Highs gave responses more often in these groups. The combination of these four and some others discriminated Highs hypnotized from Highs not hypnotized and from Lows in both hypnotized and not hypnotized conditions.

Bowers, Patricia G.; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Hart, David (1988). The experience of hypnotic suggestions. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 336-349.

The experience of nonvolition in response to hypnotic suggestions was investigated for 126 Ss. 2 different scales, a new scale providing discrete options for response and a previously used volition rating scale, gave Ss an opportunity to describe some of their subjective experiences after completion of a 12-item adaptation for group administration of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Ratings of depth of hypnosis were also obtained. Ss had been previously administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962). Distribution of descriptions of experience for passed and failed items were obtained. Total scores on subjective indices were found to be highly correlated with the behavioral score on the Waterloo-Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Group C. Items differed, however, in the degree to which responses seem to occur effortlessly. Some suggestions have a substantial number of passed responses lacking the “classic suggestion effect,” but only 7% of Ss have more than 2 such responses.

Earlier research on the subjective perception of voluntary enactment of suggestions found from 20% (K. Bowers, 1981; P. Bowers, 1982) to 55% (Spanos, Radtke, Hodgins, Stam, & Bertrand, 1983) of hypnotic responses were described as voluntary in nature. Methodological differences could account for the range in probability levels, and rating scales used did not provide for absence of behavioral response to a particular suggestion.
This research investigated three issues: “1. Using a choice format to describe experiences during hypnosis, what is the distribution of the different descriptions used to index the construct of nonvolition? When S gives a mid-point rating on a volition rating scale, to what experiences does he/she refer? 2. How do two aspects of subjective experience: nonvolitional experience descriptions and hypnotic depth reports, covary with behavioral passing and failing of items and with levels of hypnotizability? 3. How frequently does S pass an item behaviorally but indicate either that he/she did not experience the response or that he/she purposefully enacted it? On what items is this a more or less frequent occurrence? Are there just a few people who pass items in this fashion or is it a common observation?” (p. 339).
The Ss were seen in small groups. Immediately after hypnosis they scored their own hypnotizability scales. Then they were asked to rate their subjective response to each suggestion: – how much they had experienced the suggestion (1-5) – how involuntary their response had been (1-5) (These two items comprised the Voluntary Rating Scale (VRS) used by K. Bowers, 1981, and P. Bowers, 1982.) – how deeply hypnotized they had felt (1-10, Perry & Laurence format, 1980) – Choice Scale (example from the hand magnetism item below) “Choice Scale of Nonvolitional Experience:
Listed below are various ways people experience the hands together item. Please check the description(s) that most closely describe your experiences: (1) My hands did not move together at all. (2) I purposefully directed the movement of my hands most of the time. (3) I found I directed the movement of my hands and then later they continued to move together with no effort on my part. (4) I found my hands moving together without my helping them. (5) During this experience, the feelings of purposefully moving my hands were completely mixed with feelings that they were moving on their own. None of the above” (p. 340).
Considering both the passed and failed items, and after excluding the ‘None of the above’ category, “37% of items [on the W-SGSHS:C] were not experienced, 12% were enacted purposefully, 14% were experienced as intertwined volition and nonvolition, 17% were experienced as beginning purposefully but becoming nonvolitional, and 20% ‘happen by themselves'” (p. 341). See Table 2, taken from the article.
Table 2 Average Percent of Ss per Item Choosing Each of the Options
No Purposeful Completely Purposefully; Happened Itself
Exper. Enactment Mixed Continues On NoTryng
Own Passed 7.5 12.2 21.8 26.2 32.2 Failed 60.4 13.9 10.4 9.3 5.9
Passed Items 3.0 10.7 30.0 47.2 9.1 Rated 3 on Volition Rating Scale
Thus of those failing an item, 60% reported that they did not experience the suggestion, while almost 26% reported some level of subjectively experienced nonvolition.
This research demonstrated that the Choice Scale is an improvement over the Voluntary Rating Scale, which has an ambiguous midpoint of ‘3’ between voluntary and nonvoluntary extremes (on a 5-point scale). Almost half of the ambiguous ‘3’ responses on the VRS were associated with a more meaningful response on the Choice Scale, indicating that the response started off voluntarily but then continued ‘on its own.’ Another third of the Ss indicated that there was an intertwining of volition and nonvolition.
The Choice Scale (transformed into an ordinal scale) was correlated with the VRS and hypnotizability and depth estimate scales. The correlations were “consistently high, suggesting that typically one reports feeling more deeply hypnotized when many suggestions are performed and passed, and more deeply hypnotized Ss report feeling that suggestions occur more ‘by themselves’ than do less hypnotizable Ss” (p. 342).
The authors note the complex relationship between behavioral and subjective experience. High hypnotizables report experience of nonvolition even with some failed items, and rate themselves as deeply hypnotized even when failing items. This is not true for low hypnotizables, whose self-rated depth varies directly with passing or failing items.
Mismatches were defined as passing an item behaviorally but reporting either that it was not experienced (Choice 1) or purposefully enacted (Choice 2). 93% of Ss had less than 3 mismatches; of the 8 Ss exhibiting 3 or more mismatches, 3 were medium-low hypnotizables, 4 were medium-highs, and 1 was highly hypnotizable. When one corrects their total hypnotizability score for the mismatch, people remain close to their original score however.
Some items had many more mismatches than others (See Table 6). The ‘classic suggestion effect’ reflected in a low percentage of mismatches (3-9%) was found for five items; three items had a moderate level of mismatches (16-22%); but four suggestions had mismatches on 34-41% of the passed responses. Item difficulty could not account for whether the classic suggestion effect occurred: two very difficult items were at opposite ends of the spectrum–positive music hallucination had the fewest and negative visual hallucination the most frequent mismatches. “One might speculate that the nature of one’s ordinary imaging during the day makes some hallucinations well practiced and easier to produce, while others are rarely practiced and seem to require cognitive effort to reconstruct. … Thus, instead of a mismatch representing ‘faked’ responses, it may at times represent S’s report of a hallucination’s seeming real while simultaneously requiring effort. Ideomotor suggestions have few mismatches. If they feel ‘real,’ it is by virtue of their seeming to occur without effort or volition” (pp. 346-347).
Table 6 Item % Mismatch Hand Lowering 2.9 Hands Together 4.8 Arm Rigidity 5.6 Music Hallucination 7.7 Dream 8.7 Arm Immobilization 15.5 Amnesia 21.6 Age Regression 21.8 Taste Hallucination 33.8 Negative Hallucination 34.6 Mosquito 38.1 Post-hypnotic Suggestion 40.8
Since highly hypnotizable people experience nonvoluntariness even when they fail items, tested hypnotizability must reflect more than simply passing test items on suggestion. “Research focusing exclusively on the nonvolitional aspect of hypnotic experience may be somewhat ‘off the mark,’ at least for some types of suggestions. Reports of nonvolition may be tracking the experience of effortless responding which may be just one aspect of a complex hypnotic response to cognitive suggestions. … It may be that studies using free reports from Ss responsive to hallucination suggestions would be necessary prior to devising an appropriate ‘choice’ scale for these items. The work of Sheehan and McConkey (1982) provides a solid basis for such a task. The Choice Scale in the present study was derived from an understanding of the ‘classic suggestion effect,’ the concept of which is closely tied to ideomotor suggestions. This concept may or may not prove to be of central relevance to hypnotic hallucinations or more generally to cognitively demanding suggestions” (p. 347).

Hines, Larry; Handler, Leonard (1988, November). Hypnotizability and ego functions. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Asheville, NC.

Researchers employed Bellak’s Ego Functions Test (based on the clinical interview). Ss were 47 students and 1 non-student, some of whom had previously experienced hypnosis. They were all volunteers. Studied 12 ego functions. Used plateau hypnotizability which was defined as no improvement in Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C after two hypnotic inductions; if they did not reach a plateau by Session 4, the highest score was used. Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale scores ranged 4-12. High 10-12, Medium 6-9, Low 4-5. x=9.04, SD=2.21.
On the Bellak Test, High 12-13, Medium 10-11 (average functioning.), Low 1-9. Range 5-13; widest range was in Adaptive Regression in Service of Ego
Highest Mean = reality testing Lowest Mean = ARISE Majority fell into the medium range on all 12 ego functions measured.
A significant difference was found between High and Low hypnotizables on the following ego functions. [N.B. There may be transcription errors in the figures that follow.] 1. ARISE p<.02 r = .31 Highs have greater ability to experience pleasure in regression. 2. Stimulus Barrier p<.003 Highs are more flexible in their ability to separate from stimuli in their environment, Lows experienced stimulus overload. 3. Autonomous Functioning p<.01 Primary acct./ in attention, learning, memory, motor function. 4. Objective Relativity p<.07 5. Regulating control of drive p<.06 Multiple regression accounted for 33% of variance in 12 ego functions. Stimulus Barrier alone accounted for 14% (p<.005); ARISE accounted for 5% (p<.01). 47% of Ss were High hypnotizables, 42% were in the Medium range. 1987 Crist, Dwayne Anderson (1987). The effect of suggestibility on the efficacy of relaxation training instruction: A multisession evaluation (Dissertation, University of Alabama). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (n9-B), 3950. "Progressive relaxation is a well established procedure used in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Research has suggested that the muscle tension-release component of progressive relaxation is the critical variable in producing relaxation effects. However, other techniques which do not employ muscle-tension release have proven effective. It has been suggested that treatment type may interact with personality characteristics to produce greater effects. Suggestibility was selected as a personality characteristic that may facilitate or inhibit relaxation effects. Fifty high and 50 low suggestible individuals were selected to participate based on scores from the Creative Imagination Scale. Half of each group as randomly assigned to either a progressive relaxation or imagery relaxation treatment. Subjects received four weekly sessions of relaxation training. The Relaxation Scale was administered before and after each session to assess effects of training. The results indicated that high suggestible individuals had significantly greater increases in relaxation within session on each of the three scales of the Relaxation Scale, but this appeared to be a result of lower pre-test scores. Only the Physical Assessment scale also demonstrated higher post-test scores for the high suggestible participants. A ceiling effect appeared to be operating for both the Physiological Tension and Cognitive Tension scales. There were no significant differences between the progressive relaxation and imagery relaxation treatments. It appears that muscle tension release may not be a critical variable in relaxation effects" (p. ). De Sano, Christine F.; Persinger, M. A. (1987). Geophysical variables and behavior: XXXIX. Alterations in imaginings and suggestibility during brief magnetic field exposures. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 968-970. 12 male and 12 female volunteers were evaluated for their suggestibility before and after an approximately 15-min. exposure to either sham, 1-Hz or 4-Hz magnetic fields that were applied across their mid-superior temporal lobes. During the field application subjects were instructed to view a green light that was pulsating at the same frequency as the field and to imagine countering an alien situation. Results were commensurate with the hypothesis that weak brain-frequency fields may influence certain aspects of imaginings and alter suggestibility. NOTES "Subjects who had been exposed to the 4-Hz fields showed a significant decrease ... in heart rate compared to those who had been exposed to either the 1 Hz or sham-field conditions. A significant ... interaction of sex by field ... was noted for the change in HIP [Hypnotic Induction Profile] scales. Whereas both men and women in the sham-field condition tended to show less induction (~ 1 unit) on the second occasion ... women showed much greater (8.4 + 1.1) induction (= 3 units) if they had been exposed to the 1-Hz field while men showed much greater (8.0 + 1.5) induction (= 3 units) if they had been exposed to the 4-Hz fields. On the protocols, women reported significantly more fear responses than men. In addition, subjects who were exposed during the imaginings to the 4-Hz field showed more imaginings ... and more references to vestibular experiences (e.g., self or entity rising or floating) ... than those exposed to the other conditions" (p. 969). "Dissociation scores on the HIP were correlated significantly ... with vestibular (0.44), imagery (0.43), and fear (-0.45) scores from the transcripts. Floating responses on the HIP were correlated with the amount of imagery. (0.46). There was a significant positive Pearson correlation between the compliance measure and the amount of arm levitation during the second induction only. These results suggest that hypnotic susceptibility may be increased following magnetic-field exposure but that the effective frequency is not the same for each sex. In addition, the amount of the imagery (particular vestibular experiences) increased if the person observed a light that was flashing at the same frequency as a 4-Hz applied magnetic field" (p. 969). Hilgard, Ernest R. (1987). Research advances in hypnosis: Issues and methods. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35, 248-264. There are substantial areas of agreement upon the classical phenomena of hypnosis, illustrated by what we now have learned about hypnotic talent, amnesia, hallucinations, analgesia, and dissociative processes. While genuine advances in knowledge about hypnosis have been made in recent decades, differing orienting attitudes have kept some controversy alive, particularly in the interpretation of empirical findings. Differences of interpretation of the phenomenal and behavioral facts are to be expected in the present stage of developmental, cognitive, and social psychology. NOTES The author writes of the "domain of hypnosis" as within the larger domain of social psychology (because it is usually interpersonal); cognitive psychology (because of alterations in perception, imagination, memory, and thought); developmental and personality psychology (because of individual differences); and physiological psychology (because of neurophysiological aspects). In terms of what we know about hypnotic talent, he notes that high hypnotizability is not generally associated with psychopathology; that it may however be associated with a personality measure called absorption; and that there may be some inherited ability (Morgan, 1973). In the author's view, hypnosis is no longer considered simply a response to suggestion, since imagination and/or fantasy are very important. In reviewing evidence of posthypnotic amnesia the author writes, "Subtleties in language require making careful distinctions among concepts such as compliance, suggestion, compulsivity, belief, self-deception, automaticity, the voluntary, the involuntary, and a happening. If these distinctions are glossed over, the choice of words (e.g., substituting compliance for response to suggestion) may give the impression that a finding departs more widely from conventional views than it does. We, too, have found that Ss used varied strategies or skills during amnesia, but this need not deny augmentation by suggestion. "It takes genuinely high Ss to illustrate truly high posthypnotic amnesia... Many of the truly high hypnotizable individuals cannot break amnesia, no matter how hard they try" (p. 253). Regarding the evidence for hypnotic hallucinations and trance logic, the author suggests that trance logic is not a clear concept because the Subject is capable of good logic while tolerating some inconsistencies. "It is ordinary logic to assume that if your hallucination is your own construction, it is you who can influence it by your own wishes. In the rare cases of transparent or diaphanous hallucinations there is still an 'out there' quality. People who report that they see wispy ghosts also see them as 'out there,' so that they qualify as hallucinations. The distinction appears to be one of perception and perception-like experiences within hypnosis rather than of logic" (p. 256). In reviewing the evidence for hypnotic analgesia, the author acknowledges that pain relief is available with other kinds of interventions, or by using other kinds of psychological processes, but that does not diminish the contribution of hypnosis (which has a long and impressive clinical history). Following laboratory studies, it is noted that "the amount of alleviation of pain through hypnosis is positively correlated with the hypnotizability of the candidate for pain reduction. This result is not universally accepted, because some clinicians are convinced that those unsuccessful in hypnotic pain reduction are resisting hypnosis" (p. 256-257). In the present paper he acknowledges but does not review physiological literature on hypnoanalgesia. Regarding the concept of dissociation, the author indicates that he considers it a more useful concept than the concept of trance or hypnotic state "when a person is only slightly or moderately involved in hypnosis ... . The advantage is that dissociations, as compared with altered states, can be described according to limited or more pervasive changes in the cognitive or motor systems that are being activated or distorted through suggestion in the context of hypnosis. Perhaps when all-inclusive enough, such changes can justify the use of the term trance or altered state, but I believe that these terms should be used, if at all, only for those for whom the immersion in the hypnotic experience is demonstrably pervasive" (pp. 258-259). The author goes on to describe his initial discovery of the 'hidden observer' in an experimental context, and to relate the 'hidden observer' to others' earlier observations of a secondary report of an experience previously concealed from S's consciousness (Binet, 1889-1890/1896; Estabrooks, 1957; James, 1899; Kaplan, 1960). "The issues are still being worked on, but as in the case of trance logic the heart of the problem is not whether to speak of a hidden observer, but to recognize that there may be cognitive distortions in hypnosis even while some more realistic information is being processed in parallel, so that everything is not reportable by S" (p. 260). 1986 Bernstein, Eve; Putnam, Frank W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727-734. "Dissociation is a lack of the normal integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiences into the stream of consciousness and memory. Dissociation occurs to some degree in normal individuals and is thought to be more prevalent in persons with major mental illnesses. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) has been developed to offer a means of reliably measuring dissociation in normal and clinical populations. Scale items were developed using clinical data and interviews, scales involving memory loss, and consultations with experts in dissociation. Pilot testing was performed to refine the wording and format of the scale. The scale is a 28-item self-report questionnaire. Subjects were asked to make slashes on 100-mm lines to indicate where they fall on a continuum for each question. In addition, demographic information (age, sex, occupation, and level of education) was collected so that the connection between these variables and scale scores could be examined. The mean of all item scores ranges from 0 to 100 and is called the DES score. The scale was administered to between 10 and 39 subjects in each of the following populations: normal adults, late adolescent college students, and persons suffering from alcoholism, agoraphobia, phobic-anxious disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and multiple personality disorder. Reliability testing of the scale showed that the scale had good test-retest and good split-half reliability. Item-scale score correlations were all significant, indicating good internal consistency and construct validity. A Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc comparisons of the scores of the eight populations provided evidence of the scale's criterion-referenced validity. The scale was able to distinguish between subjects with a dissociative disorder (multiple personality) and all other subjects." 1985 Balthazard, Claude G.; Woody, Erik Z. (1985). The 'stuff' of hypnotic performance: A review of psychometric approaches. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 283-296. Reviews psychometric investigations into the nature of the processes that underlie hypnotic performance and examines issues that underlie psychometric investigations of hypnosis scales, such as the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. The issues addressed are dimensionality and the problem of difficulty factors, the interpretation of factorial dimensions, and componential alternatives to the factor analytic approach. It is argued that hypnotic performances are most likely overdetermined in that they reflect the combined influence of a plurality of processes. The relevance of various componential models, each reflecting a different contemporary theoretical perspective toward hypnosis, and some of the implications of such models for future research are discussed. (77 ref). Kelly, Paul James (1985, November). The relationship between hypnotic ability and hypnotic experience (Dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5), 1690-B. "This study investigated the relationship between four types of hypnotic experience and hypnotic ability. The types of experiences were: dissociation, the experience of involuntariness, altered state effects, such as perceptual alterations and diminished reality sense rapport, transference-like involvement with the hypnotist, and relaxation. A 47-item scale, the Hypnotic Experience Questionnaire was developed to measure types of hypnotic experience. It was given to 484 subjects and then to a subsample of 272 students. When the scale was factored, four stable factors emerged: Nonconscious/Trance, Rapport, Relaxation, and Cognitive Rumination. A Group Profile Scale was also developed to measure students and when it was factor analyzed four factors were extracted: Hallucinations and Fantasies, Amnesias and Post-Hypnotic Compulsions, Motor Inhibition, and Direct Motor Suggestion. "Two statistical approaches were used to investigate the connections between hypnotic ability and hypnotic experience . Canonical analysis was used to identify the main relationships between hypnotic ability and hypnotic experience and factor analysis was used to explore the relationship among measures of hypnotizability and hypnotic experience. Two canonical variates from the canonical analysis were significant. The first variate was characterized by a dissociative-imaginative involvement process, and the second variate tapped a rapport-social compliance process. "When 25 variables, representing components of hypnotic ability and hypnotic experience, were factored, five factors were extracted. Imaginative Involvement, Ideomotor Response, Rapport, Cognitive Inhibition, and Relaxation. The results of the factor analysis suggested that dissociative experience and altered state experience are related to hypnotic ability but rapport and relaxation are not. "The results of study, taken as a whole, suggest that relaxation and rapport may happen in the hypnotic situation, but neither experience is related to the condition of being hypnotized in any essential way. The results suggest that the hypnotic condition is characterized by dissociative experience, altered state experience, and by successful performance on hypnotic ability tasks. From a theoretical point of view, the results strongly supported Hilgard's theory, partially supported Shor's theory, and failed to support Edmonston's theory" (p. 1690). 1984 The mainstream of neuropsychological research and practice has been devoted to the impact of the brain as an independent variable on behavior as a dependent variable. Evidence is currently available to make clear that the order of causation may be reversed: Behavioral changes can have a durable impact on the brain. The results of extensive research indicate that a large number of neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and neuropsychological parameters of the animal brain can be modified through environmental manipulation, sensory experience, and systematic training. Some evidence is available to show that psychological stimulation has certain effects on the physiology of the human brain. For instance, hemisphere-specific stimulation through the presentation of words flashed in a visual hemifield appears to modify the electrophysiological activity of the contralateral hemisphere in dyslexic children and to affect their subsequent reading performance. Neuropsychology may profit from paying more attention to the ecology of the human brain. NOTES An 18th Century anatomist in Italy, Malacarne, demonstrated increased cerebellar folds in the brains of trained (vs. untrained) dogs and birds. His approach to neuroanatomy was not continued because psychology has been more concerned with innate traits of the individual, and because of philosophical rationalism (citing Walsh, 1981). Until very recently, scientists have viewed the brain as "structurally insensitive to environmental experience" (p. 3). Now we have evidence that animal brains are modifiable by experience, in gross morphology, fine (synapse) morphology, and neurochemicals. "Rich environments [for rats] ... produce heavier and thicker cerebral cortices and callosal connections (Walsh, 1981), larger cortex/subcortex weight ratios, larger cell bodies and nuclei (Walsh, 1981), and higher metabolic activity as suggested by increased RNA/DNA ratios (Rosenzweig, Bennett, & Diamond, 1972)" (p. 4). Enrichment leads to more extensive dendritic fields (occipital and temporal cortex, some hippocampal regions); this implies that each neuron has more synapses. Researchers have found large Purkinje-cell bodies and many dendrites in richly educated monkeys. "Some evidence is available to show that 'preventive' and 'therapeutic' environments positively affect behavioral performances of brain-lesioned animals. However, knowledge about the brain mechanisms which underly these effects is, as yet, lacking" (p. 6). Rats that were handled during the first 21 days of life exhibited different brain lateralization from rats that were not (Denenberg, cited by Marx, 1983). Those stimulated early stored memories mainly in the right hemisphere. The author also reviews evidence that human brains are psychologically modifiable. Children with astigmatism generate weakened cortical response to visual stimulation (Freeman & Thibos, 1973), because they experience difficulty in processing some visual-spatial patterns. People who have visual-field defects due to brain damage can improve in vision when forced to make eye movements toward lighted targets flashed in the blind areas (Zihl, 1981). Bakker theorizes that hemispheric control of reading shifts from right to left during the learning-to-read process of normal readers; at least some aspects of reading are successively mediated by the right hemisphere at age 6 and by the left hemisphere at age 8, according to electrophysiological data in a longitudinal study (Licht, Bakker, Kok, & Bouma, 1983). He thinks P-type dyslexia results from continuing to rely on right- hemispheric strategies, leading to slow reading with fragmentation errors and repetitions. L-type dyslexia results from prematurely adopting a left-hemispheric strategy, i.e. at the very beginning of the learning process, making child insensitive to the perceptual features of script with consequent substantive errors such as omissions and additions. Thus, P- type dyslexics presumably show functional overdevelopment of the right hemisphere and L-types of the left hemisphere. Treatment would involve specific stimulation of the hemisphere that they are ignoring. He presents data suggesting that "some electrophysiological parameters of the cerebral hemispheres can be modified in dyslexic children through hemisphere-specific stimulation and loading, and that these modifications may induce better reading" (p. 12) Kelly, Paul James (1984, December). The relationship between hypnotic ability and hypnotic experience. Newsletter of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, of the American Psychological Association, 5. This study investigated the relationship between four types of hypnotic experience and hypnotic ability. The types of experience were: dissociation, the experience of involuntariness; altered state effects, such as perceptual alterations and diminished reality sense; rapport, transference-like involvement with the hypnotist; and relaxation. A sample of 230 students was given the HGSHS:A, a group version of the SHSS:C, and the Hypnotic Experience Questionnaire (Kelly, 1984), a 47-item multidimensional scale of hypnotic experience. Items were taken from these tests to form 11 hypnotic ability variables (Positive Hallucinations, Dreams and Regressions, Post- Hypnotic Compulsions, Amnesia (HGSHS:A), Amnesia (SHSS:C), Arm Rigidity, Arm Immobilization, Other Motor Inhibitions, Head Falling, Moving Hands Together, and Hand Lowering). Fourteen hypnotic experience variables were also formed (Generalized Dissociative Effects, Dissociative Inhibition, Trance, Unawareness, Transference-like Involvement, Trust, Friendliness, Physical Relaxation, Mental Relaxation, Imagery Presence, Imagery Vividness, Imagery Detail, Self Consciousness, and Analytic Thoughts). The 25 variables were intercorrelated and factored with principal axis factoring. Five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were extracted and rotated to varimax criteria. These factors, which accounted for 54.4 percent of the variance, were called: Imaginative Involvement, Ideomotor Response, Rapport, Cognitive Inhibition, and Relaxation. Hypnotic ability variables loaded significantly on three of the factors (Imaginative Involvement, Ideomotor Response, and Cognitive Inhibition) and these three factors also tapped some aspect of altered state experience and/or dissociative experience. It was concluded therefore that dissociative experience and altered state experience are related to hypnotic ability. The remaining two factors, Rapport and Relaxation, showed significant loadings only for rapport variables and relaxation variables, respectively. Neither of these two factors were related to any of the traditional measures of hypnotic ability or to the experience of dissociative effects or altered state effects. The results of this study suggest that rapport and relaxation may happen in the hypnotic situation but neither experience is related to the condition of being hypnotized in any essential way. The hypnotic condition is characterized by dissociative experience, altered state experience, and by successful performance on hypnotic ability tasks. The results also raise questions about Edmonston's (1981) theory that relaxation is the essence of hypnotic responsiveness. The finding that the experience of relaxation is unrelated to hypnotic ability is more congruent with Hilgard's (1977) view that relaxation is a nonhypnotic process. 1983 Farthing, G. William; Venturino, Michael; Brown, Scott W. (1983). Relationship between two different types of imagery vividness questionnaire items and three hypnotic susceptibility scale factors: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 31, 8-13. 122 Ss were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974), and 2 tape-recorded questionnaires on vividness of mental imagery. On 1 imagery questionnaire the items were impersonal, objective visual scenes (MIQ:VS), whereas on the other questionnaire the items involved discrete personal actions which elicited a combination of visual and kinesthetic imagery (MIQ:PA). Imagery vividness scores from both questionnaires correlated significantly with hypnotizability scores. MIQ:VS vividness scores were better than MIQ:PA vividness scores at predicting cognitive factor item scores of HGSHS:A, but not ideomotor or challenge factor items scores. Multiple correlations involving MIQ:VS vividness and the Tellegen predicted cognitive factor scores better than ideomotor or challenge factor scores. Harris, Gina M.; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett (1983). Coping imagery and relaxation instructions in a covert modeling treatment for test anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 14, 144-157. The present study compared the efficacy of instructing test anxious subjects to use personalized coping imagery based on nonacademic experiences of competence with coping imagery based on academic experiences of competence. The effect of relaxation was also examined and the relationship of imagery elaborateness and content to treatment effectiveness was assessed. Sixty-three subjects were randomly assigned to one of four treatments or a waiting list control group. Test anxiety as measured by a self-report instrument significantly decreased in all treatment groups. Improvement in grade point average occurred for all treatment groups except for academic coping imagery without relaxation which was also the least efficient treatment. The waiting list control group significantly deteriorated in academic performance. Relaxation training did not appear to enhance treatment effectiveness or influence the elaborateness or content of the imagery used. Test anxiety scenes elicited highly response- oriented images by all subjects. However, the stimulus/response content of the subjects' images was not influenced by treatment outcome. In contrast, successful treatment was primarily associated with reduction in negative coping imagery descriptions, although an increase in positive coping statements cured as well. John, Rodney; Hollander, Barbara; Perry, Campbell (1983). Hypnotizability and phobic behavior: Further supporting data. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92 (3), 390-392. Twenty women who were phobic to snakes, spiders, or rats were individually evaluated for hypnotic susceptibility using the standard audiotaped version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. Consistent with the findings of three earlier studies using the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP), 55% of the present sample was found to be highly responsive to hypnosis. An item analysis comparing item pass percentages for the phobic subjects with item difficulties obtained from a normative sample of 357 female college students indicated that the two samples were significantly correlated. The discrepancy between the findings of studies using standard measures of hypnotizability and studies using HIP is discussed. 1982 Crawford, Helen J.; Hilgard, Josephine R.; MacDonald, Hugh (1982). Transient experiences following hypnotic testing and special termination procedures. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 117-126. For those who are responsive to hypnosis, the experiences can be unusual and involving. It is not surprising, therefore, that such experiences in response to tests of susceptibility may not be fully terminated when the hypnotic sessions end. In order to study the initial persistence of the effects, following administration of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) of Weitzenhoffer and E. R. Hilgard (1962), 107 college Ss were interviewed about their hypnotic experiences and subsequent experiences related to hypnosis. 72% of Ss reported feelings of relaxation and being rested following SHSS:C. Only 5% reported minor transient posthypnotic experiences following HGSHS:A, while 29% of Ss reported these feelings following SHSS:C. Except in 1 case, cognitive distortions or confusion were reported only following the more cognitively oriented SHSS:C by Ss who scored significantly higher on cognitive items than those Ss who reported feeling drowsy. A special termination procedure involving exercise and conversation had no significant effect on the number of transient experiences. Such minor transient experiences are not a risk to Ss and any slight discomfort or uneasiness they cause can easily be dealt with by a well-trained hypnotist. Frankel, Fred H. (1982). Hypnosis and hypnotizability scales: A reply. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 377-392. The use of the hypnotizability scales in the experimental setting is briefly reviewed, as is the need to separate the effect of hypnosis from the influence of factors such as relaxation and placebo which accompany the use of hypnosis clinically. The clinical relevance of the scales, most of which were developed primarily for experimental work, is affirmed by several studies conducted in the clinical context, in which the scales were used. Levels of hypnotizability have correlated well with patterns of clinical behavior. Although the scales are useful in many instances in helping to plan treatment strategy, their value in investigative studies is emphasized. Sacerdote's (1982) criticisms of the scales are considered. While it is true that the scales are blind to some of the qualitative aspects of the hypnotic experience, the great majority of clinically hypnotizable patients are able to respond to the items on the scales. Sacerdote's reluctance to learn about the value of the scales is evident in his preference for conjecture when he could readily have gathered irrefutable data through the administration of the scales, without the least risk to the treatment of his patients, once the course of treatment was underway or complete. 1981 Howarth, Edgar; Schokman-Gates, Kar-La (1981). Self-report multiple mood instruments. British Journal of Psychology, 72, 421-441. NOTES Mood and hypnotizability Zuckerman, Persky, & Lind (1967; Journal of Consulting Psychology) used the Zuckerman-Lubin MAACL to test the hypothesis that affect states just prior to hypnosis induction are related to subsequent hypnotizability, while affect traits are not so related (P. 464). The mood states of subjects in two treatment conditions (either small and highly motivated groups or large and less motivated groups) were measured just before trance induction, while the MMPI affect-trait measures were administered afterwards. The MAACL hostility scale was found to have a significant negative correlation with hypnotizability, but the affect-trait measures were unrelated. In an attempt to determine the 'real relationships between personality traits and hypnotizability, Silver (1973) tested 40 male students on the Byrne (1964) Repression- Sensitization Scale, and in a following session the Wessman-Ricks PFS and a short form of the Nowlis MACL. Hypnotizability was also assessed using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). While repression was not found to be related to hypnotizability, mood was, both on the PFS and the MACL, with bright affective states being positively related and dark states showing the opposite relationship. (Factor analysis revealed that the Nowlis measured emotional energy or buoyancy overall, whereas the Wessman-Ricks measured life satisfaction). Silver (1974) found that the surgency scale of the Nowlis MACL predicted hypnotizability as well or better than the MACL's overall mood index. This suggest (sic) that, although the overall mood may determine one's susceptibility to hypnotic induction, those who are in a surgent mood will be the ones most readily hypnotized. 1979 Hilgard, Ernest B.; Crawford, Helen Joan; Bowers, Patricia; Kihlstrom, John F. (1979). A tailored SHSS:C, permitting user modification for special purposes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27 (2), 125-133. In the selection of Ss for the study of specific topics within hypnosis it is often desirable to include a few Ss known to have the specialized ability under investigation. To that end a modification of the SHSS:C of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1962) has been tested in which one of the original items is replaced at the option of the investigator with an item selected for the purposes of any intended investigation. An empirical test of substituting 4 such items in each of 4 subgroups compared with a standard SHSS:C demonstrated that such a replacement of 1 item by another can be done without violating the usefulness of the established norms on the standardized test. The new form is described as a "tailored" SHSS:C. 1978 Counts, D. Kenneth; Hollandsworth, James G., Jr.; Alcorn, John D. (1978). Use of electromyographic biofeedback and cue-controlled relaxation in the treatment of test anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 990-996. The effect of using electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback to increase the efficacy of cue-controlled relaxation training in the treatment of test anxiety was studied. Forty college undergraduates scoring in the upper third on a self-report measure of test anxiety were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions - EMG-assisted cue- controlled relaxation, cue-controlled relaxation alone, attention-placebo relaxation, and no-treatment control. Pre-post self-report measures of test anxiety, state anxiety, and trait anxiety were obtained. In addition, a performance measure in the form of a mental abilities test was administered. Subjects from the three relaxation groups received six 45- minute individual sessions over a period of 2 weeks. All treatments were conducted using audiotape recordings. The results indicate that cue-controlled relaxation is effective in increasing test performance for test anxious subjects, that EMG biofeedback does not contribute to the effectiveness of this procedure, and that self-report measures of anxiety are susceptible to a placebo effect. Hiscock, Merrill (1978). Imagery assessment through self-report: What do imagery questionnaires measure?. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 223-229. Four studies examined imagery questionnaires and addressed issues of reliability, agreement among different questionnaires, social desirability, and construct validity. The Betts, Paivio, and Gordon scales were examined. In two studies the Betts and Paivio correlated .45-.50, but correlations involving the Gordon were inconsistent from one study to the next. Imagery measures generally were not influenced by social desirability. Factor analysis indicated that subjective and objective measures of visualization are independent. Concludes that imagery is not a unitary construct and that criteria other than visuospatial tests may be appropriate for validating imagery questionnaires. 1977 Botto, R. W.; Fisher, S.; Soucy, G. P. (1977). The effect of a good and a poor model on hypnotic susceptibility in a low demand situation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 175-183. A review of recent studies reveals that there has yet to be a clear demonstration of a behavioral model affecting hypnotic levels. Two studies were conducted to test whether a peer model who portrayed deep or light hypnosis could affect S hypnotizability under minimal demand conditions. Using a low demand version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962), the first study showed a difference (Good Model scoring higher than Poor Model) that only approached significance. A replication on a larger sample, however, showed significantly higher scores for those Ss observing a good model rather than a poor model. Although base scores were not obtained on these Ss, norms frmo comparable populations suggest that the poor model seems more effective than the good model; but this difference does not appear attributable to differential attitudes created by the models. 1976 Coe, William C. (1976). Effects of hypnotist susceptibility and sex on the administration of standard hypnotic susceptibility scales. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 281-286. Hypnotists' susceptibility and sex were examined for their effects on the administration of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Neither resulted in different hypnotic responsiveness from Ss. Comparatively inexperienced hypnotists obtained data similar to the normative sample for the Stanford scale. The results suggest that inexperienced hypnotists are capable of administering standardized scales validly, and that characteristics of the hypnotist are relatively ineffective in distorting Ss' responses to these scales. 1970 Bakan, Paul (1970). Handedness and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 99-104. Carried out 2 studies with 251 and 228 undergraduates to determine the relationship between self-reports of handedness and scores on a shortened version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. It was found that left-handed Ss were more likely than right-handed Ss to score at the extremes of the hypnotizability scale, either low or high, and less likely to score in the middle of the scale. Results of 2 independent studies were in agreement. (Spanish & German summaries) (15 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 1969 Field, Peter B.; Palmer, R. (1969). Factor analysis: Hypnosis inventory. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 50-61. An inventory scale of hypnotic depth and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A were factor analyzed, based on a sample of 223 college students. Both measures yielded a general factor of hypnotic depth. Rotation yielded inventory factors of unawareness, drowsiness, enthusiasm, subjective conviction, and Stanford factors of challenge and ideomotor-posthypnotic suggestibility. Results of an earlier study describing development of the hypnosis inventory were successfully cross-validated. (Spanish & German summaries) (19 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1968 Dittborn, Julio M. (1968). A brief nonthreatening procedure for the evaluation of hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 53-60. DESCRIBES A TECHNIQUE FOR THE SELECTION OF SS POTENTIALLY HIGH IN HYPNOTIZABILITY WITHOUT INFORMING THEM THAT HYPNOSIS IS BEING INDUCED. IT INVOLVES AN OBJECTIVE BEHAVIORAL OUTPUT (SLEEP WRITING) AS WELL AS CLINICAL SIGNS THAT CAN BE USED TO EVALUATE HYPNOTIZABILITY. IT HAS THE ADVANTAGE OF BEING ABLE TO BE ADMINISTERED BY INDIVIDUALS OTHERWISE UNTRAINED IN HYPNOTIC TECHNIQUES. (SPANISH + GERMAN ABSTRACTS) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Faw, Volney; Sellers, David J.; Wilcox, Warren W. (1968). Psychopathological effects of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 26-37. The probability that hypnotic induction produces psychopathological effects has not been experimentally determined. The present study hypothesizes various negative effects following hypnosis such as increased signs of personality disturbances, increased need for medical attention, greater tendencies toward suicide, and negative effects among the more maladjusted persons of the population sample. 107 college students were assigned at random to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was hypnotized 3 times in successive weeks. A comparison between control and experimental groups in respect to pre- and post-MMPI score differences plus a follow-up with the college counseling center and infirmary for a 90-day period following induction led to the rejection of the hypotheses. A comparison of measures yielded some significant differences in favor of the experimental group. It is concluded that there are nondetrimental effects when hypnosis is used with a normal college population. 1966 Cooper, Leslie M.; London, Perry (1966). Sex and hypnotic susceptibility in children. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 55-60. Sex differences in hypnotic susceptibility were investigated in a sample of 240 children. The Children''s Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale was administered to 10 boys and 10 girls at each age level for 5-16 yr. There were no differences between the means of the boys and girls at any age for the 3 scores yielded by the measure. The percentage passing each item at each age for each sex was also computed. Of the resulting 264 comparisons only 1 (Item 10, Eye Catalepsy) was found to be significantly different at 1 age level (7 yr. of age) and was attributed to chance. It was concluded that there were no sex differences for the various items at the ages tested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Evans, Frederick J.; Schmeidler, D. (1966). Relationship between the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 333-343. 3 SUBGROUPS OF 20 SS WITH HIGH, MEDIUM, OR LOW SCORES ON A SLIGHTLY MODIFIED, TAPE-RECORDED VERSION OF THE HARVARD GROUP SCALE OF HYPNOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY, FORM A (HGSHS:A) WERE LATER ADMINISTERED THE STANFORD HYPNOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY SCALE, FORM C (SHSS:C). THE 2 SCALES CORRELATED .59, WHICH IS LOWER THAN WOULD BE PREDICTED BY SCALE RELIABILITIES. THIS, TOGETHER WITH OTHER DATA BASED ON ITEM CHARACTERISTICS, INDICATES THAT THE 2 SCALES ARE NOT EQUIVALENT, BUT IN PART MEASURE DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF HYPNOTIC PERFORMANCE. SCORES ON HGSHS:A FOR LOW SS ARE PREDICTIVE OF SHSS:C SCORES, BUT THE STABILITY OF PERFORMANCE BETWEEN HGSHS:A AND SHSS:C IS NOT AS MARKED FOR MEDIUM AND HIGH SS ON HGSHS:A. THIS IS PARTLY A RESULT OF THE FAILURE OF PASSIVE MOTOR (PRIMARY) SUGGESTIBILITY TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN LEVELS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY, ALTHOUGH CHALLENGE ITEMS DO. THE 2 CLUSTERS OF ITEMS CORRELATE .23 AND .43 IN HGSHS:A AND SHSS:C, RESPECTIVELY. THE PASSIVE SUGGESTIBILITY ITEMS DETRACT FROM THE VALIDITY OF THE 2 SCALES. (SPANISH + FRENCH SUMMARIES) (20 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Cooper, Leslie M.; Pedersen, Darhl M. (1965). A note on the failure to find personality differences between volunteers and nonvolunteers for hypnotic research. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (4), 274-278. Personality measures were administered to 136 students in an introductory psychology class at Brigham Young University. 30 Ss subsequently volunteered to have their hypnotic susceptibility assessed. There were no significant differences found between the means of the resulting 23 variables for the 30 volunteers and 106 nonvolunteers. 2 variables (age and ego strength) showed significantly different variances for the 2 groups, but these may be attributed to chance because of the number of significance tests made. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Das, J. P. (1965). Relationship between body-sway, hand-levitation, and a questionnaire measure of hypnotic susceptibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (1), 26-33. 67 randomly selected college students were administered the body-sway test, a questionnaire measure of tranceability, and an induction procedure utilizing hand-levitation to determine hypnotic susceptibility. The 6 Es varied in age, sex; 5 of them had little experience as hypnotists. All reference to "hypnosis" was omitted from the induction procedure. Significant phi-coefficients between body-sway and levitation (.52), levitation and tranceability frequency (.28) and intensity (.25), and body-sway and tranceability intensity (.33) were obtained. (16 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Field, Peter B. (1965). An inventory scale of hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13, 238-249. (Abstracted in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1966, 1, 86) An inventory of 300 items describing subjective experiences during hypnosis was administered to 102 students after they had wakened from hypnosis. The 38 items that correlated best with a standard measure of hypnotic susceptibility are proposed as an inventory measure of hypnotic depth. Items dealing with absorption and unawareness, automaticity and compulsion, and discontinuity from normal experience correlated best with the criterion, while items dealing with conscious motivation to enter hypnosis, feelings of surface compliance with suggestions, and unusual bodily sensations showed generally weaker relationships to the hypnotizability criterion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Field, Peter B.; Evans, Frederick J.; Orne, Martin T. (1965). Order of difficulty of suggestions during hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13, 183-192. This study tests the hypothesis that successful response to suggestion during hypnosis predisposes to further successful response, but failure leads to subsequent failure. The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility was administered to 2 groups of 51 volunteer students. For 1 group, 8 of the 12 items were administered in the order easy-to-difficult; for the 2nd group, in the order difficult-to-easy. Total and 8-item mean scores, and frequency distributions, did not differ significantly between groups. Except for the item measuring posthypnotic amnesia, item difficulties for the 2 groups did not differ significantly. Although the difficult-to-easy group was more amnesic, the 2 groups recalled a similar number of additional items when amnesia was "lifted." The block of 4 easier items was relatively easier when preceded by a block of 4 harder items and, similarly, the harder items were relatively less difficult if preceded by a block of easier items. The magnitude of this effect was small, and the order effect hypothesis was basically not supported. Future research should consider the S''s subjective impression of success and failure. (16 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Levitt, Eugene E.; Overley, T. M. (1965). Experience of the hypnotist as a factor in hypnotic behavior. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12 (1), 34-38. A group of student nurse volunteers were found to obtain scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale which did not differ when they were hypnotized by experienced or by inexperienced hypnotists. Neither did scores vary from 1st to 2nd occasion regardless of the experience of the hypnotist. The results are interpreted to mean that the factor of hypnotist experience is likely to be irrelevant to subject performance in the standardized, research situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Coe, William C. (1964). Further norms on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12 (3), 184-190. The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A was administered to 168 upper level college students. Findings are congruent with the original normative data reported by Shor and E. C. Orne. Differences between the 2 samples'' mean scores and distributions are discussed in terms of sample composition. Further support for the group scale as an accurate predictor of hypnotic susceptibility was indicated by a significant relationship between the group scale and the individually-administered Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Cooper, G. W.; Dana, R. H. (1964). Hypnotizability and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 28-33.