contribute to a model of posthypnotic responding. They point to the active responding of hypnotized individuals (c.f., Kihlstrom: experimental subjects try to make sense of the message of the suggestions and instructions they receive).

Green, J. P.; Lynn, Steven J. (1995, August). Dissociation, hypnotic amnesia and automatic writing: Is there an association?. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.

This study examined whether differences in self-reported dissociative experiences (DES, Bernstein & Putnam, 1986) and past performance on hypnotic amnesia (HGSHS: A, Shor & Orne, 1962) influence the frequency of passing an automatic writing suggestion. Participants (N = 112) were divided into high hypnotizable (‘real’) and simulating groups. Results from a log linear analysis indicated that automatic writing was independent of both dissociation status and past performance on an ostensibly dissociative hypnotic suggestion (i.e., amnesia). Simulators were more than six times as likely to pass the automatic writing suggestion than reals. Findings were discussed in light of other research regarding the relation between the DES and hypnotizability. (ABSTRACT from Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall, 1995, Vol. 4, No. 3.)

Schnyer, David M.; Allen, John J. (1995). Attention-related electroencephalographic and event-related potential predictors of responsiveness to suggested posthypnotic amnesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (3), 295-315.

Higher frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activity around 40 Hz has been shown to play a role in cognitive functions such as attention. Furthermore, event-related brain potential (ERP) components such as N1 and P1 are sensitive to selective attention. In the present study, 40-Hz EEG measures and early ERP components were employed to relate selective attention to hypnotic response. Participants were 20 low hypnotizable individuals, half assigned as simulators, and 21 high hypnotizable individuals. Each of these groups was subsequently divided into two groups based on recognition amnesia scores. The four groups differed in 40-Hz (36-44 Hz) EEG spectral amplitude recorded during preinduction resting conditions but not in EEG amplitude postinduction. The groups also differed in N1 amplitudes recorded during hypnosis. Regression analysis revealed that these effects only distinguish the high hypnotizable participants who experienced recognition amnesia from all other groups. The findings support the role of selective attention in hypnotic responsiveness, and the utility of subdividing high hypnotizable individuals is discussed.

Kennedy, James; Coe, William C. (1994). Nonverbal signs of deception during posthypnotic amnesia: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (1), 13-19.

The question of hypnotic subjects complying with instructions, perhaps even purposely deceiving the hypnotist or deceiving themselves, has arisen from the state-nonstate (skeptical-credulous) theoretical controversy. However, experimental testing of competing hypotheses has been difficult. The current report offers methodological procedures that may prove useful. Subjects who were given posthypnotic amnesia instructions were tested on free recall and implicit recall of a 20-word list. To detect the possibility of deception, videotapes of real subjects and simulating subjects during and after posthypnotic amnesia were rated for nonverbal signs of deception, signs taken from the works of Ekman, Ekman and Friesen, and Zuckerman et al. Preliminary results were gathered on a small pilot sample, and recommendations for procedural improvements are proposed.
Kinnunen, Taru; Zamansky, Harold S.; Block, Martin L. (1994). Is the hypnotized subject lying?. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 184-191.
Do the verbal reports of deeply hypnotized Subjects truthfully reflect their subjective experiences of hypnotic suggestions? Exp 1 established that the electrodermal skin conductance response (SCR) provides an effective method for detecting deception in the laboratory equally well in hypnotized and nonhypnotized Subjects. In Exp 2, deeply hypnotized and simulating Subjects were administered a number of hypnotic suggestions in a typical hypnotic session, without mention of deception, and were questioned about their experiences while SCR measures were recorded concurrently. Results indicate that 89% of the hypnotized Subjects’ reports met the criterion for truthfulness, whereas only 35% of the simulators’ reports met this criterion. Implications for the theory of hypnosis are discussed.

Lynn, Steven Jay; Pezzo, Mark (1994, August). Close encounters with aliens? Simulated accounts following a hypnotic interview. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

A survey of 5900 adults regarding unusual experiences concluded that 1 of 50 Americans may have had UFO experiences.
This study resembles that of Lawson (1977), in which Ss were asked to imagine UFO experiences; their descriptions were difficult to distinguish from real reports. One problem with Lawson’s research is that he provided the Ss with information (e.g. to imagine they were abducted by aliens).
Our study differs from Lawson’s in that we didn’t actually hypnotize subjects. Our Ss’ task was to ‘simulate hypnosis, in recovered memory research.’ We manipulated cues provided to the Ss.
Ss were told their purpose was to role play an excellent hypnotic subject. Standard simulation instructions were given. Then they were told that hypnosis frequently is used to recover experiences that the Ss cannot remember.
Ss were given a description of a Scene: driving on a road in the country, no traffic, etc. They were told that they couldn’t remember 2 hours of what happened. Then a second Experimenter used a pseudo hypnotic induction, and told them they were going to recall material regarding events that had happened.
Ss completed an Omni Magazine questionnaire developed by Hopkins, who is an advocate of UFO sitings. They received the questionnaire either after the experiment, before the experiment, or with specific cues.
4 of 21 (19%) of the minimal cue condition Ss identified lights in the sky as a UFO; at the end, 52% saw a UFO. Thus, even with minimal information, subjects report interactive behavior. Almost all medium cue Ss reported the UFO. 17% felt a loss of control, being floated or transported to the spaceship. Only one S said the aliens were cruel. Only one of the role players picked up the word “trondant,” a word used by Hopkins to pick up simulators who are hypnotized.
Our findings present a conservative picture. When Ss thought they would be thrown out of the experiment if detected as simulators, they avoided talking about bizarre events. 15% who were told to role play a close encounter failed to do so!
Our findings do not imply that persons who report contacts are simulating; but the basis for such reports are widely available to college students.

Lynn, Steven. Jay; Rhue, Judith W.; Myers, Bryan P.; Weekes, John R. (1994). Pseudmemory in hypnotized and simulating subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (2), 118-129.

High hypnotizable (n = 23) and low hypnotizable simulating (n = 13) subjects received pseudomemory suggestions. High hypnotizable and low hypnotizable simulating subjects were equally likely to pass the target noise suggestion during hypnosis and were also equally likely (high hypnotizables, 47.83%; low hypnotizable simulators, 64.29%) to report pseudomemories when tested for pseudomemory after instructions to awaken. As in previous research with task-motivated subjects, pseudomemory rate (high hypnotizables, 47.48%; low hypnotizable simulators, 46.25%) was not reduced by informing subjects that they could distinguish fantasy and reality in a nonhypnotic state of deep concentration. At final inquiry, after deep concentration, high hypnotizable and low hypnotizable simulating subjects’ pseudomemories remained comparable (43.48% and 38.46%, respectively). Unlike previous research, high hypnotizable subjects did not report more unsuggested noises and more pseudomemories of novel sounds than did awake low hypnotizable simulating subjects. Pseudo-memory reports were generally consistent with subjects’ ratings of whether the hypnotist expected them to believe the sounds were real or imagined.

Martin, D.; Tomak, J.; Lynn, S. J. (1994, October). Detecting simulation with the hypnosis simulation index. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Francisco.

Orne described demand characteristics of the hypnotic situation, such that some Ss want to either deceive the hypnotist or to please the hypnotist or to help the experiment work. To separate essence of hypnosis he devised an experimental technique, which informs S to role-play, and tells them intelligent Ss will be able to do this. Sheehan & McConkey note that though the model specifies subjective experience, it lacks a way of determining if people are truthful.
We developed a scale assuming hypnotized Ss would be truthful and wouldn’t say they had experiences they didn’t, but that simulators would exaggerate. The scale included events plausibly reported by highs but not widely reported.
The scale has 31 items, and is titled the Hypnotic Experience Scale. It has 24 items for experiences during hypnosis, 5 for experiences after hypnosis, and 2 for how deeply hypnotized they felt and what kind of hypnotic subject they thought they were.
Ss participated in 2 sessions. They had the Harvard group scale in the first, and simulation instructions in second session. Simulation instructions were read to Low and Medium subjects. To encourage Ss to keep eyes closed, they were told it was essential to keep their eyes closed. We had scores on:
Hypnosis Simulation Index
SCL 90
Tellegen Absorption Scale
Highs did not receive any simulation suggestions. Then the Stanford Scale was administered. Highs and Simulators had to pass at least 9 Harvard items.
Of the predictors, only the Hypnosis Simulation Index discriminated. It correctly classified 94% of the Ss. To eliminate non-useful items, a stepwise discriminate analysis was performed. 15 items remained. These 15 items were used in a series of analyses. They discriminated between the 2 groups from 100% to 70% of the time.
This study is the first to successfully discriminate hypnotized from dissimulating subjects. Simulators’ performance indicate they tend to respond in stereotypic ways that exaggerate how hypnotized Ss respond. Hypnotized Ss who passed more than 10 items only rated themselves as average on hypnotizability.
This has potential applications in forensic situations.

Spiegel, David; Scheflin, Alan W. (1994). Dissociated or fabricated? Psychiatric aspects of repressed memory in criminal and civil cases. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (4), 411-432.