Badia, Pietro (1990). Memories in sleep: Old and new. In Bootzin, Richard R.; Kihlstrom, John F.; Schacter, Daniel L. (Ed.), Sleep and cognition (pp. 67-76). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reviews literature. Conclusion: First, with reinforcement for responding, control of learned behavior can be maintained reliably by stimuli presented during sleep. Second, when stimuli are presented 4 min or more apart, behavioral control results in little or no change in sleep structure, in daytime sleepiness, or in perceptions of sleep quality. Neither perceived wakefulness nor wakefulness as it is scored on the sleep record are necessary for responding, although stimulus/response events typically result in brief EEG or EMG change. Third, within-subject, within-night variance in responsiveness is complexly related to time of night, sleep stage, and REM/NREM cycle.

Evans, Frederick J. (1990). Behavioral responses during sleep. In Bootzin, Richard R.; Kihlstrom, John F.; Schacter, Daniel L. (Ed.), Sleep and Cognition (pp. 77-87). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Subjects were 19 male student nurses who met a criterion of having EEG alpha density of at least 40% during an eyes closed, waking condition. They slept in the laboratory for two nights in succession, while being monitored by an EEG, and were told only that sleep cycles were being studied. Suggestions were presented while they were sleeping, e.g. “Whenever I say the word itch, your nose will feel itchy until you scratch it” “Whenever I say the word pillow, your pillow will feel uncomfortable until you move it.” Then they were tested by Experimenter saying the cue word (“itch” or “pillow”) during subsequent REM periods later that night and again on the next night. (The suggestions were not repeated on the second night; but two new suggestions were given on the second night when possible.)
After the Subjects awakened in the morning, they were interviewed to test their memory for the events that had occurred, and also cue words were presented in the context of a word association test to assess memory indirectly by observing behavioral and physiological responses. A more detailed inquiry was made after the second night.
The results were as follows. Ss responded to a mean of 21% of cue words administered. Ss continued to demonstrate REM sleep for at least 30 seconds for 71% of all cues administered, indicating that they were not aroused by the cue. When a suggestion was successfully completed (i.e., without eliciting alpha activity) it was not repeated. However, the cue words were tested in several subsequent REM periods. Cue word testing occurred immediately (during the same REM period as the suggestion) on the same night, as well as in a later REM period, and during REM on Night 2 (after the suggestion had been given during Night 1).
Correct responses were given for 20% of immediate, 23% of delayed, and 23% of carry-over conditions. Ss did not remember the suggestion, verbal cues, or their responses when they awoke. Since Ss often responded to the cue the next night without repetition of the suggestion itself, the authors inferred amnesia rather than forgetting had occurred. Responses were not elicited by repeating the cue word in the waking state, but appeared to be specific to the sleep condition.
Six Ss returned five months later for a third night of testing. Four had shown carryover response on Night 2 to a Night 1 suggestion. When verbal cues were presented (without re-administering the suggestion) those 4 Ss responded, even though there was no intervening waking memory about the procedure or the suggestions. Some Ss responded even more frequently than during the original two nights; hypnotic depth did not seem to account for the increased responsivity. Experimenters attempted to reverse the amnesia observed during the waking condition by using hypnosis, age regression, and other hypnotic techniques, with some positive effect. The author speculates that perhaps the techniques originally used to probe morning recall were not sufficiently sensitive. He also raises the question of whether this waking state amnesia is related to the amnesia for night dreams when people awaken in the morning.
The relationship between hypnotizability and sleep suggestibility was analyzed. Hypnotizability was measured with the Harvard Group Scale, several weeks later, by Experimenters who were blind to the Ss’ rate of responding to suggestions given during sleep. More hypnotizable Ss slept through the verbal stimuli more than low hypnotizable Ss; so they slept longer and more cues could be tested. Ss who responded most frequently to sleep-induced suggestions were more responsive to hypnosis. Analysis of response rate percentage (which controls for higher number of cues administered when Ss slept longer) showed that correlations between sleep suggestibility and hypnotizability were higher for percentage of delayed responses than for percentage of immediate responses.
Analysis by type of item on the hypnotizability scales suggested that the correlation with sleep suggestibility was due to the hallucinatory-reverie and the posthypnotic- dissociative clusters of hypnotic behavior, which are more difficult kinds of items. Correlations were significant for carry-over responses but not for immediate responses. These items represent phenomena experienced by Subjects who can be deeply hypnotized. The author reports that this relationship observed between hypnotizability and response to sleep-induced suggestions was not significant in a later study by Perry et al. (1978).
This author raises a question about why high hypnotizable subjects sleep better than low hypnotizables. The 6 Ss who were least susceptible accounted for 48% of all awakenings that occurred during the 2 experimental nights; the 6 Ss who were most hypnotizable accounted for only 26% of the awakenings (p<.01). Because sleep learning ("hypnopedia") has been extensively practiced in Russia and Eastern Europe, especially for language learning, the author investigated language learning with nine subjects. (Hoskovec, 1966, and Rubin, 1968, have reviewed the hypnopedia literature, which suggests that only "suggestible" subjects respond; it is not clear whether "suggestible" refers to hypnotizable, or whether expectation of success is cultivated by information given in the waking state.) The nine Ss had responded to the suggestions at least twice while remaining asleep, had no waking recall of the suggestions, but were given pre-sleep instructions (increasing expectancy) that they would learn during sleep. The verbal association material ("A is for apple; P is for palace;" etc.) was given during EEG sleep stages 2, 4, and REM. (Eight letter-word stimuli pairs were given, two per sleep stage whenever possible.) When they awakened, Ss were asked to check "any familiar word" on a list of 10 words beginning with the letter A, with the letter P, etc. So the probability was .10 for each of the eight lists that they might check one correct word by guessing. They also responded to two dummy lists containing letter-word pairs not used during sleep. None of the dummy list words were checked, whereas 28% of the administered words were correctly checked; also, Ss selected the correct letter (without identifying the word and with instructions not to "guess") in an additional 17% of all lists. Words were rarely recalled from Stages 2 and 4, but Ss often recognized letters from those stages. False positives (incorrectly recalled words or letters) was almost never observed. Furthermore, no control Subjects (people who had not received a presleep set that they would recall) recalled any words correctly. It was observed that whenever words presented during REM were later recalled, a transient slower frequency alpha (10.25 Hz vs. 9.64 Hz, p<.01) had been evoked within 30 sec after the presentation of the stimuli during sleep. Total recall of words correlated with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility .69 and the Stanford individually administered scale .42, for the 7 Ss administered hypnotizability tests. The author concludes that under optimal conditions, sleep learning of relatively easy material can occur with subsequent waking recall. 1989 Kramer, Richard L. (1989). The treatment of childhood night terrors through the use of hypnosis - a case study: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37 (4), 283-284. Night terrors are nocturnal episodes of intense autonomic arousal which are manifested by loud shouting or screaming in terror. The sufferer is not awake and is generally completely amnestic for the episodes. Night terrors and other sleep disturbances, such as somnambulism, are disorders of arousal (Broughton, 1968; Fisher, Kahn, Edwards, & Davis, 1973; Guilleminault, 1987). A 10-year-old white male was treated for a 6-year-long bout of night terrors. The hypnotic induction consisted of the finger lowering technique where the middle 2 fingers were raised and the individual was asked to watch the fingers as they "go to sleep." He was given suggestions for dropping off to sleep gradually and for rotating cycles of sleep. The regularity and continual movement of the cycles of sleep were emphasized. He was also given direct suggestions for not dropping too quickly into an extremely deep stage of sleep. He has not had a recurrence of night terrors since that time (approximately 2 years). Psychodynamic issues are discussed as is the need for further research. Stanton, Harry E. (1989). Hypnotic relaxation and the reduction of sleep onset insomnia. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 36, 64-68. A hypnotic relaxation technique was compared to stimulus control and placebo conditions as a means of reducing sleep onset latency (SOL). Forty-five subjects were matched on their baseline SOL as measured through sleep diaries. They were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and experienced four weekly sessions of 30- minutes' duration, with demand effects being controlled through the use of counter- demand instructions. Data generated by the study suggested that the particular hypnotic relaxation treatment used was effective in helping Ss sleep more quickly. Neither stimulus control nor placebo groups recorded similar improvement. 1988 Gabel, Stewart (1988). The right hemisphere in imagery, hypnosis, rapid eye movement sleep, and dreaming: Empirical studies and tentative conclusions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 323-331. Reviews studies that have addressed the issue of whether there is an increased activation or efficiency of right-hemispheric processes during imagery, hypnosis, REM sleep, and dreaming. Evidence strongly supports the notion of increased right- hemispheric activation in simple imaginal or visual states during usual consciousness. There are also studies supporting this view of REM sleep, dreaming, and hypnotic phenomena. It is concluded, however, that the lack of adequate studies, contradictory or negative findings, and moderating variables (e.g., task difficulty, cognitive style) make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning right-hemispheric processes. 1987 Nadon, Robert; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Perry, Campbell (1987). Multiple predictors of hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 948-960. Report two experiments in which various measures thought to be related to hypnotizability were analyzed by stepwise discriminant analysis. Absorption and preference for an imagic style of thinking predicted hypnotizability. Addition of 2 other variables in Experiment 2--a Sleep-Dream score derived from Evans's Cognitive Control of Sleep Mentation subscale and Gibson's Dream Questionnaire, and the Belief in the Supernatural subscale of the Taft Experience Questionnaire--increased the correct classification of the medium-hypnotizable subjects from chance levels to 74%. Argue for a confirmatory and hierarchical approach in future studies to explore correlates of hypnotizability more fully. NOTES 1: NOTES The following notes were made at an SCEH presentation: [Robert Nadon, Hypnotizability: A Correlational Study Involving Experiential, Imagery, and Selective Attention Variables.] Author used a number of variables that have related to hypnotizability in single measure studies to predict with a multiple r. 30 male and 30 female Ss, given Harvard (?) then screened on Form A, and finally on Form C. Classed as Low (0-2), Medium (5-10 without amnesia), and High (11-12 with amnesia). Independent Variable Triserial r % Correctly Classified Sheehan (1967) short Betts -.69** 57 Preference for Imagery Mode of Thought (Isaacs 1982) .64** 57 Tellegen's Absorption .58** Personal Experience Questionnaire .51** 80 (Evans 1982) Concordia Fantasy Questionnaire Pavio Stroop Random Number Generation Task Modified Van Nuys Meditation Task 8 Auditory attention tasks 1986 Belicki, Kathryn; Belicki, Denis (1986). Predisposition for nightmares: A study of hypnotic ability, vividness of imagery, and absorption. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42 (5), 714-718. The relationships of nightmare frequency to hypnotic ability, vividness of visual imagery, and the tendency to become absorbed in fantasy-like experiences were examined. Subjects were 841 undergraduate university students who participated in group tests of hypnotic ability, after which they estimated the number of nightmares that they had experienced in the prior year. In addition, 406 of the subjects completed Marks' Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Rotenberg and Bowers' Absorption scale. Of the subjects, 76% reported experiencing at least one nightmare in the prior year; 8.3% indicated one or more per month. Individuals with frequent nightmares scored higher on hypnotizability, vividness of visual imagery, and absorption. NOTES 620, Belicki & Bowers, 1982 ABSTRACT: Investigated the role of demand characteristics in dream change by comparing dream report change following pre- and postsleep administrations of instructions to pay attention to specific dream content. This design was based on the assumption that if presleep instructions merely distort dream reports rather than influence actual dreams, report change should be observable following a postsleep instruction. 42 undergraduates were prescreened with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (Form A), which allowed experimenters to examine the role of hypnotizability in dream change. Significant differences were observed only following the presleep instructions. It is concluded that report distortion as a result of paying attention to a dimension of dream content was insufficient to account for dream report change following presleep instructions. Hypnotic ability correlated significantly with the amount of dream change. Kissin, Benjamin (1986). Conscious and unconscious programs in the brain. (1 ). New York: Plenum Press. NOTES Hypnosis is discussed in terms of inhibition/excitation mechanisms in the central nervous system, with both feedback and feedforward controls and lateralizing controls. The author employs a concept of engrams (neural representations of an idea, represented throughout the neocortex) to discuss sensation and perception as well as conscious and unconscious processes. Sensory information is processed serially with encoding of information mostly on the conscious level (but sometimes, less efficiently, on the unconscious level); and it also is processed in parallel. Parallel processing operates almost entirely at the unconscious level and is basic to perception. Associative phenomena are explained in terms of overlapping engrams, so that two 'related hypercomplex engrams' could be assumed to have at least one simple engram in common. With Premack, he describes three types of engrams: veridical (primary sensory data perceived), abstract (formalized representations of concepts like line drawings of dog or house; Premack's iconic representations), and symbolic (more complex entities that encompass an entire class of objects, actions, or ideas and may have artificial symbols such as words). With Neiser he suggests that thinking (verbal and nonverbal) involves logical sequential processing of cognitive engrams of external (environmental), internal (visceral),and intracerebral (ideational) origin. Evoked response investigations shed light on the nature of such engrams, their distribution in brain tissue. John, Bartlett, Slumokochi, & Kleiman (1973) found that an error in choice discrimination learning (cats learning colors) is accompanied by the cortical evoked potential of the stimulus associated with that (erroneous) behavior, not the evoked potential of the true stimulus. In other words, ERPs represented the idea, not the actual visual stimulus provided to the cat. Emotional/motivational influences are part of every cognition (R. S. Lazarus's position). Interaction of motivational-emotional and cognitive engrams seems to occur primarily in the inferior temporal lobe and the entorhinal cortex. The interaction involves the upper rhinencephalon, the amygdaloid-hippocampal complex, the septal region, the cingulate gyrus, and the inferior and medial aspects of temporal lobe of the cortex. He also explains classical and operant conditioning (on pp. 75-76) in terms of the association of engrams. The author's position is that consciousness is the subjective equivalent of brain activity in the 'alerting' and 'awareness' systems. Awareness of the environment ('general, vague') appears to involve the limbic area (thalamus and basal ganglia), while more specific awareness of the self entails a system stretching from the basal ganglia through the parietal lobe (posterior aspect). Normal alert consciousness involves the noradrenergic reticular activating system, as well as associated excitation of the general awareness system in the involved thalamic- basal gangliar nuclei and the self-awareness system in the posterior inferior parietal lobe system. Altered states of consciousness characterized by a relaxed hazy sense of the world involves thalamic activation of the self-awareness system. Dreaming involves activation from cholinergic cells in the pons. "Impaired general awareness occurs with lesions of the thalamic-basal gangliar centers while impaired self-awareness occurs with lesions in the posterior inferior parietal lobes. Finally, in certain physiological states such as sleep, hypnosis, and so on, the entire awareness system--the thalamic-basal gangliar and posterior inferior parietal nuclei--may be activated by different activation systems, such as the cholinergic in the pons or the dopaminergic in the thalamus, to produce different states of consciousness" (p. 82). Consciousness is described as having seven dimensions: alertness, attention, arousal (heart rate, GSR), activation (EEG, evoked potential), affect, and the two awarenesses. The seven are related, so that changes in any one usually are correlated with changes in others (though dissociation among the seven also can be demonstrated). Motivational-emotional arousal produces electrophysiological activation of the brain, which is translated epiphenomenally into alertness and awareness; awareness is focused through attention onto the cognitively and motivationally significant events in the internal and external environments to determine the final sequence of drive-oriented behavioral responses. The EEG is useful for diagnosing different states of consciousness: beta and gamma waves alertness, stemming from locus coeruleus and reticular activating system delta (2-4/sec) waves coma alpha synchronized relaxing influences stemming from thalamus; low level of awareness as in twilight sleep or hypnagogic states theta, delta inactivity due to less stimulus from locus coeruleus reticular activating system influences; associated with increased inhibitory thalamic and septal- hippocampal impulses radiating upward to the cortex. In some altered states of consciousness there is theta-wave activity, indicating influences from the inhibitory septal-hippocampal circuit. The reticular activating system (RAS) and thalamus interact in complex ways. The RAS is essential to maintain consciousness, but if destroyed stepwise (in animal research) a low-grade type of consciousness can be maintained by thalamus and basal ganglia. The thalamus has two kinds of influence: it inhibits the cortex, as in sleep; and stimulates the cortex in the form of activating alpha waves. "The median thalamus is also related in a feedforward-feedback circuit with the inhibitory septal-hippocampal complex which generates theta-wave activity, thus accounting for the close association between alpha and theta wave activity in sleep and in other altered states of consciousness" (p. 86). Thus there are two different activating systems originating in the lower brain stem: the norepinephrine locus coeruleus system that is associated with normal behavior, and the cholinergic FTG neurone system of REM sleep. The relationship of the latter to consciousness, awareness, self awareness, etc. is unknown, since the only time that it is readily observed is during REM sleep. The author reports that altered states of consciousness (e.g. hypnosis, fugue, alpha state) resemble Stage 1 sleep, rather than REM sleep, physiologically, with the central locus of activation in the medial thalamus rather than the RAS and locus coeruleus. "It appears then that consciousness may be driven by one or another of three different activation centers: the norepinephrine RAS (emanating from the locus coeruleus), the cholinergic FTG cell system in the pons, and the dopaminergic alpha rhythm system radiating upward from the thalamus (Fig. 6-2). Brain activation by each of these centers is associated with a different state of awareness" (p. 91). The relative contribution from each center determines qualitative aspects of awareness. The author refers to Mesulam and Geschwind (1978) who traced the self- awareness system from amygdala/hippocampus/midbrain to the inferior parietal lobe where they converge with the body's proprioceptive neural tracts. What results is "a sense of self that was not necessarily present in the sense of general awareness stemming from the median thalamic-basal gangliar complex" (p. 97). The thalamic-basal gangliar complex is both a center for emotional reception and a relay station for somatosensory events. Both somatic sensory reception and somatosensory elements of emotion are also represented in the parietal lobe. "Affective and somatosensory stimuli, which are constant and persistent even though we are unaware of them most of the time, produce the sense of one's body which is the most basic element in the 'sense of self.'... It is most probable that a major component of the sense of self is produced by the constant barrage of affective and somatosensory stimuli converging from all parts of the body; the majority of these stimuli may not reach consciousness most of the time but they must register a sense of feeling in the thalamus and parietal cortex even though the individual may be unconscious of it" (p. 100). The author presumes that most of the incoming stimuli that define self are unconscious. "Whether sense-of-self stimuli are unconscious because of constant habituation ... or whether they are unconscious because they are transmitted predominantly to the right hemisphere ..., it appears that the major components of the self- concept are unconscious rather than conscious" (p. 102). "Even the acutely self-aware component of the self-concept, by definition conscious, varies markedly in different altered states of consciousness. The conscious awareness of oneself in the alert condition is different from (1) that in the twilight state, (2) that in dreams, (3) that in hypnosis, (4) that under the influence of alcohol, (5) that under the influence of other sedatives, (6) that under the influence of stimulants, and (7) that under the influence of hallucinogens. In that sense the acute sense of self is a function of the momentary chemical and physiological state of the brain" (p. 102). " ... the decision-making apparatus of the brain is lodged largely in a consortium of neocortical centers including the prefrontal lobes (integration), the posterior inferior lobes (motivation and emotion), the anterior and posterior associational areas (cognition), the posterior inferior parietal lobes (self-awareness), the left-hemispheric language centers (language), and the precentral frontal lobe motor area (motor). Within the context of this integrated cortical complex, self-awareness functions are somewhat stronger on the right hemisphere while language and decisional activities are somewhat stronger on the left" (pp. 102-103). The Chapter titled "Attention as directed consciousness" is relevant for investigations of hypnosis but is not included in these notes. 1984 Nugent, William R.; Carden, Nick A.; Montgomery, Daniel J. (1984). Utilizing the creative unconscious in the treatment of hypodermic phobias and sleep disturbance. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26 (3), 201-205. An Ericksonian hypnotherapeutic procedure is designed to access and direct creative unconscious processes toward the creation and implementation of satisfactory solutions to recurrent problem behaviors. The use of the procedure is described in 3 cases. Two of the cases involve treatment of severe hypodermic needle phobias. The third case involves use of the procedure in treatment of a somnambulistic sleep disturbance. Possible curative forces tapped by the procedure, suggestions for its continued use, and suggestions for further investigation of the procedure are also discussed. NOTES The procedure involved: 1. Pretrance discussion of unconscious mental processes 2. Hypnosis, followed by "Now your unconscious mind can do what is necessary, in a manner fully meeting all your needs as a person, to insure that [desired therapeutic outcome], and as soon as your unconscious knows that you will [desired therapeutic outcome] it can signal by [appropriate ideomotor signal]" 3. Post-ratification. Example: "'Now your unconscious mind can do what is necessary, in a manner fully meeting all your needs as a person, to insure that you remain comfortably awake and alert anytime you receive an injection in the future, and as soon as your unconscious knows you will remain comfortably awake and alert when receiving an injection it can signal by lifting your right hand into the air off the chair.' This suggestion was [their] communicative effort to access and direct unconscious processes to the creation and implementation of altered behavioral responses to injections. Three minutes after the suggestion, B's right hand lifted jerkily into the air. She was then awakened and experienced a complete amnesia for the trance period" (p. 203). "[They] then carried out a procedure to ratify the therapeutic change. This process presumably further develops expectancy of change, confirms change at the unconscious level, and puts doubt into any conscious beliefs contrary to positive change. This step is standardly carried out as was done with B. [They] had B sit with her hands resting on the arms of the chair. [They] told her they would ask her unconscious mind a question that only it would know the answer to. It could answer 'yes' to the question by lifting her left hand, 'no' by lifting her right hand, and 'I don't know' or 'I don't want to answer' by lifting both hands. Then the question was asked, 'In the future, will B remain comfortably awake and alert anytime she receives an injection or a blood test?' After a few minutes her left hand jerked momentarily into the air. After some discussion about the ideomotor response and her trance experience they dismissed her with the prescription to 'await the surprising results'" (p. 203). The authors cite as a source for their work two books: Erickson, Rossi, and Rossi, Hypnotic Realities, 1976, pp. 226-230; also Erickson & Rossi, Hypnotherapy, 1979. 1983 Woolfolk, Robert L.; McNulty, Terrence F. (1983). Relaxation treatment for insomnia: A component analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51 (4), 495-503. Four relaxation treatments for sleep onset insomnia were compared with a waiting-list control. Treatments were varied in the presence or absence of muscular tension-release instructions and in the use of either images or somatic sensations as foci of attention. Analysis of data from 44 insomniacs recruited from the community showed all treatment conditions to be superior to no treatment in reducing latency of sleep onset and ratings of fatigue. The presence of muscle tension-release was unrelated to outcome. There was a nonsignificant trend for visual imagery treatments to be superior to somatic- focusing treatments in reducing sleep onset latencies. Treatments employing visual focusing were superior to somatic-focusing treatments in reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings. At 6 months follow-up only the imagery treatments showed significant improvement over pretreatment levels on latency of sleep onset. Visual- focusing treatments produced significantly greater reductions in sleep onset latency at follow-up than did the somatic-focusing treatments. Results are discussed in light of previous research addressing the mechanisms underlying the treatment of insomnia by relaxation methods. 1982 Belicki, Kathryn; Bowers, Patricia (1982, October). Dimensions of dissociative processing, absorption and dream change following a presleep instruction. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Indianapolis, IN. NOTES Subjects' tendency to have things pop into their mind when asked to imagine, image them, or to do a divergent thinking task is correlated with behavior change out of awareness (dissociated), change in dream content in response to indirect suggestion - the request to pay attention to a certain element in their dreams. Effortless imagining (as opposed to working at it), a particular type of dissociative phenomenon, is associated with dream change. Stam, Henderikus J.; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1982). The Asclepian dream healings and hypnosis: A critique. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30 (1), 9-22. The present paper critically evaluates the popular contention that the dream healings which occurred in antiquity at the Asclepian temples resulted from the unwitting use of hypnosis. This contention is found wanting and it is argued instead that these reported healings can be understood better by considering them in their cultural context. 1981 Nardi, T. J. (1981). Treating sleep paralysis with hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (4), 358-365. The use of hypnosis in the management of sleep paralysis is described and discussed. 2 cases are presented in which autohypnsis was used to desensitize the patients to the anxiety that accompanied their sleep paralysis. The autohypnosis also provided a means of terminating the attacks. Follow-up data suggests that this approach may serve to decease the frequency of sleep paralysis attacks. 1980 Bauer, K. E.; McCanne, T. R. (1980). An hypnotic technique for treating insomnia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (1), 1-5. A technique for treating insomnia with short-term hypnotherapy is presented. 2 cases are presented to illustrate the clinical application of the technique. The treatment procedure, which incorporates the demand characteristics of the therapeutic setting, positive expectancies, a reduction in physiological arousal, and a reduction of excessive cognitive activity is discussed in terms of current theories of insomnia. Schneck, Jerome M. (1980). Hypnotherapy for narcolepsy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (2), 95-100. The effective use of hypnotherapy for control of narcoleptic sleep episodes experienced by a 40-year-old woman is described. Measures included posthypnotic suggestions for deliberate and automatic hand movements by the patient, serving as signals to ward off sleep attacks. Such signals within visual imagery were also incorporated into treatment. Narcolepsy and the narcoleptic tetrad are described in pertinent detail. The hypnotic measures presented here can serve as a guide for efforts by other therapists to deal with this problem. So far as the present author knows, hypnotherapy for narcolepsy has not been discussed previously in scientific literature. 1979 Crasilneck, Harold B. (1979). Hypnosis in the control of chronic low back pain. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22, 71-78. Twenty-nine patients were referred because of low back pain. Five were excluded on psychological grounds because they were highly masochistic, extremely depressed, or manifested a low frustration tolerance. Of the 24 in the treatment group, 18 of the patients had surgery two or more times, and six one time. In each case low back pain returned within three to six months after surgery. Twenty of the patients were addicted to or excessively dependent on medications including acetaminophen, secobarbital, codeine phosphate, oxycodone hydrochloride, and morphine sulphate. Common factors among the patients included (1) consistent pain which was primarily organic in origin, (2) analgesic dependence, (3) insomnia, (4) reactive depression, (5) excessive interpersonal dependence, and (6) a fear of becoming a lifelong 'backache cripple.' Twenty patients responded positively; four patients failed to respond to the repeated hypnotic induction techniques and were considered failures. Sixteen reported an average of 80% relief during the first four sessions, and all 20 patients reported an average of 70% relief (based on verbal estimates by patients) by the sixth session. Fifteen voluntarily discontinued medication by the third week of therapy, and the rest were withdrawn by their physicians during the ensuing four weeks. Most patients were seen daily the first week, three times the second week, twice the third week, and thereafter as necessary. The mean number of out-patient sessions was 31 over an average of nine months. All patients were taught self-hypnosis. None of the individuals retained their addiction, and only occasionally did they require analgesics. Patients were seen by their referring physicians as needed during the course of hypnotherapy, and frequent consultations between the therapists created a combination of treatments best suited for each patient. It is concluded that hypnosis may be utilized maximally as an important adjunct to other therapeutic methods in the treatment of low back pain. Turner, Ralph M.; Ascher, L. Michael (1979). Controlled comparison of progressive relaxation, stimulus control, and paradoxical intention therapies for insomnia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47 (3), 500-508. Assessed the effectiveness of treatment programs based on progressive relaxation, stimulus control, and paradoxical intention in the context of sleep difficulties for 50 volunteer Ss. The results indicate that each of the therapeutic procedures significantly reduced sleep complaints in contrast to placebo and waiting list control groups. No differences were observed among the 3 active techniques. (1 1/2 p ref). 1977 Schneck, Jerome M. (1977). Sleep paralysis and microsomatognosia with special reference to hypnotherapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 72-77. Sleep paralysis is described in connection with a patient whose episodes incorporated the experience of her entire body feeling extremely small. The psychological implications of the paralysis and her microsomatognosia are discussed. Comparisons are made with other perceptual distortions involving the sense of change in body size. The characteristics of sleep paralysis and associated personality patterns are delineated. This material is discussed with special reference to experiences of patients in hypnosis, especially hypnotherapy and hypnoanalysis. 1972 Kratochvil, Stanislav; Macdonald, Hugh (1972). Sleep in hypnosis: A pilot EEG study. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 15 (1), 29-37. Six highly susceptible Ss were hypnotized and allowed to sleep in the laboratory during the night. Hypnotic rapport was tested after each of two awakenings, and simple suggestions were also administered in different stages of sleep. After awakening, hypnotic rapport was still present. In sleep, the Ss did not react to suggestions in stages 3 and 4. They sometimes reacted in stage 2, but usually woke up either during listening or during responding to the suggestion. In stage REM the Ss usually responded well to the suggestions; they sometimes woke up and sometimes not. The results are taken as a proof that hypnosis can continue after periods of sleep which occur during hypnosis. The question whether hypnosis and sleep can occur simultaneously or only alternately is discussed. 1970 Kratochvil, Stanislav (1970). Sleep hypnosis and waking hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 25-40. Subjected 6 highly susceptible female students to a short-term training procedure to induce 2 different types of hypnosis: (a) a sleep hypnosis, and (b) an active waking hypnosis. Ss behavior in both types, during the carrying out of 11 standard suggestions, was rated by 2 independent Os. The behavior in both artificially induced types of hypnosis differed significantly at the 1% level in the expected direction. The failure to obtain more dramatic results is attributed to the shortness of training, to the implicit demands concerning activity, or to Ss'' personality traits, which may lower the intrapersonal variability. The relevance of the results for the Pavlovian theory of hypnosis is discussed: They do not support the hypothesis that behavioral characteristics which resemble sleep are intrinsic phenomena of the hypnotic state. (Spanish & German summaries) (34 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 1967 Dittborn, J. M.; O'Connell, D. N. (1967). Behavioral sleep, physiological sleep and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15, 181-188. A SLEEP-INDUCTION PROCEDURE REQUIRING MANUAL RESPONSE TO A REPETITIVE AUDITORY SIGNAL WAS ADMINISTERED TO 52 SS WHO HAD CLEAR ALPHA ACTIVITY IN THEIR WAKING EEG AND WHOSE HYPNOTIZABILITY WAS KNOWN. THE OCCURRENCE OF SLEEP WAS DEFINED BY PHYSIOLOGICAL, BEHAVIORAL, AND SUBJECTIVE CRITERIA. NEITHER THE TENDENCY TO DEVELOP EEG SLEEP NOR THE ABILITY OF SOME SS TO RESPOND WHILE IN EEG SLEEP WAS RELATED TO HYPNOTIZABILITY. HYPNOTIZABILITY WAS RELATED TO A TYPE OF DISSOCIATION BETWEEN EEG SLEEP AND BOTH BEHAVIORAL AND SUBJECTIVE SLEEP SHOWN BY 5 SS, ALL HIGHLY HYPNOTIZABLE. (SPANISH + GERMAN SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1966 Hoskovec, J. (1966). Hypnopedia in the Soviet Union: A critical review of recent major experiments. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 308-315. (Abstract in Psychological Abstracts 41: 149, and in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1967, 4, 295) Major Soviet hypnopedia (sleep-learning) experiments were conducted by Balkhashov (1965); Khil'chenko, Moldavskaya, Kol'chenko, and Shevko (1965); Kulikov (1964); Svyadosch (1962); Zavalova, Zukhar', and Petrov (1964); Zukhar', Kaplan, Maksimov, and Puskna (1965). The results of these experiments show that learning during sleep is possible when a 'suggested set' to perceive and remember the learning material during sleep is involved. Selection of Ss according to hypnotizability or primary suggestibility seems to be an important prerequisite. The influence of hypnopedia on the mental health of Ss is evaluated. (Author's abstract, in AJCH.) Tart, Charles T. (1966). Some effects of post-hypnotic suggestions on the process of dreaming. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 30-46. 2 highly hypnotizable Ss were studied for 43 nights in order to assess the feasibility of controlling various aspects of their Stage 1 dreaming. Using posthypnotic suggestion they were caused to awaken at either the beginning or end of their Stage 1 dream periods, dream all night, and not dream at all. The experimental procedure was effective in producing awakenings at the beginnings and end of dream periods; its effect on Stage 1 dream time was unclear and, if present, was rather small. Earlier reports of the efficacy of posthypnotic suggestion in affecting Stage 1 dream content were confirmed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1964 Domhoff, Bill (1964). Night dreams and hypnotic dreams: Is there evidence that they are different?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 3, 159-168. The evidence against equating night dreams and hypnotic dreams is reviewed in the light of 2 developments in dream research--Dement and Kleitman''s (1957a; 1957b) physiological and behavioral indicators of dreaming and Hall''s (1951; 1963) quantitative studies of dream content. It is concluded that: the equivalence of the EEG patterns of the hypnotic trance and the "dream" stage of sleep (Stage I) cannot be ruled out; the psychologically-important question of content differences between night and hypnotic dreams has never been examined in a controlled, quantitative manner. (48 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Karmanova, I. G. (1964). Fotogennaia katalepsiia [Photogenic catalepsy). Moscow, USSR: Leningrad Izd. Naule. (Reviewed in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1966, 3, 228) NOTES The author analyses the phenomenon of photogenic catalepsy from the evolutional phylogenetic approach, including the phenomenon as demonstrated in the cock, frog, guinea-pig and dog. The following points of view are discussed: the physiological changes, electroencephalography and electromyography in animals, and clinical narcolepsy in man. (Review in AJCH.) 1963 Dittborn, Julio M.; Munoz, L.; Aristeguita, A. (1963). Facilitation of suggested sleep after repeated performances of the sleep suggestibility test. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 236-240. The sleep suggestibility test (SST) was individually administered to a group of young volunteer soldiers. There was increased susceptibility with each successive SST administration. It was possible to transform suggested sleep into somnambulistic hypnosis in a majority of Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) King, C. D. (1963). The states of human consciousness. New York, NY: University Books. (Reviewed in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 7, 1964, 96.) NOTES From the book review by Stanley Abrams, AJCH: [The book] "is more philosophical and mystical than scientific. ... [and describes] the four states of consciousness: sleep, waking, awakeness, and objective consciousness. ... For man to attain completeness and normalcy he must achieve the state of awakeness. According to the author, however, only a relatively few have approached this stage of consciousness and his description of it is quite vague. When one has reached awakeness he is able to understand and actually perceive the world in a novel and unique manner. ... The final stage of awareness, objective consciousness, is characterized as the experiencing of cosmic phenomena in the same fashion as external reality is understood in the awakened state. The author indicated that this stage has not as yet been attained by man, but it does lie within his potential. ... The only treatment of hypnosis is the author's statement that the waking state is the same as the hypnotic state because suggestibility exists in both" (p. 96). 1961 Mishchenko, M. (1961). The hypnotic condition as a process of nervous excitation. In Proc. Third World Congress of Psychiatry, Montreal, Canada, I. (pp. 704-708). (Abstract in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1964, 7, 101.) Subjects were selected with certain predispositions for the hypnotic state and studied in the waking, hypnotic and experimental sleep states by motor conditioned reflexes modified to a specific function of the frontal system. Excitable, active students of music and literature were found most excitable as subjects, subjects tending to be passive showed no hypnotic responses. Experimental sleep abolished the motor-conditioned reflexes, quite contrary to hypnotic findings. (M.H.E. abstract in AJCH). 1960 Andreev, B. V. (1960). Sleep therapy in the neuroses. New York: Consultants Bureau. (Reviewed by Milton H. Erickson in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1962, 4, p. 203) NOTES The book summarizes research on sleep therapy conducted at the Pavlov Clinic for Nervous Diseases, at the Pavlov Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. It provides a history of sleep therapy, which M. H. Erickson states "is as old as antiquity," and details about the Russian research. Hypnosis and suggestion were two of many different procedures used to prolong sleep. 200-item bibliography. Barretto, Alberto L. (1960). Sugestiones nocturnas para corregir los malos habitos infantiles [Nocturnal suggestions used to correct bad habits in children]. Revista de la Latino-Americana Hipnologia Clinica, 1 (2), 29-32. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1961, 4, 65) The article discusses a method of nocturnal suggestions (during sleep) as a simple and effective method for the correction of bad habits in children (enuresis, nail biting, finger sucking, excessive use of candies, poor appetite, etc.). Diamant, J.; Dufek, M.; Hoskovec, J.; Kristof, M.; Pekarek, V.; Roth, B.; Velek, M. (1960). An electroencephalographic study of the waking state and hypnosis with particular reference to subclinical manifestations of sleep activity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8, 199-212. (Author''s Conclusions) EEG records have been investigated in 10 patients in a waking state and under hypnosis. It was shown that no differences existed between these two states in terms of EEG. EEG signs of decreased wakefulness can be demonstrated in some of the patients, but these were also present without hypnosis. This latter effect appears to be subclinical sleep activity (Roth), frequently seen particularly in neurosis. Reactibility to external stimuli under hypnosis was also, in most cases, equivalent to reactions in the waking state. The authors incline to the view that EEG data does not support the concept that the nature of hypnosis and sleep is qualitatively the same. 1959 Platonov, K. I. (1959). The word as a physiological and therapeutic factor: The theory and practice of psychotherapy according to I. P. Pavlov. ( 2nd). Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.