The present study examined the relation between various self-report measures and two measures of hypnotizability within a multivariate framework. A group of 748 participants was tested on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), as well as the Preference for an Imagic Cognitive Style (PICS) questionnaire. One hundred ninety of these participants also completed the Paranormal Experiences Questionnaire (PEQ). Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression equations, and the results of the analyses indicated that both the TAS and PICS accounted for significant amounts of unique variance in each of two 373-member samples of HGSHS:A scores. A further sub-sample of participants (n = 161) was tested on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) to see if these results would generalize to another measure of hypnotizability. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that although the PEQ predicted significant amounts of unique SHSS:C variance over and above that predicted by the TAS, the PICS failed to do so. This inconsistency in results may be due in part to the generally low intercorrelation between the different hypnotizability scales and points to the need to develop new predictor variables that are orthogonal to each other. – Journal Abstract

Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1996). Catalepsy tests: What do they tell us?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44 (4), 307-323.

In a survey of 200 clinicians regarding their use of catalepsy tests, three fourths of the respondents indicated that they used these tests. In light of this response, and considering both the scientific importance of being able to identify the presence of hypnosis and the fact that catalepsy may account for up to eight of the other indications of hypnosis in use, it is relevant to inquire into the reliability and validity of catalepsy tests. It was found that of the three tests of catalepsy currently in use, only one has the potential for being a test of hypnosis proper and can also justifiably be said to be “of catalepsy.” This one test, however, has many serious weaknesses that need to be eliminated if it is to be truly useful. – Journal Abstract

Jacobs, Andrea L.; Kurtz, Richard M.; Strube, Michael J. (1995). Hypnotic analgesia, expectancy effects, and choice of design: A reexamination. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 43 (1), 55-69.

Previous research by Stam and Spanos suggests that if waking analgesia is followed by hypnotic analgesia, subjects refrain from maximally responding during the waking trial so they report less pain under hypnosis (i.e., a “holdback effect”). This hypothesis was re-examined using more stringent controls. Thirty-six highly susceptible subjects chosen by a combination of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (waking analgesia followed by hypnotic analgesia, waking analgesia followed by waking analgesia, or hypnotic analgesia followed by waking analgesia). Each group received three 60-second imersions of cold pressor pain stimulation (baseline, Immersion 1, Immersion 2) and rated pain using a magnitude estimation and a category rating scale. The obtained results failed to support the hypotheses of a holdback effect or a “reverse-order holdback effect.” Properties of within-subjects and between-subjects designs were considered in explaining the superiority of hypnotic analgesia over waking analgesia typically found in within-subjects models.

Levitt, Eugene E. (1994). The one-tailed test: A statistical editorial. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (1), 4-6.

The writer concludes, “The point of these illustrations is that a one-tailed test is rarely appropriate in a pure science experiment. The researcher must present justification for the use of a one-tailed test beyond merely a directional hypothesis. This becomes an urgent requisite when the experimental finding is significant only when tested with a single tail, which is ordinarily true when one-tailed tests are used” (p. 6).

Nash, Michael R. (1994). Memory distortion and sexual trauma: The problem of false negatives and false positives. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (4), 346-362.

Logically, two broad types of mnemonic errors are possible when adult psychotherapy or hypnosis patients reflect on whether they were sexually abused or not as a child. They may believe that they were not abused when in fact they were (false negative error), or they may believe they were abused when in fact they were not (false positive error). The author briefly reviews the empirical evidence for the occurrence of each of these types of errors, and illustrates each with a clinical case. Further, in considering the incidence, importance, and clinical implications of these errors, the author contends that clinical efficacy in no way assures that a false negative or a false positive has been avoided. A plea is made for theorists and researchers to acknowledge that both categories of errors can occur and to conduct future clinical and laboratory research accordingly.

Oakman, J.; Woody, E. Z. (1994, October). Theoretical implications of a typological conception of hypnotic ability. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Francisco.

Analyses suggest a typology rather than continuous dimensions of hypnotic ability. One implication is that hypnotic ability is due to a developmental influence dividing people into two types, like forks in the road. For example consider the link between trauma, dissociation, and hypnotizability. Trauma may be one of the developmental paths toward hypnotic ability. Another pathway into hypnotic ability is early childhood imaginal involvements.
A problem of the developmental models is that there are low correlations between fantasy proneness and hypnotizability. The models make no assertions about covariation of these traits in a normal population, so the correlations are irrelevant in this example. Only when there is a high base rate [of high hypnotizable type?] would the correlation of hypnotizability be high.
Other implications of the typology view: 1. It would challenge existing measures of hypnotizability, which assume a sum of small influences. New measures of hypnotic ability may need to be created. Existing items are poor. We need to delete easy items and add more challenging items to the scales. Also we could add items from Openness to Experience scales, etc. Item content need not be homogenous; internal consistency is not necessary, and should be low. Ratings of a flat nose, short limbs and epicanthal fold have a zero correlation in the general population, but go together in Downs’ syndrome. 2. It would require a revision in our thinking. We may need to drive a wedge between theories of hypnotizability and theories of hypnosis. Whether current theories are more applicable to the high type or the low type hypnotizability is not yet known. 3. Or we can explore how type members differ from non-type members. Meehl argues that types discovered by his methods are “causal promissory notes.”

Baker, Sharon L.; Kirsch, Irving (1993). Hypnotic and placebo analgesia: Order effects and the placebo label. Contemporary Hypnosis, 10 (3), 117-126.

Hypnotic and placebo pain reduction were compared in a sample of subjects whose hypnotic susceptibility was broadly representative of the general population. Replicating the order effect reported by Stam and Spanos in 1987 for highly hypnotizable subjects, hypnosis produced more pain relief than a ‘pain-reducing analgesic’ placebo only when the hypnosis trial followed the placebo trial. When the placebo was described to subjects as a ‘hypnotic drug’ that ‘increases suggestibility’, no differences were found regardless of order of presentation. Both hypnotizability and pain reduction were correlated with subjects’ expectancies, and the partial correlation between hypnotizability and pain reduction, with expectancy controlled, was non-significant. These data suggest that, for most subjects, hypnotic analgesia is analogous to a placebo effect, although it may be more useful than a placebo because its administration does not require deception.

Balthazard, Claude G.; Woody, Erik Z. (1992). The spectral analysis of hypnotic performance with respect to ‘Absorption’. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40, 21-43.

In factor analyses of the hypnosis scales, the essential result is that the items form a continuous, 2-dimensional fan-shaped pattern. This continuum is referred to as the “spectrum of hypnotic performance.” “Spectral analysis” is introduced as an exploratory procedure which makes use of this notion of continuum or spectrum. Spectral analysis consists of a graphical display of the level of latent correlation between a variable and individual hypnotic performances when the latter are arranged according to their position in the spectrum. The spectral analysis of hypnotic performance with respect to absorption is illustrated using data from a sample of 160 Ss. The results indicate that absorption is more strongly related to difficult hypnotic performances than to easy ones. In particular, illustrative item characteristic curves are presented to show that although easy hypnotic performances do not require the processes tapped by individual differences in absorption, a certain level of absorption is necessary to pass difficult hypnotic items. In addition, a high level of absorption may be sufficient in and of itself for difficult hypnotic performances. These results are discussed in light of some speculations by Shor, M. T. Orne, and O’Connell (1962) and Tellegen (1978/1979) concerning the differential contribution of ability components to performance on difficult hypnotic suggestions. The results are also related to a variety of work in social psychological models of hypnotic performance.

Spectral analysis “consists of a graphical display of the level of latent correlation between a variable and individual hypnotic performances when these hypnotic performances are arranged according to their position in the spectrum—which is indexed by item difficulty” (p. 25). Difficulty (the proportion of Ss that pass a given item) is on the X-axis; the degree of latent correlation is on the Y-axis. “It is necessary to differentiate between the manifest and the latent relationship of a variable to a dichotomously scored hypnotic performance. The manifest relationship is given by the point biserial correlation and the latent relationship is given by the biserial correlation. … By inspecting the overall pattern of these biserial correlations as a function of item difficulty, it is possible to overcome the difficulty-content confound, because the biserial correlations are not affected by item difficulty” (p. 25).
“Throughout the easy and middle ranges [of item difficulty], the biserial correlation of hypnotic performance with absorption remains slightly above .2, then it rises sharply in the difficult range–beginning roughly where only one in four Ss can pass the item–to a value slightly above .5 ” (p. 27). “In essence, the proportion of Ss that pass a particular hypnosis suggestion given a particular score on the absorption scale is being plotted” (p. 30).
In their discussion, the authors relate their position to that of other theorists. Shor, Orne, & O’Connell (1962) proposed that both ability and nonability components contributed to hypnosis, with ability being the primary determinant of hypnotic performance at deeper levels. Shor et al. found a correlation between depth ratings and a questionnaire that tapped ‘hypnotic-like experiences’ to be .45; the correlation was .84 when computed for only the Ss who became deeply hypnotized, but only .17 for Ss who were only lightly or medium-level hypnotized. They concluded that their questionnaire predicted hypnotizability only for the “deeper region” of hypnosis.
Tellegen (1978/1979) proposed a two-factor model, one factor being genuine responsiveness and the other being compliance . He suggested that various hypnosis test items draw on the two factors in differing degrees. Tellegen’s genuine responsiveness factor would be similar to Shor et al.’s ability components, and Tellegen’s compliance factor would be similar to Shor et al.’s non-ability components. (The Shor model goes farther than Tellegen in positing a gradual shift in the relative contributions of the two components as one moves form easy to difficult items, and this gradualness is part of the authors’ spectrum model.)
The two-factor model is different from the general factor (plus special factors) model suggested by E. R. Hilgard (1965)); Hilgard’s general factor would probably correspond better to the Tellegen genuine responsiveness factor and the Shor et al. ability component than to the compliance factor or nonability component, which probably would correspond more to the easier items on hypnotizability scales.
Spanos et al. (1980) suggested that cooperativeness and expectation might be more important with ideomotor and challenge suggestions, and ability to treat imaginings as real (i.e. absorption) more important for more difficult cognitive items. Sarbin (1984) developed a typology with two types of individuals–those who respond to the hypnosis context by “joining the game” and knowingly create an illusion that their response is involuntary (the compliance kind of response), and those who convince themselves and others that their response is involuntary (the genuine responsiveness factor kind of response).
[Speaking of the context effects observed but not replicated 100% of the time, on the correlation between absorption and hypnotizability.] “It is possible that context effects may depend on the difficulty of the hypnotic suggestions and the latent abilities of the sample used. For relatively good hypnotic Ss performing relatively difficult suggestions, the correlation of absorption with hypnotizability may be stable across different contexts; however, for less able Ss performing relatively easy suggestions, the correlation, depending more on the ‘non-ability’ component, may be quite responsive to context manipulations. It might also be mentioned parenthetically that details of the instructions used to introduce the particular hypnosis scale employed may differentially pull for one kind of component or the other” (p. 39).

Green, Joseph P.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Carlson, Bruce W. (1992). Finding the hypnotic virtuoso — another look: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40 (2), 68-73.

Student volunteers who scored 9 (N = 20), 10 (N = 19), 11 (N = 26), and 12 (N = 15) on a live-administered Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962) were retested with the individually administered Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS:C) of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1962). There appeared to be a break in HGSHS:A’s predictive ability at 11 suggestions passed. Whereas a majority of Ss who passed at least 11 HGSHS:A suggestions retested in SHSS:C “virtuoso” range (i.e., passed at least 11 suggestions), a relatively small percentage of Ss who passed fewer than 11 HGSHS:A suggestions retested as SHSS:C virtuosos. These results are generally consistent with previous research (Register & Kihlstrom, 1986) using a standard taped-recorded (sic) HGSHS:A induction.
Stone, Mark H. (1992, October). Rasch scaling of hypnotizability. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Arlington, VA.
NOTES: The author calibrated responses to the Stanford Scales of hypnotizability, which have not been used much by clinicians. Much of the data collected by Hilgard and Weitzenhoffer on the development of those scales was not published.
Rasch measurement techniques analyzed item data taken from the individual Form A and B manuals.
The Rasch measurement involves natural Log odds, adjusted by variance of the respective persons. Thorndike’s text explains this procedure taken from Wright & Stone, 1979, Best Test Design.
The calibration of items on Forms A and B of the Stanford scales indicates they differ greatly on difficulty and order of items. Items 1, 2, 3 are among the most difficult. Yet, items should follow item difficulty order.
For practicing clinicians, the mean and SD are inadequate to guide treatment. The practitioner wants to know how the patient responds to each item, compared with what would be expected (Like a Chi square). When data from misfit analysis is combined with clinical observation, we would get more understanding [of the patient’s capabilities].
Not only are the 12 items not in order of difficulty, but there is redundancy. We could shorten the scale by selecting only items that span the same range of item difficulty: 4, 8, 10, 11, 2, 1 or 7, and 3. This would give a screening scale with wider range measured, more finely graduated, better suited to diagnosing misfit. We could connect seemingly disparate scale items.
Form C has a perfect correlation between order of difficulty and order of administration, except for 12 which must be administered earlier.
Forms I and II [the Profile scales] deviate from the administration order and the difficulty order.
Only Form C seems to be located in the way the author would want, a Guttman type scale (which is Like Rasch’s analysis).

Edmonston, William E., Jr.; Moscovitz, Harry C. (1990). Hypnosis and lateralized brain functions. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38, 70-84.

Bilateral EEG measures were obtained on 16 high hypnotizable Ss (scores of >8 on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, Shor & E. Orne, 1962), while performing hemisphere-specific tasks during hypnosis and a no-hypnosis control condition. Conditions and tasks were presented in counterbalanced order, and Ss served as their own controls. The data call into question the right hemisphere activation interpretation of lateralized brain function during hypnosis; rather, the data suggest a lack of task appropriate activity during hypnosis. The failure to attend to baseline activity measurements and the use of ratios to evaluate interhemispheric lateralization may contribute to potential misinterpretations of data. It is critical that activity changes of the separate hemispheres be taken into account in the interpetative process.

Tenenbaum, Steven J.; Kurtz, Richard M.; Bienias, Julia L. (1990). Hypnotic susceptibility and experimental pain reduction. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 33 (1), 40-49.

We exposed 24 subjects high in hypnotic susceptibility and 24 subjects low in hypnotic susceptibility to a cold-pressor pain stimulus under either hypnotic or waking conditions, using each of two pain-reduction strategies (analgesia and distraction) separately. Trance depth level was held constant for hypnotized subjects. We used pain- tolerance levels as measures of pain, and we analyzed them by survival analysis. High susceptibles reported significantly lower pain ratings and kept their hands immersed longer in the cold water than low-susceptible subjects. There were no significant differences between hypnotic and waking condition subjects or between the different strategies. We have discussed the results in terms of a relationship in the literature between choice of experimental design (between-subjects or within-subjects) and the effectiveness of a hypnotic induction for suggested pain reduction.

High hypnotizable Subjects scored 25 or above on the Wilson & Barber (1977) Creative Imagination Scale–the CIS (out of 40) and 4 or above on the Morgan & Hilgard (1979) Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale–SHCS (out of 5); Lows scored 15 or lower on the CIS and 2 or lower on the SHCS. Depth ratings during hypnosis were 7.4 for Highs, 2.3 for Lows; Tellegen Absorption scores were 25 and 18, respectively.
Subjects were assigned to either waking suggestion group or hypnosis group to avoid carryover effects across sessions, hence there were four groups: highs/waking procedure, highs/hypnotic procedure, lows/waking procedure, lows/hypnotic procedure. Each group was taught two strategies–analgesia or distraction–in a counterbalanced order, with administration of the Absorption Scale during a 15 minute rest in between the two procedures.
For hypnotic inductions, Experimenters provided an audiotape of an induction based on the SHCS, and had Ss report trance depth. When self-reported depth became less than baseline, following either strategy training period, deepening procedures were used to re-establish the earlier depth level. Analgesia testing was not done blind as to subgroup membership and/or susceptibility.
The analgesia condition involved a suggestion of numbness in the hand and arm exposed to the cold pressor (Bassman & Wester, 1983). The distraction condition involved a suggestion to imagine a pleasant beach scene (Turk, Meichenbaum, and Gnest, 1984).
The number of individuals dropping out (removing their hands from the bath) at any one time period was measured, providing’survival curves.’ Pain tolerance was the same for Highs and Lows during baseline; also pain tolerance was the same for the hypnotic group as for the waking group. However, Low hypnotizable Ss removed their hands from the cold water faster than High hypnotizables: after 90 seconds only 60% of Lows, compared with 85% of Highs, remained. The same results occurred for distraction.
“In summary, both treatments allowed subjects to tolerate the cold pressor longer. There were no significant differences between subjects receiving or not receiving a hypnotic induction, and high-susceptibility subjects appeared to derive significantly greater benefit from treatment than did low-susceptibility subjects, as reflected by their tendency to tolerate exposure to the cold bath for greater lengths of time” (p. 46).
“High-susceptible subjects appeared to derive significantly greater benefit from treatment than did low-susceptible subjects, as reflected by their tendency both to tolerate exposure to the cold bath for greater lengths of time and to produce lower pain ratings” (p. 46).
“One issue that remains unresolved concerning the relationship between susceptibility and pain reduction is whether susceptibility is a transituational capacity that is accessed by suggestion, or as Spanos, Hodgins, Stam, and Gwynn (1984) have asserted, simply an expectancy effect created by the susceptibility screening process, in which susceptibility screening appeared to act as a ‘primary effect,’ generating a successful experience related to hypnosis. The hypothesis that susceptibility is a capacity that can be accessed by suggestion is supported by the bulk of the literature on susceptibility and pain reduction, including research generated by both social-cognitive and neo-dissociation theorists (e.g., Hilgard, 1975; Spanos & Hewitt, 1980). In addition, susceptibility has proved to be a relatively stable trait, resistant to clinically significant modification (Crouse & Kurtz, 1984; Hilgard, 1975).
“Empirical resolution of this question would seem to require extension and replication of the Spanos, Hodgins, Stam, and Gwynn (1984) study, including exploration of whether screening at the end of the treatment phase of a suggestion experiment wipes out the relationship between susceptibility and successful suggestion for other hypnotic phenomena, such as amnesia, hallucination, time distortion, and so forth” (pp. 47-48).

Weekes, John R.; Lynn, Steven Jay (1990). Hypnotic suggestion type, and subjective experience – the order-effects hypothesis revisited: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38, 95-100.

In a replication and extension of Field, Evans, and Orne’s (1965) research, no support was found for the hypothesis that suggestion order is related to hypnotic responding. Confirming earlier findings, subjects were no more responsive to suggestions ordered from easy-to-difficult than they were to suggestions ordered from difficult-to- easy. Measures of subjective involvement in suggestions, involuntariness, and archaic involvement with the hypnotist were no more sensitive to order effects, nor were order effects more apparent with subjects who received direct versus indirect suggestions. Confirming earlier research, direct suggestions did facilitate suggestion-related involuntariness and response to the hypnotic amnesia item after cancellation, whereas indirect suggestions enhanced fears of negative appraisal by the hypnotist. Thus, authoritative suggestions enhance responding to a cognitive-delusional item relative to more permissive suggestions. Finally, female subjects were more involved in suggestions than were males, particularly in response to more difficult tests items.

Balthazard, Claude G.; Woody, Erik Z. (1989). Bimodality, dimensionality and the notion of hypnotic types. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37 (1), 70-89.

The notion of hypnotic types — of qualitative differences in the mechanisms by which people respond to hypnotic suggestions — is examined with respect to the kind of evidence that has traditionally been seen to support it. Bimodality in the distribution of hypnosis scores has been taken as evidence for two “types” of hypnotizability. It is argued that little can be said about the nature of underlying processes from the distribution of raw scores. The relationship of factor analytic results to possible underlying typologies is examined. It is concluded that the present evidence simply does not allow an evaluation of the merits of current typological formulations.
Spiegel, David; Bloom, J. R.; Kraemer, H. C.; Gottheil, E. (1989, October 14). The beneficial effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of metastatic breast cancer patients: A randomized prospective outcome study. Lancet, 888-891.
The effect of psychosocial intervention on time of survival of 86 metastatic breast cancer patients was studied using randomized prospective design. The one-year treatment consisted of weekly supportive group therapy with training in self-hypnosis for pain management, and resulted in significant reductions in mood disturbance and pain. Both the treatment and control groups had routine oncologic care. At ten-year follow-up, only three of the original 86 patients were still alive, and death records were obtained for the other 83. Survival from the time of randomization and onset of intervention was 36.6 (sd = 37.6) months for the treatment group, compared with 18.9 (sd = 10.8) months for the control group, and this difference was highly significant (Z = 3.94, p <.0001) using the Cox life table regression model. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the divergence in survival began at 20 months after entry into the study, or 8 months after the treatment intervention ended. These unexpected findings suggest that intensive psychosocial support affects the course of the illness, although the mechanism by which it does so is not clear. 1985 Balthazard, Claude G.; Woody, Erik Z. (1985). The 'stuff' of hypnotic performance: A review of psychometric approaches. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 283-296. Reviews psychometric investigations into the nature of the processes that underlie hypnotic performance and examines issues that underlie psychometric investigations of hypnosis scales, such as the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. The issues addressed are dimensionality and the problem of difficulty factors, the interpretation of factorial dimensions, and componential alternatives to the factor analytic approach. It is argued that hypnotic performances are most likely overdetermined in that they reflect the combined influence of a plurality of processes. The relevance of various componential models, each reflecting a different contemporary theoretical perspective toward hypnosis, and some of the implications of such models for future research are discussed. (77 ref). Silverman, Lloyd H. (1985). 'Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations': Rejoinder to Oliver and Burkham and to Porterfield. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (4), 647-8. Considers the replies of A. L. Porterfield (see PA, vol 73:11991) and J. M. Oliver and R. Burkham (see PA, vol 73:11985) to the critique of the present author (see PA, vol 73:12007). The original criticisms are seen as valid. A critical deficiency in the design of Porterfield and S. L. Golding's (see PA, vol 73:11992) study is viewed as disqualifying it as a fair attempt at replication. It is suggested that although Oliver and Burkham's (see PA, vol 69:1571) study was well-designed, statements made in their write- up are unwarranted. (12 ref) 1983 Myers, S. A. (1983). The Creative Imagination Scale: Group norms for children and adolescents. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (1), 28-36. This study presented the responsiveness of 1302 children and adolescents (ages 8-17) to the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) of Wilson and Barber (1978) and Barber and Wilson (1978/79). The normative features of CIS were highlighted in the data analysis. Since items on CIS have been found to be related, a MANOVA was used for the analysis. There were significant differences in both sex and age. Females at each age level, 8 through 17, scored higher on CIS than males of the same age. Ss of ages 9, 10, and 11 obtained the highest scores, but only differed significantly from the scores for 15-year-old Ss. The other age groups did not differ significantly from each other. In addition, the stability of CIS was confirmed. The author would recommend CIS for Ss 9 years old through adult years, however, CIS should be administered individually to Ss 12 and 15 years old, due to peer pressure. Smith, Howard V.; Forrest, Derek W.; Sheehan, Eugene P. (1983). Suggested improvement, music, and the visual acuity of myopes: A reply. NOTES This is a reply to Wagstaff, G.F. suggested improvement of visual acuity: A statistical reevaluation. IJCEH, 1983, 31, 239-240. Here, the authors suggest yet a third way of analysing the data initially presented by Sheehan, Smith, & Forrest in 1982 (A signal detection study of the effects of suggested improvement on the monocular visual acuity of myopes, IJCEH, 30, 138-146). Wagstaff, Graham F. (1983). Suggested improvement of visual acuity: A statistical reevaluation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31 (4), 239-240. NOTES This is a re-analysis of data presented by Sheehan, E.P., Smith, H.V., & Forrest, D.W. (1982), A signal detection study of the effects of suggested improvement on the monocular visual acuity of myopes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40, 138-146. "In sum, a more appropriate conclusion to be drawn from Sheehan et al.'s (1982) results is that suggestions for improving visual acuity have little effect, but listening to music actually appears to reduce sensitivity. This reinterpretation of Sheehan et al.'s (1982) result is purely a comment on their conclusions, not their methodology. 1981 Tellegen, Auke (1981). Practicing the two disciplines for relaxation and enlightenment: Comment on 'Role of the feedback signal in electromyograph biofeedback: the relevance of attention' by Qualls and Sheehan. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 217-226. High and Low Absorption Ss differ in set rather than in capability for attending to external or internal stimuli, as Qualls and Sheehan suggest. Trait x Treatment interaction for Absorption illustrates concept of personality dispositions being inherently interactive functional units. Provides a content analysis of Absorption scale (subscales) and relates absorption to other constructs in psychology. "It is not the internal versus external focus per se that play a decisive role but the subject's experiential versus instrumental set. For example, with two treatment levels, one would expect to obtain an Absorption x Treatment interaction even if both treatment conditions required an external attentional focus, as long as they contrasted an experiential and an instrumental set" (pp 223-224). Yanchar, R. J.; Johnson, H. J. (1981). Absorption and attitude toward hypnosis: A moderator analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29 (4), 375-382. 2 factors which have been found to correlate to a small degree with susceptibility are (a) an individual's attitude toward being hypnotized and (b) an individual's capacity for subjective involvement in an experience (absorption). The present study was an attempt to replicate previous findings by Spanos and McPeake (1975) and to extend these findings to determine if there was a significant interaction between these 2 factors in their relationship to susceptibility. 99 Ss (65 females and 34 males) completed the absorption questionnaire of Tellegen (1979) and the attitude questionnaire of Barber and Calverley (1966). Their hypnotic susceptibility was assessed with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962). Attitude and absorption were found to have small positive correlations with susceptibility, results which corroborate previous research. The multiple regression analyses indicated that there were no significant interactions between the factors of attitude, absorption, and sex. 1980 Bornstein, P. H.; Rychtarik, R. G.; McFall, M. E.; Winegardner, J.; Winnett, R. L.; Paris, D. A. (1980). Hypnobehavioral treatment of chronic nailbiting: A multiple baseline analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (3), 208-217. 3 highly hypnotizable Ss were administered a hypnobehavioral treatment package in an attempt to alleviate chronic nailbiting behavior. The combined hypnotic and behavioral procedures included standard induction and deepening techniques, motivation enhancement, time-projection, self-reinforcement, aversion-relief, coping self-instructions, and posthypnotic suggestion. A multiple baseline design across Ss was employed as a means of evaluating the treatment intervention. Results for all Ss indicated immediate and dramatic increase in fingernail lengths concomitant with the introduction of treatment. At 3-month follow-up, 1 S demonstrated a moderate reversal effect while the remaining 2 Ss continued to indicate substantial progress. These findings were discussed with regard to the efficacy of hypnobehavioral treatment strategies and utilization of single-case experimental designs in future hypnotherapy research. O'Grady, K. E. (1980). The Absorption Scale: A factor-analytic assessment. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (3), 281-288. 95 female and 53 male introductory psychology students were administered the Tellegen Absorption Scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974); the Repression-Sensitization Scale (Byrne, Barry, & Nelson, 1963); the F Scale (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswick, Levison, & Sanford, 1950); the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970); the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974); and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (Crowne & marlowe, 1964). A principal axis analysis of the inter-correlations indicated that 3 major factors could account for the bulk of variance among the 6 inventories. Inspection of the correlation matrix and the factor loadings showed that the Absorption Scale shared a quite modest amount of variance with the remaining scales, and that it appeared to represent a dimension entirely different than those found in the other measures. These results offer strong support to the notion that the Absorption Scale is tapping a relatively new personality dimension. 1978 Connors, J. R.; Sheehan, P. W. (1978). The influence of control comparison tasks and between-versus within-subjects effects in hypnotic responsivity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 104-122. Type of experimental design (between- versus within-subjects) and type of control task were examined for their differential effects on the magnitude of objective and state report test scores associated wtih response to items on the Stanford Hypnotic Scale of Susceptibility, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). In an integrated program of work exploring design effects in hypnotic research, Ss in each of 7 comparison conditions that involved hypnosis and 4 separate comparison conditions that did not involve hypnosis were tested twice on successive occasions. Three of the control tasks used (waking, imagination, and imagination [alert] instruction) were counterbalanced with hypnosis to analoyze possible order effects associated with hypnotic test conditions. Data indexed the patterns of between- versus within-subjects effects associated wtih standard control tasks and also highlighted the order effects that accompanied them. Imagination instructions, in particular, pose specific difficulties that require attention when Ss are tested as their own controls. 1976 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1976). Pitfalls in human research: Ten pivotal points. Overview and recommendations. In Pitfalls in human research: Ten pivotal points. NOTES Be aware of underlying paradigm and how it influences every aspect of the research. Make assumptions more explicit. 2. Person who plans the study should be different from person who is responsible for data analysis. 3. Person who plans the study should not be person who serves as experimenter and collects the data. 4. Investigator should serve as "pilot" subject to gain insight into how the Ss view the experimental design, to tighten the design, and to change experimental instructions that are not clear to the Ss. 5. Use a tight experimental script or protocol that clearly specifies how the experimenter is to carry out each phase of the study, and that considers the various contingencies that may arise. 6. Give the experimenters sufficient supervised practice in implementing the protocol and in correctly and honestly recording the data. The experimenters should carry out pilot studies under supervision. 7. Understand the many kinds of data analyses that lead to misleading conclusions and the kinds of analyses that can be used appropriately with specified sets of data. 8. Judge the research on the validity of the design and procedures that are used to answer the questions that are posed rather than on the outcome or the results that are obtained. 9. Teachers should place much more emphasis on the value of carefully following the prescribed procedures and carefully and honestly recording the data. 10. Check often to see if the experimenters are faithfully implementing the experimental protocol and are carefully and honestly recording the data--e.g. by making tape recordings or video tapes, using one-way mirrors to observe, or by sending stooges, who give predetermined responses. 1971 Starr, Fay H. (1971). The remarriage of multiple regression and statistical inference: A promising approach for hypnosis researchers. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 13, 175-179. A multiple linear regression computer program is described as a general purpose procedure for the testing of hypotheses in hypnosis research. The claim is made, with supporting evidence, that virtually any hypothesis can be tested with the procedure, if the researcher's theory can be placed in the form of a predictive equation where one or more sources of information are used to predict some measure of hypnosis. The hypothesis, stated in the null form, is applied algebraically as a restriction upon the predictive equation, thus yielding a second restricted, predictive equation. The squared multiple correlation coefficients of the two equations are compared in testing the hypothesis. Certain advantages, pedagogical and logical, are claimed, among which is the thought that if science is genuinely concerned with the description, modification, and prediction of behavior, here is a technique which keeps these goals in sight as hypotheses are used to test theories. 1964 Furneaux, W. D. (1964). The heat-illusion test and the structure of suggestibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12 (3), 169-180. 2 similar forms of the heat-illusion test are shown to correlate to a smaller degree than would be expected if they measure the same attribute. The 2 versions also differ in the way in which they correlate with other suggestibility tests. It is shown that linear regression techniques are not appropriate for analyzing the data concerned. The interaction of various nonlinear relationships with a difference in "difficulty," as between the 2 forms of the illusion, seems to provide an adequate explanation for the results. It is suggested that these nonlinear relationships may indicate the existence of an attribute which prevents some Ss from responding to any suggestibility test, irrespective of what the specific mechanisms of response may be. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) STRESS Wood, Gary J.; Bughi, Stefan; Morrison, John; Tanavoli, Sara; Tanavoli, Sohrab; Zadeh, Homayoun H. (2003). Hypnosis, differential expression of cytokines by T-cell subsets, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 45 (3), 179-196. Tested the hypothesis that hypnosis can differentially modulate T-cell subsets, and that this effect is mediated by changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) mediators. Seven healthy, highly hypnotizable volunteers (aged 24-42 yrs) participated in 3 1-day sessions, a baseline and 2 intervention sessions. Hypnosis intervention entailed a standardized induction, suggestions for ego strengthening and optimally balanced functioning of the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and post-hypnotic suggestions for stress management and continued optimal balance of bodily systems. Blood samples were analyzed for T-cell activation and intracellular cytokine expression (Interferon [IFN]-gamma, Interleukin-2 [IL-2], Interleukin-4,) and HPA axis mediators (ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin). The proportion of T-cells expressing IFN-gamma and IL-2 were lower after hypnosis. T-cell activation response to polyclonal stimulation was positively correlated with ACTH and beta-endorphin, while IFN-gamma expression was correlated with levels of cortisol. Further controlled studies utilizing hypnosis with patients in treatment are warranted in order to examine whether an altered T-cell response can be replicated in the presence of disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 2002 Cardena, Etzel; Maldonado, Jose; Van der Hart, Onno; Spiegel, David (2002). Hypnosis (for posttraumatic conditions). [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago. NOTES Authors discuss how hypnosis can be used "to stabilize the patient by providing techniques to enhance relaxation and establish cues to induce a calm state outside of the therapeutic context. Specific suggestions may also be used to enhance ego strength and a sense of safety, to contain traumatic memories, and to reduce or at least control better such symptoms as anxiety or nightmares. ... [and] to intensify the therapeutic relationship, which can then be used for therapeutic purposes. 2) In the second stage of working-through and resolving traumatic memories, various hypnotic techniques can be used to help pace and control the investigation, integration and resolution of traumatic memories. ... 3) Finally, the goals of the third stage include achieving a more adaptive integration of the traumatic experience into the patient''''''''s life, maintaining more adaptive coping responses, and furthering personal development. Hypnotic techniques can be helpful in providing strategies to intentionally focus and shift attention as necessary; they can also be helpful in self integration through, for instance, rehearsals in fantasy of a more adaptive self-image, of new activities, and so on" ((Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall, 2002, Vol. 11, No. 3, P. 15). Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Marucha, Phillip T.; Atkinson, Cathie; Glaser, Ronald (2001). Hypnosis as a modulator of cellular immune dysregulation during acute stress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69 (4), 674-682. To assess the influence of a hypnotic intervention on cellular immune function during a commonplace stressful event, the authors selected 33 medical and dental students on the basis of hypnotic susceptibility. Initial blood samples were obtained during a lower stress period, and a second sample was drawn 3 days before the first major exam of the term. Half of the participants were randomly assigned to hypnotic-relaxation training in the interval between samples. Participants in the hypnotic group were, on average, protected from the stress-related decrements that were observed in control participants'''' proliferative responses to 2 mitogens, percentages of CD3-super(+ ) and CD4-super(+ ) T-lymphocytes, and interleukin 1 production by peripheral blood leukocytes. More frequent hypnotic-relaxation practice was associated with higher percentages of CD3-super(+ ) and CD4-super(+ ) T-lymphocytes. These data provide encouraging evidence that interventions may reduce the immunological dysregulation associated with acute stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract) 1998 Easterlin, Barbara L.; Cardena, Etzel (1998-99). Cognitive and emotional differences between short- and long-term Vipassana meditators. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18 (1), 69-81. This study compared perceived stress and cognitive and emotional differences between two groups of Buddhist mindfulness [Vipassana] meditators. Nineteen beginning and twenty-four advanced meditators carried electronic pagers for five days and responded to daily random signals by completing an Experience Sampling form (ESF) containing items related to the dependent variables. As compared with beginners, advanced practitioners reported greater self-awareness, positive mood, and acceptance. Greater stress lowered mood and self-acceptance in both groups, but the deleterious effect of stress on acceptance was more marked for the beginners. These findings validate in a naturalistic setting some of the effects described in traditional Buddhist texts on mindfulness. NOTES "Meditation can be defined as the deliberate deployment of mental attention to obtain a particular patterning of consciousness. The aim of such control may be the stabilization of the stream of thought, greater relaxation, the attainment of an altered state, or the development of insights into the nature of mind [12]. Mindfulness meditation has sometimes been contrasted with concentration meditation as one of two main forms of meditation practice [13, 14]. The usual distinction is that mindfulness involves opening awareness to all contents and processes of mind, whereas concentrative forms of meditation involve shutting out all stimuli extraneous to a single object of attention" (p. 70). Long-term meditators averaged 103 months and 85 days of retreat training. They did not differ from short-term meditators on measures of absorption, neuroticism, trait anxiety, or cognitive style; however they evidenced greater self-awareness and acceptance. The short-term meditators actually had more than a year of meditation experience so that differences between groups are not likely to be due to self-selection. The authors conclude that "meditation brings about sustainable changes in people's lives, above and beyond relaxation. ... [and] that greater conscious awareness through mindfulness techniques such as Vipassana meditation, increases acceptance, positive mood, and the ability to dispassionately observe one's mental states. These results have implications for clinical issues such as pain management and psychotherapy, in which acceptance and awarenss are necessary ingredients for therapeutic change" (p. 78). JH Wickramasekera, Ian E.; Kolm, Paul; Pope, Alan; Turner, Marsha (1998). Observation of a paradoxical temperature increase during cognitive stress in some chronic pain patients. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 23 (4), 233-241. A total of 224 chronic pain somatoform disorder patients without obvious pathophysiology or psychopathology were found to have colder hands than nonpatients. A paradoxical temperature increase (PTI) in response to a cognitive stressor (mental arithmetic) was noted in a subset of these chronic pain patients. Patients were defined as "PTI" responders if, during cognitive stress, an increase in digital temperature occurred over a prior eyes closed resting condition. It was found that 49.4% of males and 42.6% of females in a total sample of 224 patients demonstrated PTI. The PTI patients had significantly colder hands than non-PTI patients prior to stress. A concurrent SCL measure of sympathetic activation found no difference between the PTI and non-PTI groups either at baseline or during cognitive stress. It appears from this data that PTI is specific to the peripheral vascular system of these patients and may be a marker of psychophysiological dissociation or trauma blocked from consciousness. 1997 Enqvist, Bjorn; Fischer, Kerstin (1997). Preoperative hypnotic techniques reduce consumption of analgesics after surgical removal of third mandibular molars: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45 (2), 102-108. The effects of hypnosis in connection with surgery have been described in many clinical publications, but few controlled studies have been published. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative hypnotic techniques used by patients planned for surgical removal of third mandibular molars. The patients were randomly assigned to an experimental (hypnotic techniques) or a control (no hypnotic techniques) group. During the week before the surgery, the experimental group listened to an audiotape containing a hypnotic relaxation induction. Posthypnotic suggestions of healing and recovery were given on the tape together with advice regarding ways to achieve control over stress and pain. The control group received no hypnotic intervention. Only one surgeon who was not aware of patient group assignments performed all the operations. Thirty-six patients in the control group were compared to 33 patients in the experimental group. Anxiety before the operation increased significantly in the control group but remained at baseline level in the experimental group. Postoperative consumption of analgesics was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group. Journal Abstract. Faymonville, M. E.; Mambourg, P. H.; Joris, J.; Vrijens, B.; Fissette, J.; Albert, A.; Lamy, M. (1997). Psychological approaches during conscious sedation. Hypnosis versus stress reducing strategies: A prospective randomized study. Pain, 73 (3), 361-367. Stress reducing strategies are useful in patients undergoing surgery. Hypnosis is also known to alleviate acute and chronic pain. We therefore compared the effectiveness of these two psychological approaches for reducing perioperative discomfort during conscious sedation for plastic surgery. Sixty patients scheduled for elective plastic surgery under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation (midazolam and alfentanil upon request) were included in the study after providing informed consent. They were randomly allocated to either stress reducing strategies (control: CONT) or hypnosis (HYP) during the entire surgical procedure. Both techniques were performed by the same anesthesiologist (MEF). Patient behavior was noted during surgery by a psychologist, the patient noted anxiety, pain, perceived control before, during and after surgery, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Patient satisfaction and surgical conditions were also recorded. Peri- and postoperative anxiety and pain were significantly lower in the HYP group. This reduction in anxiety and pain were achieved despite a significant reduction in intraoperative requirements for midazolam and alfentanil in the HYP group (alfentanil: 8.7 +/- 0.9 microg kg(-1)/h(-1) vs. 19.4 +/- 2 microg kg(-1)/h(-1), P < 0.001; midazolam: 0.04 +/- 0.003 mg kg(-1)/h(-1) vs. 0.09 +/- 0.01 mg kg(-1)/h(-1), P < 0.001). Patients in the HYP group reported an impression of more intraoperative control than those in the CONT group (P < 0.01). PONV were significantly reduced in the HYP group (6.5% vs. 30.8%, P < 0.001). Surgical conditions were better in the HYP group. Less signs of patient discomfort and pain were observed by the psychologist in the HYP group (P < 0.001). Vital signs were significantly more stable in the HYP group. Patient satisfaction score was significantly higher in the HYP group (P < 0.004). This study suggests that hypnosis provides better perioperative pain and anxiety relief, allows for significant reductions in alfentanil and midazolam requirements, and improves patient satisfaction and surgical conditions as compared with conventional stress reducing strategies support in patients receiving conscious sedation for plastic surgery. The effects of hypnosis, context reinstatement, and motivational instructions on accuracy of recall for factual information and facial recognition accuracy following a stressful event were assessed. None of the three techniques had a significant effect on factual memory or susceptibility to suggestion as assessed by true-false and multiple-choice tests. However, participants high in hypnotic susceptibility showed somewhat better memory on the true-false test, and hypnosis affected performance on the two photograph line-ups. In addition, hypnosis appeared to enhance facial recognition accuracy for participants who were low in anxiety, but not for those high in anxiety. Finally, there was evidence of a curvilinear relationship between self-reported anxiety at time of retrieval and facial recognition accuracy. -- Journal Abstract Sapp, Marty; Farrell, Walter C. Jr.; Johnson, James Jr.; Kirby, Renee Sartin; Pumphrey, Khyana K. (1997). Hypnosis: Applications for rehabilitation counselors. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 28 (2), 43-49. This article describes how the rehabilitation counselor can employ hypnosis. Hypnosis can be employed as a useful tool in working with individuals who have experienced a disability. It can be used to reduce anxiety and stress related to returning to work; it can help clients learn to reduce stress and to modify themselves, even if their environments cannot change; and it can be used to increase the self-esteem of clients with disabilities. 1996 Wickramasekera, Ian; Pope, Alan T.; Kolm, Paul (1996). On the interaction of hypnotizability and negative affect in chronic pain: Implications for the somatization of trauma. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184 (10), 628-635. The high risk model of threat perception predicts that high hypnotizability is a risk factor for trauma-related somatization. It is hypothesized that high hypnotizability can increase experimentally induced threat or negative affect, as measured by skin conductance level, in a linear or dose-response manner. This hypothesized interaction of hypnotic ability and negative affect was found in a consecutive series of 118 adult patients with chronic pain symptoms. Larger increases in skin conductance levels during cognitive threat were significantly related to higher levels of hypnotizability. In addition, individuals with high hypnotizability retained higher skin conductance levels than individuals with low hypnotizability after stress. The clinical implications of the interaction of hypnotizability and negative affect during threat perception and delayed recovery from threat perception are discussed in terms of cognitive mechanisms in the etiology and therapy of trauma-related dissociative disorders.