A novel hypnotic induction technique is described wherein the client reverses roles and serves as hypnotist for the therapist willing to enter trance. Indications and contraindications in employing innovative hypnotherapeutic interventions are considered in terms of the therapeutic goals and context, patient-therapist interaction, and patient as well as therapist characteristics. Benefits provided by the technique to the client, client-therapist interaction, and therapist respectively are briefly discussed. The specific methodology of this technique is described according to seven steps: (1) permission request: (2) client observation: (3) session structure: (4) client confidence: (5) therapist trance: (6) feedback: and (7) subsequent utilization. Relevant clinical examples are provided.

Stern, T. E. (1982). The effects of Ericksonian hypnosis and biofeedback on self-reported measures of pain (Dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 3744-B.

Conducted a 6-subject case study comparing the effectiveness of so-called Ericksonian hypnosis and biofeedback on chronic pain. Two subjects improved more on subjective and behavioral pain measures using biofeedback, three improved more using hypnosis, and one did not improve in either condition.

McConkey, Kevin M.; Sheehan, Peter W. (1981). The impact of videotape playback of hypnotic events on posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90 (1), 46-54.

Examined the breakdown of amnesia by showing 48 hypnotic and nonhypnotic undergraduates (Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) a videotape of the hypnotic events they had experienced. The extent of the amnesia for these events was defined precisely, and simulating procedures were employed to analyze the cues in the overall test situation. Videotape display of the hypnotic events was presented via the Experiential Analysis Technique and served to optimize conditions for breakdown. Some hypnotic Ss’ amnesia could not be broken down even though they were exposed via videotape playback to the events to be recalled and when suggestions for the period of amnesia were quite explicit. Simulators showed breaching of amnesia but attributed their recall to the videotape rather than to the hypnotic session. Hypnotic Ss were distinctive in their inability to recall experiential aspects of their performance even though they could recall behavioral aspects. The data are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that dissociative cognitive mechanisms underlie posthypnotic amnesia. (22 ref).

Crowley, R. (1980). Effects of indirect hypnosis (Rapid Induction Analgesia) for relief of acute pain associated with minor podiatric surgery (Dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 45-49.

Lynn et al. (1993) cited this dissertation. They noted that all 30 volunteer subjects responded painfully when stimulated by a needle administered by a podiatrist and that the Rapid Induction Analgesia of Joseph Barber (RIA) was not as effective as local chemical analgesia. Furthermore, according to Lynn et al., RIA patients did not report a reduction in their anxiety following podiatric surgery comparable to that reported by patients who received chemical analgesia. The author also found that hypnotizability was related to multiple chronic pain indices.

Diamond, Michael Jay (1980). The client-as-hypnotist: Furthering hypnotherapeutic change. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 197-207.

A novel hypnotic induction technique is described wherein the client reverses roles and serves as hypnotist for the therapist. Relevant theoretical processes are discussed as are mutual hypnosis, modeling, and the uncommon techniques of Erickson (1964). 3 case illustrations are presented and implications discussed. It is hypothesized that the ‘client-as-hypnotist’ may in certain special situations further hypnotherapy by: (a) increasing client motivation; (b) enhancing therapeutic rapport; (c) increasing both client trust and skills in utilizing unconscious processes; (d) overcoming resistance and increasing hypnotizability; (e) providing a useful psychodiagnostic and behavior assessment index; (f) presenting a role ‘model’ for dealing with feelings, alterations in consciousness, and self-control; (g) providing a client-centered framework for subsequent therapeutic interventions; (h) increasing client self-esteem, mastery, and ego strength; and (i) increasing client self-control skills. Potential risks and contraindications for use of the technique are also discussed.

Edwards, William Henry (1980). Direct versus indirect hypnosis for the relief of chronic pain in spinal cord injured patients (Dissertation, United States International University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (10-B), 4996.

This study compared effectiveness of direct hypnosis and indirect hypnosis (Rapid Induction Analgesia, developed by Joseph Barber) in reducing experimental and clinical pain in spinal cord injured patients. The 30 male paraplegic patients who had chronic benign pain volunteered for the study. They were administered three tests: the Pain Estimate Scale (Sternbach, 1974), Ischemic Muscle Pain Test (IMPT), and the Stanford Profile Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form II — SPHSS — (Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard, 1967). Each patient experienced three sessions: (1) Baseline Control, (2) Direct Hypnosis, and (3) Indirect Hypnosis. Patients were randomly assigned to Sessions (2) and (3). The results indicated no significant statistical difference in the effectiveness of direct versus indirect hypnotic analgesia in these chronic pain patients. Direct and indirect hypnosis were equally effective; hypnotizability was not associated with outcome. Furthermore, there was no interaction between treatment effects and pretreatment pain level. The results were similar for both clinical and experimental pain.

Araoz, Daniel L. (1979). Hypnosis in group-therapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27 (1), 1-13.

Therapeutic groups are defined to include both therapy groups and enrichment or extensional groups, either goal-specific or goal-individualized. After reviewing the literature, 3 modalities for the use of 6 hypnotherapeutic techniques are presented. These modalities are: (a) simultaneous group hypnosis, (b) working with one member and then fostering group interaction, and (c) cooperative group self-hypnosis. The 6 group hypnotherapy techniques are: (a) relaxation, (b) positive revivification, (c) dream production, (d) age regressiona and recovery of early recollections, (e) age progression and mental rehearsal, and (f) ego strengthening. The need for research in group hypnotherapy is stressed, especially in the areas of transference, countertransference, and ‘co-transference.’
Benson, Herbert; Frankel, Fred H.; Apfel, Roberta; Daniels, Michael D.; Schniewind, Henry E.; Nemiah, John C.; Sifneos, Peter E.; Crassweller, Karen D.; Greenwood, Martha M.; Kotch, Jamie B.; Arns, Patricia A.; Rosner, Bernard (1978). Treatment of anxiety: A
We have investigated prospectively the efficacy of two nonpharmacologic relaxation techniques in the therapy of anxiety. A simple, meditational relaxation technique (MT) that elicits the changes of decreased sympathetic nervous system activity was compared to a self-hypnosis technique (HT) in which relaxation, with or without altered perceptions, was suggested. 32 patients with anxiety neurosis were divided into 2 groups on the basis of their responsivity to hypnosis: moderate-high and low responsivity. The NIT or HT was then randomly assigned separately to each member of the two responsivity groups. Thus, 4 treatment groups were studied: moderate-high responsivity MT; low responsivity MT; moderate-high responsivity HT; and low responsivity HT. The low responsivity HT group, by definition largely incapable of achieving the altered perceptions essential to hypnosis, was designed as the control group. Patients were instructed to practice the assigned technique daily for 8 weeks. Change in anxiety was determined by three types of evaluation: psychiatric assessment; physiologic testing; and self-assessment. There was essentially no difference between the two techniques in therapeutic efficacy according to these evaluations. Psychiatric assessment revealed overall improvement in 34% of the patients and the self-rating assessment indicated improvement in 63% of the population. Patients who had moderate- high hypnotic responsivity, independent of the technique used, significantly improved on psychiatric assessment (p = 0.05) and decreased average systolic blood pressure from 126.1 to 122.5 mm Hg over the 8-week period (p = 0.048). The responsivity scores at the higher end of the hypnotic responsivity spectrum were proportionately correlated to greater decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.075) and to improvement by psychiatric assessment (p = 0.003). There was, however, no consistent relation between hypnotic responsivity and the other assessments made, such as diastolic blood pressure, oxygen consumption, heart rate and the self-rating questionnaires. The meditational and self- hypnosis techniques employed in this investigation are simple to use and effective in the therapy of anxiety.

Parker, Jerry C.; Gilbert, Gary S.; Thoreson, Richard W. (1978). Reduction of autonomic arousal in alcoholics: A comparison of relaxation and meditation techniques. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 879-886.

To investigate and compare the effects of progressive relaxation training and meditation training on autonomic arousal in alcoholics, 30 subjects were selected from a population of alcoholics in a Veterans Administration hospital substance-abuse program. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following three experimental conditions: (a) progressive relaxation training group, (b) meditation training group, or (c) quiet rest control group. All groups met for 3 weeks during which state anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, and spontaneous galvanic skin responses were measured. The measures were designed to assess the treatment effects following the first training session and at the end of the total training period. The results indicate that both progressive relaxation training and meditation training are useful for reducing blood pressure in alcoholics. In addition, significant differences between the groups in the effectiveness of the relaxation procedures were found. Meditation training induced blood pressure decreases at an earlier point in the 3-week training period and affected decreases in systolic blood pressure that progressive relaxation training did not. These results support the idea of considerable specificity of response to relaxation techniques.

Porter, J. W. (1978). Suggestions and success imagery for study problems. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 63-75.

A procedure is presented for dealing with study problems in cases where patients come with an expectancy of help through hypnosis. Specific suggestions directly related to the study difficulty are given. “Success imagery” is outlined for use under hypnosis and by the student himself in his daily life. Two self-management techniques associated with the relaxation induced by exhalation are given further strength by being made posthypnotic suggestions. A direct posthypnotic suggestion for “concentration and recall” is combined with contingency management to effect more efficient performance when the decision is made to study. Four sessions are shown by clinical experience to be generally adequate to allow a transition from therapy to self-management of the problem aided by the student’s own use of self-hypnosis. A general outline of how this is achieved for the first three sessions incorporates both Wolberg’s (19656) suggestions to remove barriers preventing progress and Stanton’s (1977) Rational-Emotive Therapy suggestions to strengthen the person’s belief in himself.

Sanders, Shirley (1978). Creative problem-solving and psychotherapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 15-21.

The techniques described comprise a creative problem-solving approach to short-term individual psychotherapy which appears effective in conjunction with hypnosis. The techniques include describing and visualizing the client’s problem, imagining alternative reactions, dreaming about new solutions, and trying the solutions in real life. The method is illustrated by 2 clinical examples. The discussion focuses on a comparison of the techniques used with individuals versus with small groups, the fostering of regression in the service of the ego, and the redirection of attention from the physically out of control to the recognition of the possibility of obtaining control. This shift of attention fosters active coping on the part of the client.

Stanton, Harry E. (1978). A one-session hypnotic approach to modifying smoking behavior. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 22-29.

Recent literature reviewing attempts to modify smoking behavior through the use of hypnosis is outlined, and an approach utilizing only 1 treatment is described. This single session includes: (a) the establishment of a favorable “mental set” on the part of the patient, (b) a hypnotic induction, (c) ego-enhancing suggestions, (d) specific suggestions directed toward the cessation of smoking, (e) an adaption of the “red balloon” visualization, and (f) success visualization. Of 75 patients treated by this technique, 45 ceased smoking. 6 months after the treatment session, 34, or 45%, were still nonsmokers, attesting to the efficacy of the method.

Anderson, J. W. (1977). Defensive maneuvers in two incidents involving the Chevreul pendulum: A clinical note. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 4-6.

“Hypnosis frequently facilitates increased access to the unconscious. In both of these cases, the hypnotized subject gained contact with a thought which otherwise would likely have remained out of awareness. Then the ego quickly resorted to defensive maneuvers in order to deny the thought” (p. 6).Ansel, Edward Leslie (1977). A simple exercise to enhance response to hypnotherapy for migraine headache. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25 (2), 68-71.

A common method of hypnotherapy for migraine headache utilizes suggestions of warmth for the hands and coldness for the head. This procedure reverses the abnormal pattern of vasodilation and excess supply of blood in the head and decreased supply in the extremities associated with this type of headache, threby relieving the pain. A simple exercise, utilizing centrifugal force to dramatically increase blood flow to the hands, is described. It promotes relief in itself and provides a vivid background experience to enhance productino of this effect in hypnosis. It appears to be especially useful in patients exhibiting lesser degrees of trance capacity.

Barber, Joseph (1977). Rapid induction analgesia: A clinical report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 19, 138-149.

This is a report of clinical dental experience using a newly developed, hypnotic pain control procedure. Characteristics of the procedure are outlined, an explanation for its success is suggested, and the broader implications of this success are discussed. The unusually high incidence of clinical analgesia rapidly obtained with this procedure leads the author to question the meaning and relevance of the concept of ‘hypnotic susceptibility’ for the practical clinical application of hypnosis.

Dillbeck, Michael C. (1977). The effect of the transcendental meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33 (4), 1076-1078.

Two weeks of twice-daily practice of the Transcendental Meditation (Transcendental meditation) technique was compared with 2 weeks of twice-daily practice of passive relaxation as a means of reduction of anxiety, as measured by the Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Thirty-three graduate and undergraduate students were assigned randomly to a relaxation group and a Transcendental meditation group. After a 2-week experimental interval, the relaxation Ss began Transcendental meditation. As hypothesized, in the comparison between the relaxation and meditation Ss, as well as between conditions of the relaxation-meditation group, Transcendental meditation was significantly more effective in reducing anxiety level. Thus, the anxiety-reducing effect of the practice of Transcendental meditation cannot be attributed merely to sitting quietly twice daily, although additional research must determine the extent to which S expectations for change contributed to this effect.

Alexander, A. Barney (1975). An experimental test of assumptions relating to the use of electromyographic biofeedback as a general relaxation technique. Psychophysiology, 656-662.

Twenty-eight normal adults participated in an experimental test of two assumptions underlying the use of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback as a general relaxation training technique: 1) that trained EMG reduction in one muscle generalizes to untrained muscles; and 2) that subjective feelings of relaxation are related to EMG reduction. An experimental group received 5 sessions, during the middle 3 of which EMG biofeedback training was offered on the frontalis muscle. Throughout all sessions, EMG recordings were also taken from the forearm and lower leg, and rating of subjective relaxation feelings were obtained at regular intervals. A control group, matched with the experimental group on baseline frontalis EMG, received 5 similar sessions without feedback. Employing a maximum p of .05, the results revealed no evidence of generalization of EMG reduction from the frontalis to the untrained sites, nor any tendency for successful frontalis EMG reduction to result in increased feelings of relaxation beyond what was obtainable from relaxing without the benefit of training. The results were interpreted as suggesting the EMG biofeedback cannot yet be accepted as a viable general relaxation training technique.

Mullen, G.; Perry, C. (1975). The effects of hypnotic susceptibility on reducing smoking behavior treated by a hypnotic technique. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 498-505.

In order to examine the relationship between hypnotizability and treatment outcome in which hypnosis is used, 54 people ages 19-47 who undertook to stop smoking were studied. Although it is logical that there should be a relationship, clinical anecdotal material published by people who used hypnosis (Freud, Weitzenhoffer, Lazarus, Sheehan, Orne) suggests that may not be the case. Hypnotic susceptibility was evaluated with a clinical procedure developed by Orne and O’Connell (the DRP). Patients were taught self hypnosis using a brief procedure developed by Herbert Spiegel. Baseline smoking rate and three-month follow-up with postcards mailed every week were employed as measures. Success in the treatment program was defined as a 50% reduction in smoking behavior. After 3 months, 7 people were abstinent, 10 had reduced smoking to criterion level (50%), 16 people had discontinued the investigation, and 21 did not change. Considering only the 15 most and 15 least hypnotizable, 12 of the 15 high susceptibles had reduced smoking by at least 50%, as compared to 5 of the 15 of the low susceptibles. (chi square = 4.88, df = 1, p<.05). 1971 Aiken, Linda H.; Henrichs, Theodore F. (1971). Systematic relaxation as a nursing intervention technique with open heart surgery patients. Nursing Research, 20, 212-217. NOTES Psychiatric problems frequently occur after open heart surgery, usually from day 2 to day 7 postoperatively. Symptoms include impairment of consciousness, disorientation, sensory disturbances like visual and auditory hallucination, and sometimes delusions and paranoid behavior. Authors defined a postoperative adverse reaction as "when the patient experienced impairment of consciousness with motor restlessness, disordered thinking, sensory disturbances, visual and/or auditory illusions or hallucinations, and paranoid ideation. All of these symptoms do not usually occur together and an additional definition was given for a minor reaction which occurred if only one of the above symptoms was present for 12 hours or less" (p. 214). The population from which samples were drawn consisted of adult male patients admitted to a university medical center for open heart surgery. The experimental group (N = 15) consisted of all patients admitted from September 1969 through June 1970 (omitting two who were not willing to participate). Controls were 15 adult males admitted for open heart surgery in the prior year. A relaxation and systematic desensitization technique was used for the experimental group, each patient being given a tape recorder with a 15-minute tape of the exercise "to use whenever he wanted to relax" (p. 214) but at the least four times a day. On basis of previous research one would expect postoperative adverse reactions of 40% but the Relaxation group had only 8%. (The control group had 27%, but the difference between groups was not significant with Fisher's exact probability test--p<.10.) Mortality rate was same in both groups. The results must be interpreted in the context of differences between groups during surgery, which may or may not relate to the intervention. The Relaxation Group was significant lower than Control Group on 4 of 5 surgical risk factors: anesthesia time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, total units of blood, and degree of hypothermia. They were (nonsignificantly) better on duration of hypothermia; and there was no difference on multivalve replacement. This suggests the Relaxation Group were less exposed to these factors to a significant degree. Discussion: The groups were matched on age, sex, preoperative diagnosis, type of surgical procedure, incidence of severe economic problems, family adjustment problems, and history of psychiatric problems (i.e. the groups did not differ). "The major difference between the two groups was in relation to the surgical stress factors studied: degree of hypothermia, amount of time on cardiopulmonary bypass, anesthesia time, and total units of blood received. The experimental group was significantly lower on mean values for all of these stress factors. Without further research it is impossible to conclude that these factors did or did not influence the lower incidence of postoperative reactions found in the experimental group. It should be noted, however, that the decreased surgical stress factors had no apparent effect on reducing mortality in this sample. Also as previously stated, prior research has not been able to demonstrate a direct relationship between these surgical stress factors and the incidence of postoperative reactions" (p. 215). "The population used in this research ranged from patients with mild symptoms of heart disease to those with severe decompensation and congestive heart failure. It was anticipated prior to beginning the research that some patients would be physically incapable of cooperating due to fatigue and dyspnea; this prove not to be the case" (p. 216). This intervention is usable by nurses, and "provides an alternative which the professional nurse may prescribe after systematically assessing a patient's needs" (p. 216). "It is a new skill to be learned that is comparable to the skill of giving an injection or learning to recognize arrhythmias. The amount of time required to teach a patient the technique of systematic relaxation is realistically within the scope of any staff nurse's role" (p. 216). 1970 Hall, J. A.; Crasilneck, H. B. (1970). Development of a hypnotic technique for treating chronic cigarette smoking. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 283-289. 4 hypnotic sessions were found successful, in the majority of cases, in eliminating cigarette smoking without undersirable substitution symptoms. Patients were strongly motivated by the referring physicians and by various nonhypnotic techniques incorporated into the treatment program. Examples are given of the specific nature of both the hypnotic and the nonhypnotic suggestions employed. (German & Spanish summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Maher-Loughnan, G. P. (1970). Hypnosis and auto-hypnosis for the treatment of asthma. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18 (1), 1-14. Conducted 2 controlled studies into the use of hypnosis in 252 asthma patients. Several different control procedures were used. Methods and results were summarized, and the same conclusion was reached: That hypnosis supplemented by autohypnosis was significantly more effective than control procedures. An outline is given of details of treatment methods. A current analysis of Ss involving up to 6 yr. of follow-up, is presented to provide a working guide to the regime in regular practice. To be fully effective hypnosis should be employed before steroids are started. Steroid-dependent asthma is rarely totally relieved by hypnotherapy. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 1969 Raginsky, Bernard B. (1969). Hypnotic recall of aircrash cause. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 1-19. Discusses the use of hypnotic techniques to help a 33-yr-old male recall suppressed material which implicated him in an aircrash. The cause was found after 2 short hypnotic sessions, where other methods used over 2 years had failed. The method can be used in all cases of amnesia. The S was made to hallucinate a threatening situation, and his hallucination gave a clue to the basic problem. He was then made to hallucinate a pleasant scene, which gave an indication of the method he used to escape from the problem. This was repeated at the 2nd session for confirmation. If the patient did not bring up the required material by free association under hypnosis, a dissociation of the personality induced in which the observing ego watched what the experiencing ego was doing to cause the accident. The results demonstrated that hypnotic techniques were more successful than sodium amytal interviews, free association, psychiatric interviews, physical and emotional isolation, pressure by authorities, and kindness of friends. Reference was made to the problems involved when the interests of the S were in conflict with public safety. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1967 Evans, Frederick J. (1967). An experimental indirect technique for the induction of hypnosis without awareness. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15, 72-85. A procedure is described which has been used in an experimental setting as a method of indirectly inducing hypnosis without S's awareness. Ss are not told that hypnosis is involved in the procedure, but are told they will be taught how to relax. The aim of the indirect procedure is to create different expectations and preconceptions from those normally occurring in the special hypnotic relationship. Evidence from 3 studies (samples of 63, 63, 120) indicates that the procedure successfully induces hypnosis comparable in depth to other standard hypnotic procedures. About half of the Ss tested apparently do not recognize the procedure involves hypnosis. Approximately 30% of the Ss who receive the procedure, as well as 30% of the Ss in the control group who did not receive the procedure, but were tested with the same test suggestions, recognized that an attempt had been made to induce hypnosis. The perceptions about whether hypnosis was involved were unrelated to scores on typical hypnotic phenomena. It was concluded that the indirect induction technique successfully induces hypnosis and is a useful technique for manipulating S-expectations in an experimental context. NOTES "[The Subject] is told, 'A series of experiments are being conducted investigating the effects of relaxation on behavior. Because of confusing results in the literature, this study is designed to examine the relationship between relaxation and several other psychological phenomena, some of which might remind you of a variety of other phenomena which you may have heard or read about.' The S was told that a technique had been devised that would assist him to relax completely. His main task was to relax as completely as possible. This would be facilitated by lying comfortably on a couch, and by allowing his mind to become completely blank. To prevent himself from falling asleep, he should concentrate his attention on some object or idea. To help exclude other thoughts from his mind, E would continue to talk in a monotonous voice saying little of importance, while the S stared at a spot on the wall. This shaping of the situation was continued with a considerable degree of apparent permissiveness. "The S's attention was slowly directed to the rhythm of his own breathing as suggestions were given of eye fatigue. If S closed his eyes, he might find it convenient to concentrate on the rhythm of his own breathing. Perhaps this would be easy to think about if he visualized a pendulum swinging in time with his breathing. The E continued to talk and count in rhythm with S's breathing. Special words, such as 'breathing in and out; the pendulum swings back and forward,' were always spoken as S inhaled or exhaled. Counting was also timed to coincide with exhalation. Deeper relaxation was suggested as E counted slowly from 1 to 21, and later, from 1 to 31. "Throughout the procedure, phrases and words (such as 'hypnosis,' 'trance,' 'drowsy') traditionally employed with hypnotic induction techniques were avoided. After approximately 30 minutes, a natural transition was made to the testing procedure. Suggestions of continued deep relaxation were intermingled between various tests administered. Termination was effected by suggesting that the relaxation would end as E counted from 'A' to 'H'" (p. 75). 1965 Halpern, Seymore (1965). Body-image symbols of repression. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (2), 83-91. Hypnointrospection, a method of hypnoanalysis which emphasizes self-perception during voluntary immobilization, is of demonstrable value in the elucidation of the problem of body-image. Hypnointrospective fragments of a case history showing the reorganization of the body-image during therapy are presented. The sequence of body-image phenomena is interpreted as an expression of attitudinal compromises among conflicting wishes implemented through neuromuscular channels. The continuous reorganization of the physical self as perceived by the patient during hypnointrospective analysis appears to be of significance for a general theory of body-image. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Jackson, Bill (1965). The autoblink: A technique to explore nonveridical visual perception. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (4), 250-260. The Autoblink technique was developed to allow objective, quantitative investigation of perceptual abnormalities found in psychiatric and normal populations under various experimental conditions. A pilot study demonstrated that spontaneous visual percepts could be elicited by this technique in a group of psychiatric patients and that wide individual differences were present. A 2nd study found significant differences in Autoblink rate between normal and hallucinating psychotic male Ss and also suggested that sensory deprivation and prestige suggestion are variables related to Autoblink rate. A 3rd study further explored differences between psychiatric patients and normal Ss as well as examining sex differences. The latter 2 studies are reported in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1964 Ludwig, Arnold M.; Lyle, William H., Jr.; Miller, Jerome S. (1964). Group hypnotherapy techniques with drug addicts. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12 (2), 53-66. This study was designed to investigate the appropriateness of a number of group hypnotherapeutic techniques which might be used in the treatment of addict patients. It is the belief of the investigators that the more "magical," "authoritative," and practical-oriented techniques seem more appropriate and useful than techniques designed to elicit deep, insightful understanding of the emotional problems underlying drug addiction. Many of the specific hypnotherapeutic techniques used are described, and some of the difficulties and advantages of group hypnosis as a treatment method are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Giles, Eugene (1962). A cross-validation study of the Pascal technique of hypnotic induction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10 (2), 101-108. A cross-validation of reported high successes of hypnotic induction and statements that success was independent of the operator when using Pascal''s technique showed that: (a) an experienced-operator group clearly excelled a training group, and (b) the experienced group almost exactly replicated percentage-wise the successes claimed by Pascal and Salzberg. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Rose, J. T. (1962). The use of relevant life experiences as the basis for suggestive therapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10, 221-229. (Abstracted in Imagery 63: Mar., S-543) A brief, directive method of hypnotherapy is described which combines limited insight therapy with hypnotic suggestions based on relevant life experiences of the patient. By integrating suggestions and experiences familiar to the patient, the former are more likely to have greater meaning to the patient and are therefore more effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1961 Cheek, David B. (1961). Value of ideomotor sex-determination technique of LeCron for uncovering subconscious fear in obstetric patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 249-259. (Author''s Summary) "Unrecognized subconscious fears can be uncovered while using ideomotor questioning with a Chevreul pendulum or with finger signals. The technique described by LeCron for evaluating knowledge regarding the sex of an unborn child is a most helpful way of approaching subconscious fears. The frightened patient refuses to indicate knowledge of the sex of her unborn child. Uncovered fears can be resolved by appealing to conscious-level understanding with adroit questioning" (p. 258). McCartney, James L. (1961). A half century of personal experience with hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 23-33. NOTES (Author''s Summary and Conclusions). "After fifty years of experience with hypnosis, it is evident that it is not a superficial and careless technic but should be utilized only by capable, trained physicians, as are the other complex and difficult medical technics. ... In order to induce hypnosis, the patient must be perfectly willing to be hypnotized, he must have confidence in the practitioner, and he must concentrate on doing exactly as he is told. In selected cases, drugs or electrical impulses may be used for the initial induction of hypnotic sleep, but if hypnotherapy is to be continued, the physician must keep in contact with the patient by repeated suggestions. The technic used should fit the individual patient, but in most cases, verbal suggestions are all that is necessary to bring about dissociation. Hypnosis may be used to facilitate the beginning of mental catharsis, the establishment of transference, and may be easily instituted following narcosynthesis, electroshock therapy, minimum stimulus, or Sedac. Suggested activity under hypnosis may be carried out at a designated time, place, and manner after awakening. This is a result of autosuggestion and may be mistaken for psychopathic behavior. Such suggestions may be instituted by television, movies, radio, telephone, or recorded or written instruction. Hypnosis may be used to plant suggestions; if misused, it may create an obsessive-compulsive neurosis, while when properly used, it may overcome many functional symptoms and may be used to supplement other forms of psychotherapy" (p. 32). Skemp, Richard R. (1961). Note on an hypnotic induction device. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9 (4), 303-304. NOTES Author describes a technique for increasing suggestibility by causing the person to experience effects that he believes are caused by the hypnotist. "If one fixates the edge of a coloured strip on a white background, a narrow line of deeper colour will be seen close to the edge. This is because small movements of the fixation point bring this strip, for part of the time, on to an area of the retina which has been fatigued by the white. (The effect is best obtained if the colour is unsaturated). At the same time a narrow strip of brighter white will appear along the other side of the edge. If fixation is continued, this band of brighter white gradually takes on the colour complementary to that of the coloured band. These effects are unexpected to a naive subject, and therefore stisfy the requirements for a feed-back process" (p. 303). Thus, if the color is red, then the hypnotist suggests that a green line will appear, that the green band will continue to become greener, the red part redder; then suggests that the eyes will blink faster and faster, eventually closing, etc. After the eyes are closed, the suggestion that one will continue to see the green line is given. 1960 Conn, Jacob H. (1960). The psychodynamics of recovery under hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8, 3-16. Defines hypnosis as primarily a change in reality testing, and considers it as both an altered state of consciousness and a multilevel dynamic relationship in which the S is always aware of the operator. Hypnosynthesis emphasizes the patient''''s values and expectations and his freedom to choose what to say and how he should be treated. Preference is given to terms of "more or less" consciousness. The patient does not receive any training in hypnosis and there is no encouragement of acting out in hypnosynthesis. Attention is directed to repetitive patterns, and the hypnotic experience is utilized as a present dynamic experience. Hypnosynthesis demonstrates that symptom removal is possible without symptom substitution when there is an effective working relationship. The common factor in every psychogenic cure, including hypnotherapy, is the fostering of self-esteem and active participation, both of which are achieved by effective collaboration in the therapeutic situation. (Spanish + German abstracts) (50 ref.) (Psycinfo database record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1959 Kroger, William S.; Schneider, Sidney A. (1959). An electronic aid for hypnotic induction: A preliminary report. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7, 93-98. NOTES The BWS or brain wave synchronizer is "an instrument specifically designed to induce various levels of hypnosis by subliminal and photic stimulation of the brain waves" (p. 93). It was developed after noticing that radar operators on ships sometimes fell into deep hypnotic states while watching signals on a radar screen. It has been used with 2500 subjects, 200 of whom were receiving pre-natal training for childbirth under hypnosis. "For the first five minutes there is a gradual increase in the number of subjects who enter deep hypnosis. At this level, a figure of 50% reach the deep state" (p. 95). The instructions given were, "Concentrate on the center of the instrument. When your eyes become tired and heavy, as they will, just let them close and feel yourself going deeper and deeper into a relaxed state." It is acknowledged that this procedure worked when Ss expected to experience hypnosis; the rate of deep hypnosis increased as the expectancy of hypnosis increased. "Deep hypnosis in individual inductions reached 80% under the following conditions: A. Synchronizer on 5 minutes B. Expectation Level of 50 [on a scale in which 100 represented having seen demonstrations of conventional hypnosis and an explanation of what the instrument would do]" (p. 97). Pascal, G. R.; Salzberg, H. C. (1959). A systematic approach to inducing hypnotic behavior. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 7 (3), 161-167. NOTES "Summary The paper reports an experiment in inducing hypnotic behavior. Hypnotic behavior is considered as operant behavior subject to the principles of such behavior. Using a procedure based on this systematic position 52 per cent of 56 subjects were brought to the deep trance state in one session, a considerable gain over results reported in the literature. It is felt that the approach presented suggests that hypnosis may be brought into the realm of behavioral science" (p. 166). A detailed description of the procedure is provided. It begins with providing information, establishing rapport, using demonstrations of hypnotic-like behavior (the Kohnstamm phenomenon and body sway suggestions), followed by relaxation in a stimulus-attenuated room with verbal suggestions and operant (verbal) reinforcement. It procedes with a series of frankly hypnotic suggestions for arm analgesia and lightness/floating, amnesia, etc. 1957 Moss, C. Scott (1957). A forced hypnoprojective fantasy used in the resolution of pseudo-epileptic seizures. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 5 (2), 59-66. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 58: 5812) NOTES A dream that occurred in natural sleep was used as the starting point for exploration in hypnosis, e.g. suggesting that the patient was seated in a movie theater and would see an element that had been in the dream, projected on the movie screen; then would see substitute pictures which had for him the same meaning as that element. "... as in the dream, commitments to reality [in hypnosis] are minimized and there are evidences of the archaic drive-oriented primary process and a loss of distance form the fantasy so that it becomes a transitory hallucinatory experience. In addition, the censorship function is reduced but not eliminated so that this case study is highlighted by the defensive symbolic substitutions provoked by the persistent demands of the therapist" (pp. 64-65). Solovey, Galina; Milechnin, Anatol (1956). Concerning some points about the nature of hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 4 (2), 83-88. Two experiments with young children explored the similarity between mothers' sleep inducing speech and hypnotic induction. The first group were six normal children ranging in age from 25 to 37 months. Author interviewed their mothers for details on their sleep inducing behavior. Then "we followed a procedure that as a rule consisted in leaning over the little one, dedicating all our attention to him, repeating the mother's own series of soothing diminutives in a softly-modulated voice, and stroking gently the child'r hair, forehead, or arm. In four to thirty-five minutes, the children relaxed, stopped moving, let their eyelids droop, and showed a particularly placid facial expression. Their appearance was completely similar to that of a hypnotized person" (p. 83). Signs of catalepsy (e.g. following suggestions of holding a teddy bear more and more tightly) and concentration of attention to the exclusion of outside stimuli were taken to indicate the hypnotic state. The second experiment involved infants 3 to 24 months old, lulling them into a state of quiet relaxation. "The difficulty does not consist in producing this special state, but in demonstrating that it is really hypnosis. However, if we consider the identity of the means employed in bringing it about, and the similarity of the results to those occurring at a slightly later age, it would be unreasonable to think that there is a certain reaction up to a certain age and a fundamentally different one from that age on" (p. 85). The author relates her findings to those of investigators who studied populations of infants and children who, lacking "psychological mothering" failed to thrive or even died. She concludes that the "psychological motehring" in normal families "produces hypnotic states in the infant daily, from the moment of birth" (p. 88). 1955 Ambrose, Gordon (1955). Multiple sclerosis and treatment by hypnotherapy. Follow-up and further cases. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 203-209. NOTES "Summary. Present day treatment of multiple sclerosis appears inadequate from the psychological view point and patients are too often forced to show a negative response to their illness. "Six patients have been treated by hypnotherapy with marked subjective improvement. Three of these cases are described. "The aim in these cases is to put the patient more in control of his organism. Patients should be told that their symptoms must never control them, they must control their symptoms. "The very nature of the illness prevents the medical attendant from feeling scientific in his approach to these cases. Long follow-up is a necessity but much subjective improvement is possible using hypnotherapy. "In the hypnoanalytical approach the usual exaggeration of the emotions allied with the psychosomatic reaction will often be found. Hypnosis appears to produce a rapid lessening of tension and anxiety in these cases. "A deep state of hypnosis should be aimed at and auto-hypnosis must always be taught. It is sometimes useful to place a trusted person en rapport with the patient to carry on with positive and direct suggestions. Hart, Hornell (1955). Measuring some results of autohypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 229-242. NOTES The author developed self ratings for mood (euphoria-dysphoria) and alertness-fatigue, which were administered to college students in neutral conditions and after self-hypnosis conditions. The self hypnosis, or "auto-conditioning" usually involved deep relaxation self suggestions followed by other suggestions. The suggestions involved using the word 'you' to be able to re-instate the autoconditioning more and more effectively; suggestions for attitude change (e.g. that 'No matter what comes, we will grapple with it courageously'); and euphoria auto-suggestions (e.g. that 'you will come out of this deep relaxation, feeling rested, alert, cheerful and courageous'). In both single session experiments, as with a class of nurses who experienced an 8 minute auto-conditioning procedure, and in experiments extending over time, depression decreased. He noted that "for various reasons, the students who participated in autoconditioning experiments between February and May, 1955, were in many respects less successful than some of the previous experimental groups had been" (p. 235). Increased alertness and diminished fatigue was also observed. Many students chose to give themselves suggestions to correct the habit of procrastination. Two-thirds of the participants reported complete success, up to the level specified, and only one of 43 experiments on correcting procrastination was a "flat failure."