17. Experimentally elicited salivary and related responses to hypnotic visual hallucinations confirmed by personality reactions
18. Control of physiological functions by hypnosis
19. The hypnotic alteration of blood flow: An experiment comparing waking and hypnotic responsiveness
20. A clinical experimental approach to psychogenic infertility
21. Breast development possibly influenced by hypnosis: Two instances and the psychotherapeutic results
22. Psychogenic alteration of menstrual functioning: Three instances
23. The appearance in three generations of an atypical pattern of the sneezing reflex
24. An addendum to a report of the appearance in three generations of an atypical pattern of the sneezing reflex IV. Time Distortion
25. Time distortion in hypnosis, I (written by L. F. Cooper)
26. Time distortion in hypnosis, II (written with L. F. Cooper)
27. The clinical and therapeutic applications of time distortion
28. Further considerations of time distortion: Subjective time condensation as distinct from time expansion (written with E. M. Erickson) V. Research Problems
29. Clinical and experimental trance: Hypnotic training and time required for their development
30. Laboratory and clinical hypnosis: The same or different phenomena?
31. Explorations in hypnosis research (with a discussion by T. X. Barber, R. Dorcus, H. Guze, T. Sarbin, and A. Weitzenhoffer)
32. Expectancy and minimal sensory cues in hypnosis
33. Basic psychological problems in hypnotic research
34. The experience of interviewing in the presence of observers

Leibowitz, H. W.; Lundy, R. M.; Guez, J. R. (1980). The effect of testing distance on suggestion-induced visual field narrowing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (4), 409-420.

The size of the suggestion restricted visual field was determined among 3 groups consisting of hypnotized Ss, simulators and “instructed fakers.” Instructions were designed to produce narrowing of the visual field. Visual field size was tested by 3 differently designed perimeters each incorporating a different testing distance. The group data were indistinguishable from each other. Some Ss in each group exhibited field sizes which would have been expected if they were suffering from a true scotoma. Other Ss responded as if the functioning area of the visual field were a real object, while still other Ss produced intermediate functions. Implications for theory and for visual field testing are discussed.

Wallace, Benjamin (1980). Autokinetic movement of an imagined and an hypnotically hallucinated stimulus. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (4), 386-393.

Autokinetic movement (AKM) of an imagined or an hallucinated stimulus was assessed as a function of hypnotic susceptibility level. 3 groups of Ss were asked to produce an image of a small, pinpoint spot of light and to monitor any activity of the stimulus. The stimulus was produced by imagination for a group of Ss judged high in hypnotic susceptibility and for a second group of Ss judged low in hypnotic susceptibility. A third group of Ss, highly susceptible to hypnosis, was asked to hallucinate the pinpoint spot stimulus with the aid of instructions administered by E. Instructions by which movement reports were elicited were kept equal and open-ended for all 3 groups of Ss. Results indicated that form of the stimulus (imagined or hallucinated) did not affect reports of AKM. Hypnotic susceptibility level, however, was a major factor in influencing resultant reports. The Ss judged high in hypnotic susceptibility reported a significantly greater number of direction changes of AKM than Ss low in hypnotic susceptibility. The data are interpeted in terms of the possible differences in stimulus monitoring ability as a function of hypnotic susceptibility level.

Spanos, Nicholas P.; Ansari, Ferhana; Stam, Henderikus J. (1979). Hypnotic age regression and eidetic imagery: A failure to replicate. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (1), 88-91.

Walker, Garrett, & Wallace (1976) reported the restoration of eidetic imagery in hypnotically age-regressed subjects. In an attempted replication of that study, 60 subjects who previously scored high on hypnotic susceptibility were ‘hypnotically regressed’ to age 7. Before administration of the hypnotic procedures and again after age regression, subjects were tested for eidetic imagery using the random-dot stereograms employed by Walker et al. None of our subjects including those who were age regressed according to standard criteria and who reported having been eidetikers as children, were successful at the stereogram tasks. Although these results fail to replicate those of Walker et al., they are consistent with the available evidence concerning the performance of children on stereogram tasks. Contrary to the impression conveyed by Walker et al., children tested to date, including those classified as eidetikers by Haber and Haber’s criteria, have been unsuccessful at stereogram tasks.

Blum, Gerald S.; Porter, M. L.; Geiwitz, P. J. (1978). Temporal parameters of negative visual hallucination. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 30-44.

Negative visual hallucination was investigated by hypnotically programming two highly trained undergraduates not to see the colored lines of consonants while perceiving clearly a set of dots superimposed on the lines in another color. Effects of three temporal parameters were noted in tachistoscopic presentations of the consonants: priming time, i.e., opportunity for the subject to prepare to execute the negative visual hallucination after the posthypnotic cue was flashed and before the consonant appeared; duration of consonant exposure; and intensive practice over protracted periods of time. Signal strength and inhibitory skill emerged as significant variables.

This paper reports 4 experiments with two highly trained subjects. The authors conclude, “From these observations, signal strength and inhbiitory skill emerge as major determinants of the outcome in NVH. The stronger the input, the greater the likelihood of insufficient inhibitory action. Differences in skill show up at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis. Even the initially skilled F1 improved her NVH ability with practice, as inferred from the disappearance of undercalling. The lesser skill of F2 was evidenced in her longer required priming time, higher accuracy of color guesses, greater number of color breakthroughs, and reported feeling of mental strain” (p. 42).

Spanos, Nicholas P.; Rivers, Stephen M.; Gottlieb, Jack (1978). Hypnotic responsivity, meditation, and laterality of eye movements. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87 (5), 566-569.

Right-handed male subjects were pretested on a number of person variables; they then meditated for eight sessions. Measures of hypnotic responsivity, meditating skill, imaginal abilities, and attitudes toward hypnosis loaded on a common factor that was labeled sustained nonanalytic attending. However, laterality of eye movement (left moving) failed to load on this factor. The implications of these findings for current theorizing concerning hypnosis and meditation are discussed.

t’Hoen, P. (1978). Effects of hypnotizability and visualizing ability on imagery mediated learning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 45-54.

The Ss selected for hypnotizability and visualizing ability were tested for their performance on an imagery-mediated, paired-associates task in which the stimulus materials were varied in imagery and concreteness. Imagery and concreteness showed significant main effects and an additive interaction facilitating learning. Neither hypnotizability nor visualizing ability showed main effects, thereby contradicting the conjecture that those 2 factors would facilitate imagery-mediated learning. However, high hypnotizable Ss learned more high imagery words than the low hypnotizables, and visualizing ability was shown to interact with word concreteness. It is concluded that the effects of hypnotizability and visualizing ability on verbal learning are, at least in part, a function of the content of the words to be learned.

Reyher, Joseph (1977). Spontaneous visual imagery: Implications for psychoanalysis, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. Journal of Mental Imagery, 253-274.

Prolonged free imagery eventually is accompanied by anxiety, symptoms and/or resistance. This is puzzling to clients when these pathogenic images or scenes appear to be innocent. Their curiosity thus piqued, they are invited to revisualize these images. Anxiety and resistance is intensified and symptoms are exacerbated as the underlying strivings become depicted with increasing clarity. This method is called emergent uncovering psychotherapy. The variegated phenomenon produced is relevant to both Sullivanian and orthodox Freudian constructs. Except for gratification drive discharge, these fare very well. The constructs of psychoanalytic ego psychology did not achieve relevance.

Graham, Charles; Leibowitz, Herschel W. (1972). The effect of suggestion on visual acuity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 20, 3.

In experiment one, all subjects participating attained the maximum score on the BSS. The subjects were hypnotized and post-hypnotic suggestions were given to the effect that the subject really knew how well they could see, and this was contingent upon relaxation. The patient was now given an opportunity to re-read the eye charts. It was found that in this experiment, myopic visual acuity was significantly improved through the use of hypnosis and positive suggestion.
In experiment two, subjects who scored the maximum and the minimum on the BBS were used. The same procedure was used as in number one except that the highly susceptible subjects were told that “various studies had demonstrated that being hypnotized was not a pre-requisite for obtaining improvement.” The insusceptibles were told that “acuity improved under hypnosis, but like many other phenomena associated with hypnosis, improvement in vision was also well within the reach of the non-hypnotizable subjects, if they simply learned to relax their eyes.” it was found that myopic visual acuity was significantly improved in the absence of a formal hypnotic induction. This improvement was for the highly hypnotizable subjects only, and did not transfer to outside the experimental situation.
In experiment three, subjects were used who scored the maximum on the BSS and the Harvard Group Scale. Testing was done in both the hypnotized and waking state. it was found that the rank order correlation between initial and final acuity levels was .98 (p<.001), indicating the effect of suggestion was selective. Sutcliffe, J. P. (1972). Afterimages of real and imaged stimuli. Australian Journal of Psychology, 24 (3), 275-289. Tested 45 university students and 15 7-10 yr. olds for after-images of images and of real stimuli. 8 different colored stimuli were used and observations made enabled a check on reliability. Real stimuli typically produced negative afterimages in most Ss. Only half the Ss could project images of the stimuli, only 1/3 reported afterimages of those images, and of those images only 7% were negative. Afterimages of images had a longer latency and a shorter duration than afterimages of real stimuli. Thus qualitatively and quantitatively afterimages of images differ from afterimages of real stimuli. Findings are related to individual differences in general vividness of imagery. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1969 Graham, Kenneth (1969). Brightness contrast by hypnotic hallucination. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 62-73. Tested the veridicality of a hypnotic hallucination elicited by a buzzer through a conditioning procedure. The stimulus to be hallucinated consisted of 2 gray circles, 3 in. in diameter, mounted on a white card. 11 highly susceptible Ss were able to produce this hallucination upon hearing the buzzer during a series of test trials following the training. Following a 2nd training series, a black and white background was provided for the hallucination and Ss tended to report the hallucinated circles as a brightness contrast. A 2nd group of highly susceptible Ss was not hypnotized, but was asked to respond as if hypnotized. These Ss tended not to report the contrast. (Spanish & German summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1968 Dittborn, Julio M.; Shor, Ronald E. (1968). A test of the effectiveness of intermittent photic stimulation on hypnotic performance. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 165-178. ATTEMPTED TO CONFIRM THE FINDINGS OF A. G. HAMMER AND W. J. ARKINS (SEE 39:1) OF SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER IMPROVEMENT IN HYPNOTIC PERFORMANCE AS A RESULT OF 11-CPS INTERMITTENT PHOTIC STIMULATION THAN WITH FREQUENCIES OUTSIDE THE RANGE OF EEG ALPHA ACTIVITY. USING THE BRAIN WAVE SYNCHRONIZER, 3 GROUPS OF SS WERE GIVEN STIMULATION AT 5, 11, AND 30 CPS. TESTS OF HYPNOTIC PERFORMANCE WERE MADE DURING AND IMMEDIATELY AFTER STIMULATION, AND A WEEK OR MORE LATER. NO EVIDENCE OF FREQUENCY-SPECIFIC EFFECT WAS OBTAINED, AND THE ORIGINAL FINDING WAS NOT CONFIRMED. (SPANISH + GERMAN SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1967 Bowers, Kenneth S. (1967). The effect for demands of honesty upon reports of visual and auditory hallucinations. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15, 31-36. SS, UNSELECTED FOR HYPNOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND SIMPLY TOLD TO HALLUCINATE, MADE PRETEST RATINGS ON THE REALITY OF VISUAL AND AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS. ALL SS WERE THEN TASK MOTIVATED TO HALLUCINATE. BEFORE THE RETEST RATINGS WERE MADE, 1/2 OF THE SS WERE CONFRONTED BY A 2ND E WITH DEMANDS FOR REPORT HONESTY. FOR BOTH SENSORY MODALITIES, THE MEAN CHANGE IN RATINGS FROM PRETEST TO RETEST WAS SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER FOR THE TASK-MOTIVATED THAN FOR THE HONESTY-REPORT CONDITION. RATINGS OF THE REALITY OF HALLUCINATIONS ARE EVIDENTLY HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE TO THE CONTEXT OF DEMANDS IN WHICH THE REPORT IS MADE. IT IS ARGUED THAT, IN THIS AND PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTS UTILIZING UNSELECTED SS, REPORTS OF HALLUCINATORY ACTIVITY ARE LESS APT TO REFLECT PERCEPTUAL ALTERATIONS THAN RESPONSE MODIFICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH REGNANT EXPERIMENTAL DEMANDS. (GERMAN + SPANISH SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Davison, Gerald C.; Singleton, Lawrence (1967). A preliminary report of improved vision under hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15 (2), 57-62. REPORTS AN ACCIDENTAL FINDING WHICH WAS FELT TO BE PROVOCATIVE AND WORTHY OF FURTHER, MORE CONTROLLED, INVESTIGATION. THE EMPHASIS IS ON DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENON, WITH A MINIMUM OF THEORIZING. WHILE IN A VERY DEEP HYPNOTIC TRANCE, S WAS INDUCED TO HAVE BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE HALLUCINATIONS. ON THE FOLLOWING DAY, HE REPORTED SPONTANEOUSLY THAT HE HAD BEEN STRUCK BY THE CLARITY OF BOTH THE VISIONS AND THE PERCEPTIONS OF ACTUAL OBJECTS WHILE HYPNOTIZED; HE HAD NOT, HOWEVER, BEEN WEARING HIS GLASSES AT THE TIME, THOUGH, UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES HE WORE HIS GLASSES AT ALL TIMES. NO SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVED VISION OR EXTRA EFFORT HAD BEEN GIVEN. 2 CAREFUL OPHTHALMOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS WERE MADE DURING THE FOLLOWING 2 WK., CONFIRMING THE FACT THAT S''S EYESIGHT SHOWED A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT DURING HYPNOSIS AS OPPOSED TO THE WAKING STATE. (SPANISH + GERMAN SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Schneck, Jerome M. (1967). Hypnotherapy for symptoms associated with cataract. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 54-56. HYPNOTHERAPY WAS USED TO ALLEVIATE SYMPTOMS IN A PATIENT WITH CATARACT. THEY INCLUDED FEELINGS OF ANXIETY, EYE TENSION, BLURRING OF VISION, AND SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS. HYPNOTHERAPY CAN ASSIST THE DIFFERENTIATION OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL BASIS OF A VARIETY OF SYMPTOMS BUT CARE IS REQUIRED TO AVOID MASKING UNDERLYING STRUCTURAL PATHOLOGY. (GERMAN + SPANISH SUMMARIES) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1966 Andreasen, A. G.; Singer G. (1966). Hypnosis and hypnotizability: Delusion or simulation?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14 (3), 257-267. Because Sutcliffe (see 36:4) showed that hypnotic suggestions are not comparable in sensory content with real stimuli, the postulated difference between "pseudoperception" and "simulation" as indexed by reported subjective experiences of hypnotic Ss was tested. From 215 undergraduates, 30 high-susceptibility (HS) and 30 low-susceptibility (LS) Ss made kinesthetic and visual judgments of horizontality. A significant response, not attributable to simulation, was found only for the HS-hypnosis induction group; the effect was not attributable individually to susceptibility, hypnosis induction, or motivation. It is concluded that hypnosis, defined by this significant interaction effect between high susceptibility and hypnosis induction can be interpreted as a pseudoperceptual response to suggestion. (Spanish & German summaries) (28 ref.) (PsycINFO 1965 Barber, Theodore Xenophon (1965). Physiological effects of 'hypnotic suggestions': A critical review of recent research (1960-64). Psychological Bulletin, 201-222. Recent studies are reviewed which were concerned with the effectiveness of suggestions given under "hypnosis" and "waking" experimental treatments in alleviating allergies, ichthyosis, myopia, and other conditions and in eliciting deafness, blindness, hallucinations, analgesia, cardiac acceleration and deceleration, emotional responses, urine secretion to sham water ingestion, narcotic-like drug effects, and other phenomena. The review indicates that a wide variety of physiological functions can be influenced by suggestions administered under either hypnosis or waking experimental treatments, and direct and indirect suggestions to show the particular physiological manifestations are crucial variables in producing the effects. Jackson, Bill (1965). The autoblink: A technique to explore nonveridical visual perception. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13 (4), 250-260. The Autoblink technique was developed to allow objective, quantitative investigation of perceptual abnormalities found in psychiatric and normal populations under various experimental conditions. A pilot study demonstrated that spontaneous visual percepts could be elicited by this technique in a group of psychiatric patients and that wide individual differences were present. A 2nd study found significant differences in Autoblink rate between normal and hallucinating psychotic male Ss and also suggested that sensory deprivation and prestige suggestion are variables related to Autoblink rate. A 3rd study further explored differences between psychiatric patients and normal Ss as well as examining sex differences. The latter 2 studies are reported in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) 1964 Brady, J. P.; Levitt, E. E. (1964). Nystagmus as a criterion of hypnotically induced visual hallucinations. Science, 146, 85-86. Hypnotized Ss who report hallucinating a visual situation which would ordinarily elicit optokinetic nystagmus demonstrate nystagmus under these conditions. They and control Ss are unable to feign nystagmus in the waking state, either by imagining the situation or by direct efforts to simulate the eye movements. Thus an objective criterion is provided for the presence of visual hallucinations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Hammer, A. G.; Arkins, W. J. (1964). The role of photic stimulation in the induction of hypnotic trance. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 81-87. The relative effectiveness of the ordinary verbal method of trance induction is compared with 2 forms of induction utilizing mechanical photic stimulation, and with methods combining the personal and mechanical features. The criterion of trance adopted was the compulsive carrying out of a difficult suggestion. Results show that mechanical procedures alone are ineffective. On the other hand, the addition of a particular sort of photic driving probably improves trance induction, which suggests that induction is a complex matter involving both social interactions and relatively nonmeaningful impacts on the brain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) Karmanova, I. G. (1964). Fotogennaia katalepsiia [Photogenic catalepsy). Moscow, USSR: Leningrad Izd. Naule. (Reviewed in American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1966, 3, 228) NOTES The author analyses the phenomenon of photogenic catalepsy from the evolutional phylogenetic approach, including the phenomenon as demonstrated in the cock, frog, guinea-pig and dog. The following points of view are discussed: the physiological changes, electroencephalography and electromyography in animals, and clinical narcolepsy in man. (Review in AJCH.) 1961 Barber, Theodore Xenophon; Deeley, Douglas C. (1961). Experimental evidence for a theory of hypnotic behavior: 1. 'Hypnotic color-blindness' without 'hypnosis'. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 9 (2), 79-86. Barber hypothesizes that a formal hypnotic induction procedure is unnecessary in eliciting alterations in sensory functioning ordinarily thought to characterize hypnotic behavior; similar performances can be elicited from normal persons by instructing them to remain inattentive to visual or auditory stimuli. Substantiating evidence is presented in the area of "hypnotic color-blindness." From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2II79B. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) NOTES Conclusions 1. Normal persons who have been instructed to concentrate away from red and green give as many ''color-blind'' responses on the Ishihara as ''deeply hypnotized'' subjects who have been given elaborate suggestions to induce color-blindness. 1. Further experiments are necessary to determine if other behaviors which are considered as characteristic of ''deeply hypnotized'' subjects and which supposedly involve ''sensory-perceptual alterations'' -- e.g., ''hypnotic deafness,'' ''hypnotic blindness,'' ''negative hallucinations'' -- can be performed by persons who are simply asked to try to remain in-attentive to visual or auditory stimulation" (pp. 84-85). 1960 Sukhakarn, Khun Vichit (1960/1962). Extra ocular vision [Letter]. British Journal of Medical Hypnotism, 14 (2), 41-47. NOTES The article is in the original form of a letter to Herbert Spiegel, M.D. The author describes experiences training subjects, both blind and with normal vision, to 'see' through the skin of their cheeks. Training involved concentrative meditation (Buddhist) and hypnosis. Simple tests were performed, apparently independently, by two other scientists. "From information available from our subjects, the Extra Ocular Vision gained through the cheek-skin is different from those through the eyes as best explained here below:-- (1) The vision through the cheek-skin first takes a form of a series of spots somewhat like the image of coarse gain prints. Only after further training the spots are transformed into a clear object, so clear that needle threading is possible. (2) Objects seen through the cheek-skin are as clear as through the eyes. Distant objects can be magnified by the subject's wish, just like looking through an opera glass. (3) The vision gained through the cheek-skin is first 'seen' in black and white, and the 'colour picture' is achieved only after further training. But the colour 'seen' through the cheek is more intense than those through the eyes. (4) The field of vision 'seen' through each side of the cheek is more narrow than those seen through each eye. (5) There is a sign indicating that the vision through the cheek is only two-dimensional, the subjects find it difficult at first to stand the finger to another finger test" (p. 42). 1954 Erickson, Milton H. (1954). The development of an acute limited obsessional hysterical state in a normal hypnotic subject. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 27-41. NOTES The 25 year old female graduate student in psychology had often been used in hypnosis experiments and as a demonstration subject, and had witnessed induction of hypnotic deafness, blindness, and color-blindness though she had not been given those suggestions herself. Scientific curiosity appeared to be the motivation for volunteering to experience hypnotic blindness, but she was skeptical about her ability to experience it. The author gave a series of "exceedingly tedious" suggestions to develop somnambulism (passively responsive and receptive) followed by suggestions leading gradually to development of "blindness" with the intention of concealing it from the hypnotist, with attendant strong and mixed emotions. The initial attempts failed because the subject ostensibly was deceiving herself into thinking she had developed hypnotic blindness, but the author also was of the opinion that she was seeking to meet unconscious personality needs. The author then covertly changed the goal of the experiment "to develop in the subject an acute hysterical obsessional compulsive mental state which would be accompanied by hypnotic blindness and which would parallel or resemble the obsessive compulsive hysterical mental disturbances encountered in psychiatric practice" (p. 32). The author developed a monologue of suggestions based in part on the utterances of hospitalized obsessive patients and in part on trauma relating to traumatic blindness in a kitten and a friend of the subject. In a slow but directed manner the author built up a double-bind situation which eventually led to the experience of hypnotic blindness as well as heightened emotional reactivity, crying etc. 1953 Naruse, Gosaku; Obonai, Torao (1953). Decomposition and fusion of mental images in the drowsy and post-hypnotic hallucinatory state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1 (4), 23-41. Summary of Part I "From the above we can conclude the following main facts. 1) When one sensory stimulus is given to a subject in a drowsy state, images of other objects associated with it often appear. 2) These images sometimes have forms, and sometimes are devoid of forms, only light and color being present. This phenomenon resembles the experience of color-hearing, and is called a new type of synaethesia [sic] by Bachen. 3) These images are sure to disappear when they are observed attentively, a passive attitude being necessary for the image observation. 4) The remarkable character of these images are such that elements of forms and colors of various objects have been disjointed and connected with each other in different relationships which construct new images. 5) The longer and stronger persistence of stimulus, the more easily and clearly conditioned images appear. Conversely if the stimulus is momentary, the recalled images appear also momentarily. 6) Not only the visual images but also the sensory images can be elicited in a similar way" (p. 25). Summary of Part II "The chief results of Naruse's experiments with the various subjects are as follows: 1. When one stimulus (C.S.) is given in the normal waking state after a conditioning procedure in which a conditioned bond is formed between two sensory stimuli in deep hypnotic trance, a mental image corresponding to the other stimulus (U.C.S.) appears with amnesia for the conditioning situation. When the stimulus is removed, the image also disappears. 2. The images attained have various degrees of clearness which may be classified on a continuum from hallucinations to memory images. 3. Such images tend to disappear when subjects try to observe them attentively. 4. Images which are broken into elements of the original figure appear as distinct images. 5. Modifications of images may be made by distortion, vagueness of the image, and by decomposition of the image. 6. When two C.S.'s, which were already conditioned individually to two U.C.S.'s are presented at the same time, the images corresponding to each stimulus appear to overlap. This is the composed image. 7. In image composing, which involves the strong-weak stimulus relationship or the spatial positions of two C.S.'s, the clear-vague or positional relationships of the composed images are changed. 8. In the complex of meaningful images, there are two types, primarily. The one grasps the image as a whole, the other observes it in many mosaic elements. The latter can recall the original figure more correctly in an image form than the former. 9. Some positive and negative reports on sensory conditioning in the normal waking state are reviewed" (p. 36). NOTES The investigators do not show that hypnosis enhances imagery, compared with the waking state. They studied sensory-sensory conditioning under hypnosis, with amnesia suggestions, followed by testing for the conditioning effect. This study is relevant to studies of amnesia, "repression." In some studies they paired sound of a buzzer or metronome (the Conditioned Stimulus) with images (the Unconditioned Stimuli) as in [Oo, X); other studies compared a color patch (CS) with an image (Oo, X). Some studies presented both CS's together, in different spatial arrangements (in the instance of the color patch CS). Results (partial) included: "1. When one stimulus (CS.) Is given in the normal waking state after a conditioning procedure in which a conditioned bond is formed between two sensory stimuli in a deep hypnotic trance, a mental image corresponding to the other stimulus (UCS) appears with amnesia for the conditioning situation. When the stimulus is removed, the image also disappears. 2. The images attained have various degrees of clearness which may be classified on a continuum from hallucinations to memory images. 3. Such images tend to disappear when Ss try to observe them attentively. ... 5. Modifications of images may be made by distortion, vagueness of the image, and by decomposition of the image. 6. When two CS's, which are already conditioned individually to two UCS's, are presented at the same time, the images corresponding to each stimulus appear to overlap. ..." (P. 36). Volunteers 1992 Brentar, John P.; Lynn, Steven J. (1992, August). The Post-Hypnotic Experience Scale: Validity and reliability. [Paper] Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. This paper describes the development of the Posthypnotic Experiences Scale (PES), a 57-item scale comprised of four subscales labeled Pleasant, Somatic- Kinesthetic, Irritability/Anger, and Anxiety. It was derived by way of an initial factor analysis using 444 subjects and refined by a second factor analysis using 288 subjects. In three data collection phases, the subscales were found to be internally consistent and to exhibit low to moderate test-retest reliabilities. The PES was also found to evidence excellent content, convergent, and discriminant validity, as measured by indices of hypnotizability, positive affect, depression, anxiety, hostility, sensation seeking, dysphoria, social desirability, perceptual aberration, absorption, and physical symptomatology. Behavioral validity was demonstrated in so far as subjects who were willing to volunteer for a second experiment, without reimbursement, scored higher on the Pleasant subscale than did nonvolunteers. (ABSTRACT from the Bulletin of Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis, Fall, 1992, Vol. 1, No. 3.) 1989 Sanders, Glenn S.; Gansler, David A.; Reisman, Stephen Jr. (1989). The effects of hypnosis on eyewitness testimony and reactions to cross-examination. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 7, 33-60. Investigative hypnosis has been a widely used and valuable police technique, but recent court rulings have expressed reservations about the admissibility of hypnotically related testimony. The proposed research is the first directly relevant evaluation of the most serious of the courts' reservations: the allegation that hypnosis produces excessive and unshakable levels of confidence in witnesses, thereby effectively denying opposing counsel the right of cross-examination. Volunteers from the community witnessed a simulated crime, and were then interviewed by a professional police investigator to obtain evidence and testimony. Two-thirds of these witnesses were randomly assigned to have their memory refreshed by one of two hypnotic induction techniques. All witnesses were subsequently examined and cross-examined by a pair of practicing criminal lawyers, and their videotaped testimony was evaluated by another volunteer sample of community residents serving as jurors. On both objective and subjective measures, hypnotized witnesses provided more complete and internally consistent testimony. However, neither form of hypnotic induction led to greater witness confidence, credibility, or resistance to cross-examination. Our results generally replicate previous findings in a more realistic investigative simulation. The discussion considers artifactual explanations of the confidence null effects, and explores theoretical and policy implications of the data. NOTES People responding to a newspaper ad asking for volunteers who would be paid for participating in psychology research at the State University were later asked to undergo hypnosis. Of 45 who responded to the ad, six (13%) declined to have hypnosis. This rate of refusal has relevance to research on clinical hypnosis that requires paid volunteer participants. 1987 Gibson, H.B. (1987). Discussion commentary on Imagery and response expectancy as determinants of hypnotic behaviour by Kirsh, I,; Council, J.R. & Mobayed, C.. [Comment/Discussion] . NOTES Discussion of paper by Steven Jay Lynn in same issue. Author criticizes use of random sample of students, as some would be unsusceptible to hypnosis, and calls for a larger sample size. Mentions but does not discuss a great number of other methodological issues. 1986 Hendler, Cobie S.; Redd, William H. (1986). Fear of hypnosis: The role of labeling in patients' acceptance of behavioral interventions. Behavior Therapy, 17, 2-13. One hundred and five outpatient cancer chemotherapy patients were interviewed to assess their attitudes toward hypnosis and relaxation as well as to determine their beliefs in and willingness to try a behavioral procedure. Patients were randomly assigned to groups receiving identical descriptions labeled "hypnosis," "relaxation," or "passive relaxation with guided imagery." The description stressed the behavioral components of hypnosis and relaxation rather than the nonbehavioral techniques often associated with hypnosis such as age regression and posthypnotic suggestion. Patients believed hypnosis to be a powerful process that involved loss of control and altered states of consciousness. When compared with a group of college students, patients held significantly more fearful, conservative views about hypnosis. Patients who received a description of an intervention labeled "hypnosis" were significantly less likely to believe the procedure would effectively control their nausea and vomiting and were significantly less likely to state they would try the procedure than patients in the other two label conditions. This reaction to the label occurred independently of patients' degree of nausea, vomiting, and pain due to their chemotherapy treatments. Lambe, R.; Osier, C.; Franks, P. (1986). A randomized controlled trial of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Journal of Family Practice, 22, 61-65. 242 patients who were smokers (49% of all patients in this group family practice) were contacted, and 180 (74%) who were interested in hypnosis as a method of helping them quit were included in the study. These 180 were randomly assigned to control and hypnosis groups. Of the 90 assigned to hypnosis: 50% 45 had at least 1 hypnosis session McConkey, Kevin M. (1986). Opinions about hypnosis and self-hypnosis before and after hypnotic testing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 311-319. Before hypnotic testing, Ss completed a questionnaire on their opinions about hypnosis and self-hypnosis Approximately 1 week later, they completed a similar questionnaire that included questions about their experiences of hypnotic testing. Data are presented concerning Ss' agreement with statements about hypnosis and self-hypnosis. Findings are discussed in terms of their generality and in terms of whether Ss' opinions are consistent with scientific evidence.