Crabtree, Adam (1984, October/1986). Explanations of dissociation in the first half of the twentieth century. In Quen, Jacques M. (Ed.), Split minds/split brains (pp. 85-108). New York: New York University Press. (Based on symposium in Bear Mt., N.Y., by Section on the History of Psychiatry of Cornell University Medical Center)

In 1907 Morton Prince, Editor of Journal of Abnormal Psychology, introduced a symposium by listing 6 meanings of subconscious: 1. that portion of our field of consciousness which is outside the focus of attention 2. (Janet’s idea) – split off ideas which may be isolated sensations like the lost tactile sensation of anesthesia, or maybe aggregated into groups or systems. The author quotes Janet as stating that “they form a consciousness coexisting with the primary consciousness and thereby a doubling of consciousness results” (p. 87). The primary consciousness is usually dominant, but sometimes is reduced under exceptional conditions (e.g. automatic writing). 3. the subconscious _self_ or hidden self — a part of every human, not just seen in psychopathology; this is a personalized entity; every mind has a double, with the unconscious self having powerful effects on feelings, thoughts, and reactions of the conscious self 4. extends #3 to include not only ideas that remain active below surface but also those which are inactive — forgotten or out of mind 5. Frederic Myers’ concept of the ‘subliminal self’ which had 3 functions:
a) inferior – seen in processes of dissociation
b) superior – seen in works of genius, arising from ‘subliminal rush’ of information, feelings, and thoughts which lie below consciousness
c) mythopoeic – the unconscious tendency to create fantasies 6. physiological meaning, e.g. William Carpenter’s ‘unconscious cerebration’ in which unconscious phenomena are interpreted in terms of pure neural processes unaccompanied by mental activity.
Prince suggested some redefinitions to clarify unconscious and subconscious. He would replace Janet’s subconscious with co-conscious and reserve unconscious for physiological processes that lack the attributes of consciousness. Prince noted that co- conscious ideas have been called unconscious (e.g. by Freud) but said that is confusing and to be avoided.
“Coconscious ideas include states we are not aware of because they are not the focus of our attention, and also pathologically split-off and independently active ideas or systems of ideas, such as occur in hysteria and reach their most striking form in co- conscious personalities and automatic writing.
“Prince prefers the term coconscious to Janet’s subconscious for two reasons. First, because it expresses the simultaneous coactivity of a second consciousness. And second, because the coactive ideas or idea systems may not be outside the awareness of the personal consciousness at all. They may be recognized by the personal consciousness as a distinct consciousness existing alongside it.
“Thus, through his redefinition of terms, Prince makes simultaneous activity of two or more systems of consciousness in one individual the key element in dissociation. He thereby moves the issue of amnesia or lack of awareness by one system of another into the background, making it a secondary, nonessential element. Prince was one of the few to provide a theoretical framework for dissociation in which any combination of interawareness among the coconscious systems was possible” (p. 91).
Two researchers at the turn of the century came to opposite conclusions about the nature of the Subconscious Self that every human has. Morris Sidis saw it as “a brutelike consciousness with a tendency toward personalization. Frederic Myers held that it included those functions and much more, being the source of all that is human, including the highest intuitive powers” p. 96.
Bernard Hart, in 1910, did an analysis of Janet and Freud. Janet’s work is essentially descriptive: “he is always talking about a consciousness which manifests itself in a way we can _perceive_, whether by listening to it talk, reading its written communications, or watching its movements” (p. 97). However Janet’s spatial model of dissociation cannot explain the presence of the same material (e.g. memories) in two or more dissociated systems. According to Hart, Freud offered the conceptualization that Janet lacked, in his idea of the Unconscious .
Freud’s Unconscious is not in competition with Janet’s subconscious. “Janet’s subconscious is the arena of dissociated phenomena which manifest in observable form as elements coactive with the personal self. Freud’s unconscious is a conceptual, nonobservable construction put forward to explain certain facts of human experience. In this way Hart equates the unconscious with the atomic theory in physics or the theory of heredity in biology” p. 99. But Hart also thought Freud’s theory did not do justice to dissociative phenomena. Not only do psychoanalysts show little interest in double personality or multiple personality, they also neglected dissociation on the phenomenal level.
In 1915 Freud denied the existence of a second consciousness and wrote, “there is no choice for us but to assert that mental processes are in themselves unconscious, and to liken the perception of them by means of consciousness to the perception of the external world by means of the sense organs” (p. 101). Janet claimed that Freud had simply taken over his own system and given it a new terminology, and in 1924 Freud wrote an angry rebuttal. For him, “dissociated systems are simply separate groups of mental but unconscious elements. As our consciousness turns now to one group, now to another, as a searchlight shines now on one object and now on another, the dissociated groups manifest in conscious life. … There exists no doubling of consciousness” p. 102.
Jung’s ideas were closer to those of Janet, and like Janet he made dissociation a key concept in his theory. The _complex_ is unconscious, has an archetypal core clothed in personal experience, is like a self-contained psyche within the big psyche, sometimes called a fragmentary personality dwelling inside us. Dissociation for him meant being cut off from the Ego, which is the center of an individual’s field of consciousness. “Dissociated or autonomous complexes are those which have no direct association with the ego” (p. 103). If complexes are charged with enough energy they will become manifest–as a neurotic symptom, as projected into idea of a god or demon, or perhaps as an alternate personality. Therefore Jungian treatment aims at assimilating dissociated complexes into the ego.

Decker, Hannah S. (1984, October/1986). The lure of nonmaterialism in materialist Europe: Investigations of dissociative phenomena, 1880-1915. In Quen, Jacques M. (Ed.), Split minds/split brains (pp. 31-62). New York: New York University Press. (Based on symposium in Bear Mt., N.Y., by Section on the History of Psychiatry of Cornell University Medical Center)

Emphasizes spiritism, hypnotism, and the career of Pierre Janet.
Janet’s career paralleled an increased interest in dissociation, because he had contact with scientists studying spiritism, used hypnosis, and insisted on a scientific approach. He coined the words “subconscious” and “dissociation.” As his sphere of influence declined, so did scientific interest in dissociation–especially multiple personality disorder.
Scientific study of dissociation began with investigations into religious exorcism and spirit possession. For example, at the behest of Prince Max Joseph of Bavaria, Mesmer duplicated the exorcisms of Father Gassner (causing convulsions) using hypnosis. Following Mesmer, there were reports of multiple personalities (e.g. an “exchanged personality” in Germany, reported in 1791 by Eberhardt Gmelin).
“Partly because of this growth of knowledge of multiple personality, a new model of the mind developed during the early 19th century: the mind was dual; there were conscious and unconscious mental states. Later, it was said that there was a dominant conscious personality with a group of underlying subpersonalities. Eventually it was declared that split fragments of personality could act autonomously” p. 37.
The scientific study of these phenomena continued under the leadership of Frederic Myers of The Cambridge Society for Psychical Research. According to William James, Myers was the first to consider the phenomena of hallucination, hypnotism, automatism, double personality, and mediumship as connected parts of one whole subject. The Cambridge Society was involved in the transition from the use of automatic writing by mediums to its use for clinical purposes and experimental research in the 1880’s and 1890’s.
Increasing numbers of multiple personalities reported in the literature in late 19th century led to increased interest in hypnosis and to the concept of dissociation. The author details the contributions of Janet, and then explains how interest declined in dissociation and in hypnosis due to the following: 1. Experimental psychologists in Germany (e.g. Wundt) refused to deal with anything that resembled the “unconscious,” and neglected the point of view of the experiencing person. 2. Those few psychologists interested in the unconscious found projective tests (Rorschach, TAT) an easier avenue than hypnosis or automatic writing. 3. Many mediums were exposed as frauds, e.g. Flournoy’s popular “From India to the Planet Mars”. 4. Janet himself was very critical of parapsychology. 5. When Charcot died suddenly, it was discovered that some of his assistants had rehearsed the behavior of hypnotized patients. 6. Hypnotists’ extravagant claims (e.g. past life age regression) led to a wave of reaction against them. 7. Questions were raised about the iatrogenic nature of multiple personality. 8. Conscientious hypnotists discovered drawbacks
– not everyone could become good hypnotists (e.g. Freud)
– not everyone could be hypnotized
– some patients faked hypnosis
– extreme sensitivity of hypnotized patients to the hypnotist’s wishes led to biased results
– hypnotist sometimes was conditioned to things in certain way by his first patient
9. Janet didn’t have the personality of a leader, and he argued with the psychoanalysts about who should get credit for certain ideas

Frauman, David C.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Hardaway, Richard; Molteni, Andrew (1984). Effect of subliminal symbiotic activation on hypnotic rapport and susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93 (4), 481-483.

L. H. Silverman’s subliminal symbiotic activation paradigm (Silverman, 1982) was used to manipulate unconscious affective factors in hypnosis to determine whether gratification of symbiotic fantasy would enhance hypnotic susceptibility and rapport with the hypnotist. Seventy-two male undergraduates were divided into two groups matched for susceptibility (high, medium, low). The experimental group received symbiotic, MOMMY AND I ARE ONE, subliminal stimulation via tachistoscope in a double-blind design. The comparison group received a psychodynamically neutral stimulus, PEOPLE ARE WALKING. Following subliminal stimulation, subjects were hypnotized individually. Projective tasks that indexed rapport with the hypnotist and the mother were administered during hypnosis. Rapport was also measured by rated intimacy of self-disclosure topics and by valence of topics selected to disclose to the hypnotist. A significant multivariate group selected more positively valenced topics to disclose on. The effect for symbiotic activation on hypnotic susceptibility was not quite significant (p<.056, two-tailed). NOTES 2350, Frauman, Lynn, Mare, & Kvaal, 1992 NOTES: [Paper presented by Lynn.] A number of observations and conclusions are based on literature reviews done with Brentar (British Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis; Chapter in Rhue, Lynn, & Kirsch [Eds.] Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis) and 15 years of training students in hypnotherapy. Some of this may seem elementary to some of you. For half a century there have been reports of negative effects after hypnosis: minor, serious, transient, and chronic. Clinicians need be as wary (but no more wary) of negative effects in hypnosis as in other therapies. There are more negative effects in clinical situations than non clinical situations. Therapists must be prepared to recognize negative effects and intervene. Too often hypnosis is seen as a technique divorced from psychotherapy. The hypnotist must be a competent psychotherapist. What makes you a good therapist will make you a good hypnotherapist. There should be careful assessment of the client for: 1. those with history of unusual experiences following anesthesia or drugs 2. those with a history of dissociation People may recapitulate a previous bad experience with anesthesia, based on the unusual physiological feelings. The dissociative client must be stabilized before using hypnosis. Depressed clients may also have problems, with the imagery becoming dysphoric. Those vulnerable to psychotic decompensation, with paranoid or borderline character structures, must be evaluated carefully. A lot depends on your comfort zone in therapy. Life experiences with parents and authority figures may also play into the reaction. Many clients, and experimental Ss, are ambivalent about hypnosis. This ambivalence must be acknowledged and one must work with the ambivalence before proceeding. One may: - explain hypnosis - reframe in terms of self hypnosis or relaxation - explain as a state of awareness with full consciousness - offer active induction which is just as effective as the passive induction - do induction with eyes open Research clearly shows that Subjects can monitor events outside the framework of a suggestion--especially if you suggest they can do so with ease. We do not use ideomotor suggestions because they aren't necessary. We tell them to open their eyes and communicate with us during hypnosis. We always assess their feelings about hypnosis, have them have a fantasy about what hypnosis would be like, do an informal semantic analysis of the descriptors clients use (and then reframe them), inquire about previous experiences with counseling and psychotherapy, and do a mental status. Don't make assumptions. We want to know about early life experiences to know about transference and form an alliance. Hypnosis procedures employed must have explicit informed consent (cf MacHovic book), which also provides opportunity to demystify the experience. Our research shows the great majority of Ss find it relaxing, invigorating. Even perceptual distortions can be created without hypnosis. Can create confidence by sharing the research information on hypnosis. Elicit cooperation with easier suggestions, then use graded suggestions. We want to titrate the demands on clients, move at a pace that keeps anxiety low, promote self efficacy and mastery through ... [missed a few words] and graduated tasks. Carefully monitor clients for frowns, lack of attention, etc. It is important to ask them what they are experiencing. Rarely, a client appears unable to talk, in which case the therapist can offer hypotheses to the hypnotized client. Don't terminate hypnosis if there is a problem (Orne also says this); instead, offer reassurance to explore/release the feelings. It is beneficial to work through what is being experienced. There is a somewhat higher risk of emotional reactions with age regression or induced dreams. We simply tell people they can tell us at any time about what they are experiencing, without going through any ritual. When we give suggestions about amnesia, we ask what they would like to remember and suggest that they forget what they would like to forget. The usual permissive suggestion doesn't work; find out what it is, exactly, that they want to forget and then devise strategies for it. Follow for 2 weeks after any abreactive experience that may have occurred. Let them know they can contact you. Forceful suggestions to abandon symptoms can promote resistance and the therapist may generate negative transference. (See their chapter in book edited by Rhue, Lynn, and Kirsch, Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis, published by the Amer Psychological Association.) Palumbo, Robert; Gillman, Irene (1984). Effects of subliminal activation of oedipal fantasies on competitive performance: A replication and extension. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172 (12), 737-741. Conducted a subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment in which the effects of 5 subliminal stimuli were sought on the dart-throwing performance of 40 male Ss (aged 22-46 years). The stimuli consisted of the following messages, each accompanied by a congruent picture: "beating dad is ok," "beating dad is wrong," "beating him is ok," "beating him is wrong," and "people are walking." The 1st 2 stimuli were intended to activate competitive motives within the context of the Oedipus complex; the next 2, competitive motives outside that context; and the last message was intended as a control stimulus. Findings show that "beating dad is ok" led to greater dart-throwing accuracy than each of the other 4 conditions, which, in turn, did not differ from each other. This finding replicates a result reported by L. H. Silverman et al (1978) and is in keeping with the formulation that the activation of oedipal motives can affect competitive performance (7 ref) Smith, Mark Scott; Kamitsuka, Michael (1984). Self-hypnosis misinterpreted as CNS deterioration in an adolescent with leukemia and Vincristine toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26 (4), 280-282. A thirteen year-old girl with leukemia was taught self-hypnosis techniques for symptom control. She was hospitalized with probable vincristine toxicity and a superimposed hyperventilation syndrome. Her spontaneous use of the self- hypnosis technique was misinterpreted as central nervous system deterioration until her apparently comatose state resolved with suggestions from the therapist. Zamansky, Harold S.; Bartis, Scott P. (1984). Hypnosis as dissociation: Methodological considerations and preliminary findings. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26, 246-251. Three criteria are proposed to be met by any experience labeled as "dissociation." A preliminary experiment is described that illustrates one way in which two of these criteria may be operationalized, and that assesses the relationship between successful performance on the two criteria and hypnotic susceptibility. The results are viewed as consistent with Hilgard's (1977) hypothesis that hypnotic susceptibility and the ability to dissociate are positively related. NOTES The authors propose that for dissociation to be present: "1) The individual must be engaged in two or more cognitive processes concurrently. 2) These processes must occur simultaneously, i.e., without recourse to alternation between them. 3) One of these processes must be perceived (by the subject) to occur below the level of conscious awareness, i.e., must seem to be autonomous or nonvolitional" (p. 247). In this study they focus on the first two criteria, as well as the relationship between ability to perform two cognitive tasks simultaneously and Subjects' hypnotizability. The authors used a dichotic listening task, with Ss instructed to listen to both auditory inputs at once. One input was a short story that was to be followed with 12 multiple choice questions. The other ear received 3 tones every 2 seconds (the higher tone 60% of the time, lower tone 40% of the time) and S was to press a button in response to the low tones. Speed of presentation of tones was intended to reduce the opportunity for alternating back and forth between tasks. Of 28 volunteer students, 22 passed criteria for accuracy on both tasks when performed singly: 10 high hypnotizables (Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility; HGSHS > 8); 10 medium hypnotizables (HGSHS 5-8); and 2 low hypnotizables who were dropped from the data analysis. They were considered ‘dissociators’ if they met the criterion of passing 9 or more items of the story and simultaneously having fewer than 15% errors on the tones, on two separate trials with two different stories.

“Of the 20 subjects, four scored above criterion on both test trials and were classed as dissociators; these four also scored as highly hypnotizable on the HGSHS. Accordingly, 40% of the highly hypnotizable subjects met our criteria, while not one of the moderately hypnotizable subjects reached this level of performance” (p. 249).
In their Discussion, the authors wrote, “The results demonstrated that highly hypnotizability Ss are significantly better able to attend to two inputs simultaneously than are moderately hypnotizability Ss. These results provide preliminary empirical evidence that dissociative ability, assessed independently of hypnosis, may be an important factor underlying hypnotic behavior” (p. 249).
The authors speculated about why only 40% of the highly hypnotizable people performed successfully, suggesting that it may be because they had misclassified Ss with the HGSHS which may be less demanding than other scales, or that “while dissociation represents an important cognitive factor in hypnosis, the Harvard measures mostly ideomotor performance” (p. 250). They suggest using a hypnotizability scale that uses more cognitive items to select highly hypnotizable Subjects who would demonstrate a high degree of dissociative ability. The other possibility that they mention is that dissociation may be only one of several alternate paths to hypnosis, citing Hilgard (1965).
The Experimenters added two control groups, one given the stories without the competing tones, the other given identical questions but without actually hearing the stories. The first group answered a mean of 9.7 and 8.6 questions correctly; the second control group answered a mean of 2.9 and 3.8 questions correctly.

Chertok, Leon (1982). The unconscious and hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30 (2), 95-107.

This paper reviews Soviet approaches to the unconscious and to hypnotic phenomena, before examining psychoanalytic theories of hypnosis which are generally based on transference. The author believes the existing theories are inadequate, arguing that there is a psychophysiological dimension to hypnosis; but what unconscious processes does this conceal? Psychoanalysis opened one road to the unconscious, but affect, nonverbal communication, and psychophysiological process are still uncharted territories towards which hypnosis may yet prove to be another royal road.

The author concludes, “hypnosis and the unconscious … are closely linked. Historically, experiments on posthypnotic suggestion were in fact the starting point for the discovery of the unconscious. Posthypnotic suggestion is in effect one of the most irrefutable proofs that psychical contents can influence behavior, albeit eluding the subject’s consciousness.
“In this paper, the present author provides a description of Soviet researchers’ conceptions of the unconscious, and of the point of view from which they approach hypnotic phenomena. Psychoanalytic theories of hypnosis are then presented, which are essentially based on transference. It is shown why this notion seems to the present author powerless to account for the specific nature of the hypnotic relationship. There is, in effect, a psychophysiological dimension to hypnosis. It lies at the crossroads between the instrumental and the relational dimension. But nothing is known about what unconscious processes hide at the psychophysiological level. Psychoanalysis has brought to light the laws governing the functioning of unconscious representations. But the realm of the affect, the nonverbal communication, and bodily processes still remain beyond our knowledge. This is a hidden side of the unconscious, in relation to which hypnosis may serve as another ‘royal road'” (pp. 104-105).

Fromm, Erika (1980). Values in hypnotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 17 (4), 425-430.

Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness characterized by a regression in the service of the ego along with increased access to the unconscious. This makes it possible to achieve lasting therapeutic results faster in hypnosis than in the waking state. Hypnosis is also a state of decreased vigilance, a vulnerability that involves dangers if a patient is in the hands of a poorly trained, incompetent, or unscrupulous therapist. In general, the same human and moral values that guide responsible therapists with patients in the ordinary waking state must guide them with patients in hypnosis, only more so. Contemporary permissive hypnotherapists do not superimpose their own wills or personalities onto patients but provide support, help patients face the frightening parts of the unconscious, and thus aid them in coping with conflicts and gaining full autonomy and freedom from fear. (11 ref).

Shevrin, Howard; Dickman, Scott (1980). The psychological unconscious: A necessary assumption for all psychological theory?. American Psychologist, 35 (5), 421-434.

The notion of complex psychological processes operating outside of awareness has traditionally been associated with the concept of the unconscious used by psychodynamically oriented clinicians; it has never found an equivalent place in the mainstream of American experimental psychology. However, mounting evidence from several rather diverse fields of empirical research (e.g., selective attention, cortical evoked potentials, subliminal perception) provides support for such a concept, and, in fact, explanatory constructs of a similar nature have been embodied in several current models of perceptual processing. While there clearly remains an enormous gap between the clinically based conception and the experimentally based conception of the nature of these unconscious processes, they nevertheless seem to provide an interface between two seemingly disparate approaches to the understanding of personality.

Stam, Henderikus J.; Radtke-Bodorik, Lorraine; Spanos, Nicholas P. (1980). Repression and hypnotic amnesia: A failure to replicate and an alternative formulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89 (4), 551-559.

In an attempt to replicate and extend a study by S. R. Clemes, 2 groups of 10 undergraduate hypnotic Ss learned a list of 18 words and were given an amnesia suggestion telling them they would be able to remember only 10 of these words. Half of the list words were critical (i.e., considered to be related to repressed conflictual material) and half were neutral (unrelated to conflictual material) as determined by Ss’ responses to a word association test. Experimental Ss received their own critical and neutral words and yoked control Ss received the critical and neutral words of experimental Ss. Neither the experimental nor the yoked control group exhibited selective amnesia in favor of critical words, thus constituting a failure to replicate Clemes’s result. However, variables affecting the degree to which words were initially learned (e.g., imagery value, serial position) predicted their resistance to amnesia. These findings are inconsistent with a repression hypothesis but congruent with an inattention hypothesis of suggested amnesia. (41 ref).

Bennett, Henry L.; Giannini, Jeffrey A.; Kline, Mark D. (1979, September). Consequences of hearing during general anesthesia. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.

A double blind 2X2 study exposed 23 herniorraphy and cholecystectomy patients to either a 45 minute suggestion tape or to the actual sounds of the operation. Structured interviews conducted postoperatively assessed hypnotic susceptibility and regressed patients under hypnosis to operative events. Ten patients accurately recalled significant events from surgery but only under hypnosis. Recall was greater and more accurate in patients scoring high on the Stanford Clinical Hypnosis Scale. Fewest number of pain medications were given postoperatively to patients receiving the suggestion tape. Hernia patients showed better recall than gallbladder patients.

Thompson, Kay F. (1979). The case against relaxation. In Burrows, G. D.; Collison, D. R.; Dennerstein, L. (Ed.), Hypnosis 1979 (pp. 41-46). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.

One wonders why facilitators continue to talk about and insist on relaxation as a precondition for hypnosis. Do we need to see this relaxation to believe our patients are truly in a hypnotic state?” (p. 43). “The advantages of eliminating relaxation as a precondition for trance include the elimination of the need to re-learn the non-relaxed state, the admission of more natural responses to the therapeutic situation, the recognition of spontaneous trance, and a freer communication between the doctor and patient which should result in a more comfortable use of hypnosis and its more widespread acceptance in medicine” (p. 45).

Bowers, Patricia G. (1978). Hypnotizability, creativity and the role of effortless experiencing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 184-202.

Creative people and highly hypnotizable people describe their experience of finding creative solutions or responding to hypnotic suggestions as “effortless.” It is suggested that receptiveness to subconscious work accounts for the experience of effortlessness in both tasks. An experiment using 32 high and low hypnotizable men and women was designed to explore the hypothesis that the aptitude for such effortless experiencing accounts for the relationship found between creativity and hypnotizability.
Analyses of variance indicate highly significant effects of level of hypnotizability on composite scores reflecting effortless experiencing of several tasks and creativity. Intercorrelations of these indices are about .60. As predicted, effortless experiencing accounts for much of the relationship between high versus low hypnotizability and composite creativity. The role of imagery vividness and of absorption in both hypnotizability and creativity were also explored.

Avila, Donald; Nummela, Renate (1977). Transcendental meditation: A psychological interpretation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33 (3), 842-844.

The authors suggest that Transcendental Meditation offers a great deal of promise for use in helping relationships. They also suggest that the technique might receive wider acceptance if it could be explained in other than a purely philosophical or mystical way. For that reason, in their article they offer a psychological interpretation of he TM process.

Trustman, R.; Dubovsky, S.; Titley, R. (1977). Auditory perception during general anesthesia — myth or fact. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25 (2), 88-105.

Reports have appeared periodically in the literature indicating that surgical patients can hear and be influenced by remarks occurring while they are under general anesthesia. Much of the evidence has been obtained by postoperatively studying patients under deep hypnosis. The present article discusses the empirical status of this phenomenon, “auditory perception during anesthesia.” 14 selected studies regarding auditory perception during general anesthesia were critically reviewed. All were found to have serious deficiencies as evidence for or against the occurrence of auditory perception during general anesthesia. Methodological and theoretical difficulties of conducting research into auditory perception during general anesthesia were discussed, and suggestions for future research were offered.

Galin, David (1974). Implications for psychiatry of left and right cerebral specialization: A neurophysiological context for unconscious processes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31 (4), 572-583.

A brief review is presented of hemispheric specialization for different cognitive modes, and of the symptoms that follow disconnection of the two hemispheres by commissurotomy. Our present knowledge of the hemispheres’ cognitive specialization and potential for independent functioning provides a framework for thinking about the interaction of cognitive structures, defensive maneuvers, and variations in awareness. Parallels are noted between some aspects of the mental processes of the disconnected right hemisphere and some aspects of primary process thinking and repression. The hypothesis is proposed that in normal intact people mental events in the right hemisphere can become disconnected functionally from the left hemisphere (by inhibition of neuronal transmission across the cerebral commissures), and can continue a life of their own. This hypothesis suggests a neurophysiological mechanisms for at least some instances of repression and an anatomical locus for the unconscious mental contents.

Sacerdote, Paul (1972). The nature of the hypnotherapeutic process. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 15 (1), 1-11.

The author presents several clinical cases where hypnosis was successfully utilized. Through detailed description of what takes place during sessions it is shown how various approaches are adapted to the intellectual, cultural, emotional and hypnotic capabilities of the patient and to the progress of therapy. The author analyzes what takes place during and after hypnotic intervention and draws some conclusions about the nature of the hypnotherapeutic process which, he feels, is essentially a convergence of the patient’s and therapist’s conscious and subconscious expectations and goals. The importance of the therapeutic ego of the doctor is brought into proper focus. One of the clinical cases illustrates how the therapist can convert a therapeutic relationship that may appear sterile or even hostile into a productive one by utilizing the patient’s responses, while avoiding stubborn insistence upon expectations of preconceived hypnotic responses. It is suggested that the hypnotherapeutic model may present, in clearer focus, what takes place in other psychotherapeutic exchanges which do not utilize hypnosis.

Reyher, Joseph; Smeltzer, William (1968). Uncovering properties of visual imagery and verbal association. Journal of Abnormal Psychology

21 young males were asked to ‘image’ or to ‘associate’ to 10 words from each of 3 categories representing sex, hostility, and family relationships. Imagery was found to produce heightened GSR activity, more primary process, more direct representation of drives, and less effective defense. The superiority of visual imagery over verbal association as an uncovering technique was attributed to the relative ease with which unconscious processes can influence imagery

Hatfield, Elaine C. (1961). The validity of the LeCron method of evaluating hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9, 215-221.

The purpose of this study was to check the relationship between estimations made by the LeCron measure of hypnotic depth and scores secured by the same S on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. The correlations between the two measures were low, though significant. The mean of estimates requested from the Ss” “unconscious” correlated .84 with those made by the “conscious,” suggesting that the 2 judgments may not be independent. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II15H. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Pearson, R. E. (1961). Response to suggestion given under general anesthesia. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 4, 106-114.

Employed a double-blind design with placebo control. Audio tapes containing therapeutic suggestions were played to 43 experimental patients during anesthesia. The main theme of the suggestions was that the patient would cope better and recover faster if he could become relaxed. Placebo tapes (music or blank tapes) were played to the 38 control patients. Only E, who had no contact with the patients, knew which tape was played to a given patient. Three postoperative variables were studied: (a) number of doses of narcotics in the first 5 postoperative days; (b) a numerical rating by the surgeon of the postoperative course; and (c) number of postoperative days until release. Although no significant differences were found between the suggestion group and placebo group on need for narcotics or rated course of recovery, patients receiving suggestions were discharged an average of 2.42 days sooner (p < .05). Raginsky, Bernard B. (1961). The sensory use of plasticine in hypnoanalysis (sensory hypnoplasty). International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9 (4), 233-247. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 62: 4 II 33R) Modelling with plasticine under hypnosis (hypnoplasty) allows the patient to give plastic expression to suppressed or repressed material. The author claims that this approach finds the patient quite unprepared to use his usual defenses, resulting in a very rapid and remarkable ventilation of unconscious material. Several clinical cases demonstrating the use of sensory hypnoplasty are presented. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4II33R. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1960 Weitzenhoffer, Andre M. (1960). Reflections upon certain specific and current uses of the unconscious in clinical hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8 (3), 165-178. (Author's Summary) "Three examples of the use of ''unconscious'' manifestations by medical hypnotists have been examined and questions raised with regard to the interpretation which has been placed upon the results. Certain basic weaknesses inherent in the procedures employed have been pointed out and shown to be a source of confounding. A final question has been raised with regard to the so-called ''wisdom'' of the ''unconscious.'' The main conclusion derived in each case considered is that there is little justification for assuming that some sort of psychic entity, ''the unconscious'' has been communicated with or is responsible for the observed phenomena" (p. 177). 1955 Meares, Ainslie (1955). A note on the motivation for hypnosis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3 (4), 222-228. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts 57: 1129) "Summary. The logical reasons of the patient for desiring hypnosis, and of the therapist in advising it, operate on a background of unconscious mechanims. These mechanisms are important factors in determining whether or not the logical reasons become effective. An understanding of such motivation helps the therapist in the selection of cases and the choice of the particular form of hypnotherapy to be used" (p. 228). Patient motivations for hypnosis include magical expectations, paranoid belief that one is under the control of a malevolent influence, a (paradoxical) belief that hypnosis will be ineffective with neurotic symptoms and therefore justify continuation of the symptoms, latent aggression ("hypnotize me if you can" attitude) or an excess of passivity ("humiliate me"), erotic motivation or a wish for a more intimate relationship with the therapist, search for new or unusual experiences in life, a last ditch effort to cope with chronic pain and illness, etc. Patient motivations against hypnosis include fear of being overpowered or the threat of authority, aggressive feelings that would be motivated if the hypnotist seems to be an authority, or association of hypnosis with the erotic. The author has observed "a surprising number of people" with the latter association. "With these people, it is more of an attitude of mind in which any close or intimate relationship is regarded as erotic. They see in hypnosis an intimate relationship with the therapist, and they avoid it without being aware of their reasons for doing so" (p. 226). Therapist motivations for hypnosis include unconscious mechanisms as well, such as a drive for power (sometimes manifested in desire to demonstrate the technique to a wider audience than simply colleagues in a workshop). When tinged with eroticism the drive can become sadistic. Also, erotic drives can find vicarious expression as "The intensity of the rapport between patient and psychotherapist in waking psychotherapy, is increased many times in hypnosis" (p. 227). Therapist motivations against hypnosis include fear of failure (which is more obvious when a patient doesn't follow a suggestion than in lack of response to medicine), fear of erotic involvement, fear of one's own aggression, etc. Stokvis, Berthold (1955). Hypnosis and psychoanalytic method. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3, 253-255. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 57: 1157) The author distinguishes between hypnosis/psychoanalysis and 'hypno-analysis' which Hadfield previously described as a combination of hypnotic catharsis and re-educative suggestions. At the Leyden Clinic the author uses one of several methods to "apply hypnosis together with the utilization of psychoanalytic principles. ... [It] consists in a cathartic-analytic treatment of the patient in the waking state, while endeavouring to re-enact repressed psycho-traumatic events of the past, in the hypnotic state. The experiences in question are subsequently discussed with the patient and elucidated" (p. 253) 1954 LeCron, Leslie M. (1954). A hypnotic technique for uncovering unconscious material. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 76-79. (Abstracted in Psychological Abstracts, 54: 7497) "Summary. A technique is given whereby unconscious material and information may be learned under hypnosis through automatic movements of the fingers, or of Chevreul's pendulum. The movements are controlled by the unconscious mind of the patient. Questions are asked which can be answered either 'yes' or 'no.' With most people the movements of the pendulum can even be elicited in the waking state. Essentially, the method is a variation of automatic writing with movements substituted for writing. A brief case history is given wherein knowledge was gained in this way as to the causes for severe menstrual pains" (p. 79). 1953 NOTES The author presents a case in which the patient complained of headaches to illustrate a theoretical position, described as follows in the Introduction: "For example, many psychotherapists regard as almost axiomatic that therapy is contingent upon making the unconscious conscious. When thought is given to the unmeasurable role that the unconscious plays in the total experiential life of a person from infancy on, whether awake or asleep, there can be little expectation of doing more than making some small parts of it conscious. Furthermore, the unconscious as such, not as transformed into the conscious, constitutes an essential part of psychological functioning. Hence, it seems more reasonable to assume that a legitimate goal in therapy lies in promoting an integrated functioning, both singly and together, and in complementary and supplementary relationships, as occurs daily in well-adjusted living in contrast to the inadequate, disordered and contradictory manifestations in neurotic behavior" (p. 2). VISION 2002 Raz, Amir; Shapiro, Theodore; Fan, Jin; Posner, Michael (2002). Hypnotic suggestion and the modulation of Stroop interference. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1155-1161. This study was designed to determine whether a hypnotic suggestion to hinder lexical processing could modulate the Stroop effect. Behavioral Stroop data were collected from highly suggestible and 16 less suggestible subjects; both naturally vigilant and under posthypnotic suggestion. Subjects were urged to only attend to the ink color and to impede reading the stimuli under posthypnotic suggestion. Whereas posthypnotic suggestion eliminated Stroop interference for highly suggestible subjects, less suggestible control subjects showed no significant reduction in the interference effect. This outcome challenges the dominant view that word recognition is obligatory for proficient readers, and may provide insight into top-down influences of suggestion on cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) 2001 Raz, Amir (2001). Hypnotic suggestion and the modulation of Stroop interference. [Paper] Presented at annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, San Antonio, Texas. This study was designed to determine whether a hypnotic suggestion to hinder lexical processing could modulate the Stroop effect. Behavioral Stroop data were collected from highly suggestible and 16 less suggestible subjects; both naturally vigilant and under posthypnotic suggestion. Subjects were urged to only attend to the ink color and to impede reading the stimuli under posthypnotic suggestion. Whereas posthypnotic suggestion eliminated Stroop interference for highly suggestible subjects, less suggestible control subjects showed no significant reduction in the interference effect. This outcome challenges the dominant view that word recognition is obligatory for proficient readers, and may provide insight into top-down influences of suggestion on cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) [Abstract taken from the Archives of General Psychiatry 2002 article by Raz, Shapiro, Fan, & Posner.] Kosslyn, S. M.; Thompson, W. L.; Constantini-Ferrando, M. F.; Alpert, N. M.; Spiegel, D (2000). Hypnotic visual illusion alters color processing in the brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157 (8), 1279-1284. This study was designed to determine whether hypnosis can modulate color perception. Such evidence would provide insight into the nature of hypnosis and its underlying mechanisms. Eight highly hypnotizable Ss (aged 20-35 yrs) were asked to see a color pattern in color, a similar gray-scale pattern in color, the color pattern as gray scale, and the gray-scale pattern as gray scale during positron emission tomography scanning by means of [-sup-1-sup-5O]C0-sub-2. The classic color area in the fusiform or lingual region of the brain was first identified by analyzing the results when Ss were asked to perceive color as color vs when they were asked to perceive gray scale as gray scale. The results show that when Ss were hypnotized, color areas of the left and right hemispheres were activated when they were asked to perceive color, whether they were actually shown the color or the gray-scale stimulus. These brain regions had decreased activation when Ss were told to see gray scale, whether they were actually shown the color or gray-scale stimuli. These results were obtained only during hypnosis in the left hemisphere, whereas blood flow changes reflected instructions to perceive color vs gray scale in the right hemisphere, whether or not Ss had been hypnotized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)